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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2015

Melissa A. Menasco

This study is a comparison of male and female delinquent behaviors utilizing a large sample in a test of social control theory.

Abstract

Purpose

This study is a comparison of male and female delinquent behaviors utilizing a large sample in a test of social control theory.

Methodology/approach

A sample of 8,363 adolescent 10th graders was drawn from the U.S. National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS). The sample consisted of 3,774 males and 4,589 females. This work utilized logistic regression and ordinary least squares to determine whether adolescent behaviors such as smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, using marijuana, and other delinquent behaviors are linked to weak social bonds.

Findings

The findings of this study provide limited substantiation of social control theory for both sexes. Females who were found to have strong social bonds were less likely to engage in delinquent behaviors than males. For both sexes, the strongest element of the social bond was the element of belief.

Research limitations/implications

These results may be specific to the United States.

Practical implications

Understanding contributing factors to adolescent substance use and delinquency will assist in developing social policy that will support families.

Originality/value

This study provides insight into the differentiated nature of the social bond for males and females. Knowing that belief is an integral component in determining the strength of the social bond will aid in the development of social policies.

Details

Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Myoung-Soung Lee and Sang-Lin Han

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of relationship bonds on the psychological response and behavior of bank employees based on the job demands–resources…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of relationship bonds on the psychological response and behavior of bank employees based on the job demands–resources theory. Specifically, it examines the effects of relationship bonds in terms of person–job (P–J) fit, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction and boundary-spanning behaviors, all of which comprise the behavioral dimensions of bank employees. In addition, the study examines how the resiliency of bank employees influences their emotional exhaustion and determines whether a moderating effect related to emotional exhaustion exists.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this aim, data were collected from 365 customer-facing banking employees in South Korea. Reliability, validity and the hypotheses were verified through structural equation modeling; any moderating effects were identified using the bootstrap method and the process model.

Findings

Study results showed that financial, structural, internal social and external social bonds – the bonds pertaining to relationship elements – have positive effects on P–J fit. P–J fit influenced emotional exhaustion negatively and job satisfaction positively. Furthermore, emotional exhaustion negatively influenced job satisfaction. Job satisfaction had positive effects on service delivery, external representation and internal influence, the elements comprising boundary-spanning behavior. Finally, resiliency was shown to lower emotional exhaustion but revealed no moderating effect.

Originality/value

First, this study examined relationship bonds, which reference relationship marketing when introducing organizational resources that influence the psychological and behavioral responses of bank employees. Second, this study introduced resiliency as a personal resource and clarified the way it applies to an individual’s psychological response. Third, existing literature has been limited to conducting fragmented research of the psychological factors that intervene in predisposing factors and job outcomes. This study makes a unique contribution by establishing a psychological response process.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

A.F.J. Baggerman and F.J.H. Kessels

Tape automated bonding (TAB) is an interconnection technique for integrated circuits (ICs) with a small lead pitch and a thin assembly thickness. During inner lead bonding

Abstract

Tape automated bonding (TAB) is an interconnection technique for integrated circuits (ICs) with a small lead pitch and a thin assembly thickness. During inner lead bonding the flying (Au plated Cu) leads of the TAB foil are connected to the Au bumps on the bondpads of an IC. The Au bumps are deposited in the openings of a thick Novolac based resist layer by electroplating. The resist is coated on a sputtered TiW‐Au metallisation; TiW is the barrier layer between Au bump and Al bondpad. Bonding of the leads to the Au bumps requires substantial plastic deformation of the bump and lead. As a result of this deformation, the TiW barrier layer underneath the bump may crack easily. A theoretical model has been used to describe the occurrence of these cracks. This theoretical model is compared with experimental results of deformation and cracking behaviour by visual inspection of the TiW barrier and the etched cross‐sections. Separate (single point) and simultaneous (gang) bonding techniques, different gold plating baths and TAB tapes are used to study the cracking behaviour.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

VieMing Tan, Farzana Quoquab, Fauziah Sh. Ahmad and Jihad Mohammad

The purpose of this paper is to offer empirical evidence on the role of self-esteem and social bonding in explaining citizenship behaviour of students at international…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer empirical evidence on the role of self-esteem and social bonding in explaining citizenship behaviour of students at international university branch campuses (IBCs).

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 400 students from four IBCs in Malaysia was administered in a questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS and partial least squares 3.0.

Findings

This research demonstrates that students’ self-esteem and social bonds have positive direct effects on customer citizenship behaviour (CCB). Moreover, self-esteem has an indirect effect on CCB via intervening of attachment, commitment and involvement of social bonds.

Research limitations/implications

CCB of IBC students can be explained by self-consistency theory via mediation of social bonds from social bonding theory.

Practical implications

To encourage CCB in IBCs, university management should target students who have high self-esteem, closely tied to parents and lecturers, committed to university, highly involved in co-curricular activities and comply with university regulations.

Originality/value

Greater understanding of students’ citizenship behaviour may help transnational universities to improve relationship marketing strategy and enhance students’ campus experience.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2011

Valentina Salomoni, Gianluca Mazzucco, Carlo Pellegrino and Carmelo Majorana

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the bond behaviour between fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and concrete elements, starting from available experimental…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the bond behaviour between fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and concrete elements, starting from available experimental evidences, through a calibrated and upgraded 3D mathematical‐numerical model.

Design/methodology/approach

The complex mechanism of debonding/peeling failure of FRP reinforcement is studied within the context of damage mechanics to appropriately catch transversal effects and developing a more realistic and comprehensive study of the delamination process. The FE ABAQUS© code has been supplemented with a numerical procedure accounting for Mazars's damage law inside the contact algorithm.

Findings

It has been shown that such an approach is able to catch the delamination evolution during loading processes as well.

Originality/value

A Drucker‐Prager constitutive law is adopted for concrete whereas FRP elements are assumed to behave in a linear‐elastic manner, possibly undertaking large strains/displacements. Surface‐to‐surface contact conditions have been applied between FRP and adjacent concrete, including the enhancement given by the strain‐softening law according to Mazars' damage model. The procedure has been introduced to describe the coupled behaviour between concrete, FRP and adhesive resulting in specific bonding‐debonding features under different load levels.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Norberto Dominguez, Delphine Brancherie, Luc Davenne and Adnan Ibrahimbegović

To provide a reinforced concrete model including bonding coupled to a classical continuum damage model of concrete, capable of predicting numerically the crack pattern…

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1679

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a reinforced concrete model including bonding coupled to a classical continuum damage model of concrete, capable of predicting numerically the crack pattern distribution in a RC structure, subjected to traction forces.

Design/methodology/approach

A new coupling between bonding model and an alternative model for concrete cracking is proposed and analyzed. For concrete, proposes a damage‐like material model capable of combining two types of dissipative mechanisms: diffuse volume dissipation and localized surface dissipation.

Findings

One of the most important contributions is the capacity of predicting maximal and minimal spacing of macro‐cracks, even if the exact location of cracks remains undetermined. Another contribution is to reiterate on the insufficiency of the local damage model of concrete to handle this class of problems; much in the same manner as for localization problem which accompany strain‐softening behavior.

Practical implications

Bonding becomes very important to evaluate both the integrity and durability of a RC structure, or in particular to a reliable prediction of crack spacing and opening, and it should be integrated in future analysis of RC.

Originality/value

Shows that introduction of the influence of concrete heterogeneities in numerical analysis can directly affect the configuration of the crack pattern distribution. Use of a strong discontinuity approach provides additional cracking information like opening of macro‐cracks.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 22 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1995

Y.N. Ziraba, M.H. Baluch, A.M. Sharif, G.J. Al—Sulaimani, A.K. Azad and I.A. Basunbul

This paper presents a finite element model for analysis of damaged RCbeams strengthened or repaired by externally bonding glass fibre reinforcedplastics (GFRP) on the…

Abstract

This paper presents a finite element model for analysis of damaged RC beams strengthened or repaired by externally bonding glass fibre reinforced plastics (GFRP) on the tension side of the beams. The salient features include: (i) the introduction of a thin, six—noded element to simulate behaviour of the concrete/epoxy glue/GFRP interface and )ii( a scheme of loading a virgin RC beam to a prescribed displacement to simulate damage, unloading and then reloading the damaged RC beam fortified by an externally bonded GFRP plate. Results are presented for RC beams repaired by plates of varying thickness and a transmutation of failure mode is noted from classical flexure for the case of external reinforcement in the form of thin GFRP plates to a unique concrete cover rip off failure for thicker GFRP plates and not predicted by the ACI shear strength formula for diagonal tension failure of unplated RC beams of similar geometry.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Hala Mohamed Elkady, Ola M. Bakr, Mohamed Kohail and Elsayed Abdel Raouf Nasr

This paper presents the second part of the investigation on resistance to elevated temperatures of a proposed hybrid composite concrete (NCSF-Crete) mix. The composite…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents the second part of the investigation on resistance to elevated temperatures of a proposed hybrid composite concrete (NCSF-Crete) mix. The composite including nano metakaolin (NC) and steel fibers (SF) in addition to regular concrete components has proven -in the first published part-earlier promoted fresh concrete behavior, and to have reduced loss in compressive strength after exposure to a wide range of elevated temperatures. This presented work evaluates another two critical mechanical characteristics for the proposed composite -namely- splitting and bond strengths.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified formula correlating splitting and compressive strength (28 days) based on experiments results for NCSF is proposed and compared to formulas derived for regular concrete in different design codes. Finally, both spitting and bond strengths are evaluated pre- and post-exposure to elevated temperatures reaching 600 °C for two hours.

Findings

The proposed NCSF-Crete shows remarkable fire endurance, especially in promoting bond strength as after 600 °C heat exposure tests, it maintained strength equivalent to 70% of a regular concrete control mix at room temperature. Improving residual splitting strength was very significant up to 450 °C exposure.

Research limitations/implications

Obvious deterioration is monitored in splitting resistance for all concretes at 600 °C.

Practical implications

This proposed composite improved elevated heats resistance of the most significant concrete mechanical properties.

Social implications

Using a more green and sustainable constituents in the composite.

Originality/value

The proposed composite gathers the merits of using NC and SF, each has been investigated separately as an addition to concrete mixes.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Heidi Sundin and David Andrew Brown

The purpose of this paper is to adopt an agency theory approach to investigate the integration of environmental issues into management control systems (MCS). Prior…

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1979

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adopt an agency theory approach to investigate the integration of environmental issues into management control systems (MCS). Prior environmental accounting research has focussed on increasing organisations’ environmental accountability by “monitoring” through external reporting to stakeholders. However, this overlooks the alignment of agents’ interests within the firm.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study is undertaken in a large Australian listed property trust to investigate how agents’ interests may be integrated with environmental objectives through the use of MCS.

Findings

From the case an analytical framework is developed to illustrate how environmental issues are incorporated into organisational behaviour through MCS. The findings include, single objective environmental MCS; multiple objective MCS, which include priorities that specify environmental and economic trade-offs; and balancing MCS, which provide overarching decision-making principles without priorities.

Practical implications

The findings provide examples of how an organisation may integrate environmental issues across a range of MCS and the things to consider in doing so.

Originality/value

This paper draws on an agency perspective as an approach to incorporate environmental issues into MCS and to align behaviour. It explains a new way in which tensions can be managed. This study is one of the first to adopt the control package approach in investigating the incorporation of environmental issues in MCS.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2014

Virginia Fisher and Sue Kinsey

The aim of this paper is to explore the nature and power of the academic boys club. In many organisations, the political significance of the boys club goes largely…

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1199

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explore the nature and power of the academic boys club. In many organisations, the political significance of the boys club goes largely unremarked and unacknowledged. Yet, the way that male colleagues intimately relate to each other, sometimes called homosocial desire, is crucial to their success at gaining and retaining power at work.

Design/methodology/approach

Feminist, poststructuralist, ethnographic, qualitative, and longitudinal data were collected over a five-year period from male and female academics in a British university.

Findings

The boys club is still a powerful feature of British universities. Their apparent invisibility shrouds the manner in which they can and do promote and maintain male interests in a myriad of ways, including selection and promotion. These findings have resonances for all organisations.

Research limitations/implications

Researching the intimacies between male colleagues requires time-intensive field work and insider access to men interacting with each other.

Practical implications

Meaningful gender equality will not be achieved unless and until the more sophisticated forms of female exclusion are revealed and deconstructed.

Originality/value

This research makes an unusual and crucial contribution to the study of gender, men and masculinities by providing longitudinal, rich, detailed data, observing men at the closest of quarters and then analysed by a feminist and poststructuralist gaze.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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