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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Paloma Santana Moreira Pais, Felipe de Figueiredo Silva and Evandro Camargos Teixeira

The Brazilian Government created the Bolsa Familia program to combat poverty and the insertion of so many children into the labor market. This program is an income…

Abstract

Purpose

The Brazilian Government created the Bolsa Familia program to combat poverty and the insertion of so many children into the labor market. This program is an income transfer program subject to certain conditions such as a minimum school attendance for children under 17 years of age. In 2006, almost half of the people with an income per capita of R$300.00 (US$139.53) per month declared that they received this benefit. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of Bolsa Familia on child labor in Brazil in 2006.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a propensity score matching model with data from the National Household Sample Survey PESQUISA NACIONAL POR AMOSTRA DE DOMICÍLIOS (PNAD), for 2006.

Findings

Results indicate that the program increased the number of hours of child labor in Brazil. However, this outcome might be explained by the fact that those families who received Bolsa Familia were also those with higher socioeconomic vulnerability. Thus, they need to guarantee their survival with the income generated via child labor.

Social implications

The Brazilian Government needs to invest not only in monetary transfer policies but also in the improvement of the job market to create opportunities for the social development of children.

Originality/value

The contribution of the paper is the investigation into the effect of the Bolsa Familia program on the average time allocated to child labor; the authors find that this time allocation could be reduced by requiring a compulsory school attendance.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Silvana Mariano

This study addresses the importance of paid work for the autonomy of poor women in the Bolsa Família Programme (BFP), Brazil. The aim of this study is to consider the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study addresses the importance of paid work for the autonomy of poor women in the Bolsa Família Programme (BFP), Brazil. The aim of this study is to consider the influence that BFP may have on women seeking paid work, by comparing the situation and the perceptions of women who receive Bolsa Família (BF) with those of women who fall within this same profile but are not included in the programme.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim of this study is to consider the influence that BFP may have on women seeking paid work, by comparing the situation and the perceptions of women who receive Bolsa Família (BF) with those of women who fall within this same profile but are not included in the programme. Data were produced from a case study, using a non-probability sample and structured individual interviews in a large city in the south of Brazil.

Findings

CCTs designed in the moulds of the BFP, despite its relevance for alleviating poverty, do not have the potential to empower women or for their autonomy, since they do not contribute towards tackling the barriers resulting from the interaction between paid and unpaid labour, and gender determinants in this interaction.

Research limitations/implications

The methodology adopted, with content analysis, allows the collection of the research group participants’ experiences and perceptions, considering the specific nature of the material and symbolic context investigated. However, it does not allow for broad generalizations on the relation between CCT programmes and these women`s paid labour. Within the limits of the inferences produced by the content analysis, this study does enable the theories of ‘laziness’ as a risk resulting from social assistance to be dispelled.

Originality/value

Given these findings, the paper reiterates the importance of taking a critical view of the family when drafting development policies.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2010

Luiz Guilherme Scorzafave and Érica Marina Carvalho de Lima

This chapter provides a detailed analysis of the recent evolution (1993–2007) of Brazilian income inequality. Particularly, we assess the contribution of different income…

Abstract

This chapter provides a detailed analysis of the recent evolution (1993–2007) of Brazilian income inequality. Particularly, we assess the contribution of different income sources to inequality, using three different decomposition techniques: Shorrocks (1982), Lerman and Yitzhaki (1985), and Gini decomposition. We exploit a recent dataset (PNAD, 2004) that allows the identification of different governmental transfer programs (Bolsa-Família, PETI, and BPC) and their impacts into inequality. While informal labor income and self-employment income reduces inequality in almost every measure, the opposite is true for public sector wages. Private formal labor income is becoming less important in explaining Brazilian inequality over time, but its behavior is still important, as it represents more than 40% of the total income. We find that social transfer programs have a limited, but positive impact on equality. On the other hand, dynamics of pensions attenuate the recent path of decreasing inequality in Brazil.

Details

Studies in Applied Welfare Analysis: Papers from the Third ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-146-7

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2021

Carla Tomazini

Focusing on the conditional cash transfers (CCTs) first created and implemented in Brazil and Mexico, this article takes a new look at the factors facilitating the…

Abstract

Purpose

Focusing on the conditional cash transfers (CCTs) first created and implemented in Brazil and Mexico, this article takes a new look at the factors facilitating the creation of these innovative policies. In order to shed light on the continuous struggles that are faced when pioneering, formulating and adopting these anti-poverty policies, the authors analyze three types of ambiguities: axiological, partisan and electoral.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a gradual institutional change approach within the advocacy coalition framework, the authors conduct a qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews, official public administration archives and newspapers.

Findings

This article demonstrates that advocacy coalitions (for human capital, basic income and food security) and the quest for electoral gains are viable contexts for exploring the complex processes involved in setting up CCTs, of which Brazil's Bolsa-Família and Mexico's Progresa-Oportunidades-Prospera (POP) provide emblematic examples.

Originality/value

The findings contribute to comparative social policy research and institutional change analysis. The coalitions and ambiguous consensuses studied here expand the perspectives with a more detailed understanding of the chaotic processes involved in developing social policies.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Rafael Terra and Enlinson Mattos

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role played by the geographic distance between the poor and non‐poor in the local demand for income redistribution and, in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role played by the geographic distance between the poor and non‐poor in the local demand for income redistribution and, in particular, to provide an empirical test of the geographically limited altruism model proposed by Pauly, incorporating the possibility of participation costs associated with the provision of transfers.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors motivate the discussion by allowing for an “iceberg cost” as participation for the poor individuals in Pauly's original model. Next, using data from the 2000 Brazilian Census and a panel based on the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) from 2001 to 2007, the authors estimate the effect of the proximity between poor and non‐poor on the demand for redistribution.

Findings

All of the authors' distance‐related explanatory variables indicate that an increased proximity between poor and non‐poor is associated with better targeting of the programs (demand for redistribution). For instance, a one‐hour increase in the time spent commuting by the poor reduces the targeting by 3.158 percentage points. This result is similar to that of Ashworth et al., but is definitely not due to the program leakages. To empirically disentangle participation costs and spatially restricted altruism effects, an additional test is conducted using unique panel data based on the 2004 and 2006 PNAD, which assess the number of benefits and the average benefit value received by beneficiaries. The estimates suggest that both cost and altruism play important roles in the demand for redistribution and might reduce targeting in Brazil. Lastly, the results indicate that “size matters”; i.e. the budget for redistribution has a positive impact on targeting.

Practical implications

Our results suggest that a totally centralized supply of transfers may be more inefficient than local redistribution in terms of targeting, either due to higher participation costs or because of the eventual greater geographical distance between the national median voter and poor individuals. However, a partial role for the federal government, such as providing funds for redistribution, seems to improve targeting.

Originality/value

In particular, the paper provides an empirical test for the geographically limited altruism model proposed by Pauly, incorporating the possibility of participation costs associated with the provision of transfers. The authors motivate this discussion by adding the possibility of distance‐related “iceberg costs” of delivering benefits to poor individuals and show that these two effects of distance may act to lower the demand for transfers, making it difficult to distinguish between the two effects. These two effects of distance act by lowering the demand for transfers, making it difficult to disentangle the effect of altruism from the effect of cost. The authors' empirical strategy seems to allow to identify each of them and to provide a suggestion on whether it is advantageous to carry out redistribution at the local level.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Pedro Rodrigues de Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Kassouf and Juliana Maria de Aquino

The purpose of this paper is to present evidences on the spillover effects of a cash transfer addressed to poor elders in Brazil.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present evidences on the spillover effects of a cash transfer addressed to poor elders in Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Brazilian National Households Survey (PNAD) the authors assess the effects of an income transfer to the elders on household composition and the labor supply of elders and co-residing relatives, under a regression discontinuity design.

Findings

The authors do not find strong evidences of changes in the household composition due to the program. However the authors found reductions in the elders’ labor force participation, indicating that the program allow elders to retire. Moreover, the transfer yields a decrease in the labor force participation of co-residents, depending on their age. The authors also observe decreases in child labor.

Originality/value

Along with the cash comes context-dependent effects, showing there are many latent aspects of these transfers yet to be uncovered.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Fernanda Dachi Carrets, Felipe Garcia Ribeiro and Gibran da Silva Teixeira

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether isolated illiteracy generates a barrier to knowledge about the Brazilian Federal Government’s Single Registry for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether isolated illiteracy generates a barrier to knowledge about the Brazilian Federal Government’s Single Registry for social programs.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on information contained in the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios – PNAD) 2014, the propensity score matching method was combined with the algorithm proposed by Imbens (2015). The analyzed sample consists of two groups of illiterate individuals: isolated illiterates (IILs) (treatment group), which consists of only illiterate individuals who live with other illiterates; and proximate illiterates (PILs) (control group), which consists of illiterates who live with someone who is literate in the household.

Findings

Evidence indicates that IIL individuals are, on average, less likely to know about the single registry than PIL people.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation relates to the database since the only information available in the PNAD on the access to the single registry is for the year 2014.

Practical implications

The evidence found in the study reinforces the need to invest in the fight against illiteracy in Brazil.

Social implications

Results show that a portion of the possible beneficiaries of social programs are still “invisible” to the government’s social protection networks, and this highlights the existence of possible errors of exclusion.

Originality/value

The paper compares two groups of illiterate people, a group that lives in an isolated illiteracy situation and the other that does not. It also assesses the effect of literacy externalities on the access to the Brazilian Single Registry.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 3 December 2021

The economy is at a crossroads: high unemployment and increasing poverty are generating pressures for greater income transfers, but the delicate fiscal position is…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB265900

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Yiagadeesen Samy and Jean Daudelin

The relationship between globalization – through trade liberalization – and inequality is unclear. The Stolper‐Samuelson theorem, which is a standard result in trade…

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Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between globalization – through trade liberalization – and inequality is unclear. The Stolper‐Samuelson theorem, which is a standard result in trade theory, does not offer compelling answers as globalized economies with an abundance of unskilled labour have seen inequality both worsen, as in China and much of Asia, and improve, as in Latin America. Kuznets' classic model also finds scant confirmation in increasingly open economies, with growth associated with declining inequality in poorer Latin America, and with rising inequality in richer OECD countries. The authors aim to suggest that the key to those anomalies lies in the relative weight of industrialization in a country's growth mix.

Design/methodology/approach

Using census data (for 1991 and 2000) for more than 5,000 municipalities, the authors examine the relationship between income per capita and inequality in Brazil.

Findings

The authors uncover the existence of an “inverted‐U” relationship in 1991 that flipped into a “straight‐U” relationship in 2000, both of which are statistically significant. They argue that the flip results from the association of economic growth with de‐industrialization that is driven by globalization.

Research limitations/implications

In terms of future work, there is a need to examine further the role of de‐industrialization, not only in the case of Brazil but also other emerging economies with different patterns of inequality than the ones currently observed in Latin America and Brazil in particular.

Practical implications

The authors' result reinforces the growing skepticism towards the role of industrialization in economic development, as Brazil sees its most successful period of pro‐poor growth go hand in hand with its de‐industrialization.

Social implications

The authors' result casts doubts about the role of social policy in the current evolution of inequality and poverty in Brazil. The famous Bolsa Familia program, in particular, may have been exaggerated by both the Brazilian government and social policy specialists, as much of the change could be traced to changes in the structure of the economy itself.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature on globalization and inequality. It uses municipal level data and identifies a “flip” in the Kuznets relationship. This enables us to make sense of growing inequality in poorer but industrializing economies and in rich ones going through processes of de‐industrialization, and also of declining inequality in poorer de‐industrializing countries such as Brazil.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Lucas Duarte, Enlinson Mattos and Juliana Serillo

The purpose of this paper is to characterize that the marginal social cost of public funds and to estimate the response of labor supply to these publicly provided goods…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize that the marginal social cost of public funds and to estimate the response of labor supply to these publicly provided goods, and simulate the marginal social cost of cash‐cum‐in‐kind transfers (MSCKT) for Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a theoretical model based on Wildasin to characterize the marginal social cost of public funds. Next it estimates using instrumental variables approach the variables necessary to calibrate our theoretical model.

Findings

The marginal social cost of public funds depends on the relation between labor supply and the cash‐cum‐in‐kind transfers. Last, the simulations suggest that MSCKT can increase up to 12.4 percent if compared with cases in which is assumed ordinary independence between labor and the bundle of goods provided by the public sector.

Research limitations/implications

Further panel data experiments based on municipal public finance data should be conducted in order to circumvent the agents' heterogeneity problem inherent in cross section analysis – and individuals' labor supply response could be more sensitive at this data level. Finally, such cost‐benefit analysis makes more sense when a specific project is considered and therefore its effects on the taxed good can be clearly estimated leading to a more reliable estimative of the marginal social cost of funding that project.

Social implications

Governments should take the actual social cost of public policies into consideration before undertaking any new project.

Originality/value

The paper is useful to characterize the marginal social cost of public funds, estimate the necessary parameters and, last, to calibrate its correspondent using Brazilian data.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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