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Article

Liu Chi and Richard Kennon

Aims to check the validity of measurements of dynamic postures recorded by a body scanner.

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to check the validity of measurements of dynamic postures recorded by a body scanner.

Design/methodology/approach

Measurements between various anatomical landmarks have been taken both manually and using a 3D body scanner so that the validity of the measurements might be assessed when dynamic postures are adopted. Mechanical measurements of changes in the body surface dimensions have been compared with figures produced by a body scanner for both the standard natural position and for five dynamic postures, which must be accommodated when designing high‐performance garments.

Findings

Although the 3D body scanner collects data almost instantaneously and without physical contact with the target surface, the readings taken in respect of dynamic poses showed significant variations from manually‐taken measurements, with discrepancies as large as 6.8 cm over a 16 cm distance.

Research limitations/implications

The research has only been carried out on a very limited number of subjects. However, significant differences between manual and automatic body measurements are clearly demonstrated.

Practical implications

The research showed that as there are as yet no universally‐accepted conventions for 3D scanner measurements, the results appear to be optimised for the natural anatomical position. Body‐scanners are not well‐suited to taking measurements of dynamic postures expected in sporting activities.

Originality/value

Measurements of anthropometric landmarks for high‐performance activities have not previously been assessed, and these results usefully indicate the limitations of current 3D scanning technology.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

Winifred Aldrich, Brian Smith and Feng Dong

This paper describes research undertaken at the Nottingham Trent University which investigated body movements and their relationship to garment design. The study…

Abstract

This paper describes research undertaken at the Nottingham Trent University which investigated body movements and their relationship to garment design. The study identifies the difference between ergonomic measuring positions and the natural postures used by real figures in real activities. A new approach to the identification and coding of upper body postures has been made. A body coding system and a simple piece of equipment was designed that enables extended natural body positions to be recorded, thus achieving repeatability. This work enabled comparisons of aesthetic appearance and the functional comfort of women's tailored jackets to be examined.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article

Young Sook Cho, Takuya Komatsu, Masayuki Takatera, Shigeru Inui, Yoshio Shimizu and Hyejun Park

This paper aims to describe the development of an interactive body model that can be altered to match individual body perimeter, postures and depth for the purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the development of an interactive body model that can be altered to match individual body perimeter, postures and depth for the purpose of computerized pattern making.

Design/methodology/approach

Construction of the posture and depth adjustable body model requires the extraction of ten points, adjustment of coordinate points, linking of points by spline curves, control of section lengths and selectability of three hip types. Front to back depth of the model is adjusted by scaling ratio.

Findings

Good results were achieved in modelling back shapes, such as flat shape and stoop shape, and of modelling various hip shapes, such as flat shape and protruding shape. Also the presented body model is able to accurately simulate individual depth of bust, waist and hips. Silhouette comparison between the fully adjusted virtual body model and real body shapes shows an almost perfect match. A primary dialog for altering perimeter, length and depth, and a posture dialog for controlling back and hip shapes was developed.

Originality/value

By making fine adjustments to posture and depth, it is possible to make patterns which result in clothing that not only fits well, but also exhibits other desirable properties. This system could, therefore, be seen as a major step forward in pattern making.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Meral Isler, Mehmet Küçük and Mücella Guner

The purpose of this paper is to comparatively examine the personnel working in the clothing sector by examining them in three different methods in order to determine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to comparatively examine the personnel working in the clothing sector by examining them in three different methods in order to determine the working postures, identification of the stress factors of musculoskeletal system and the exposures depending on the working postures. Methods used in the study, REBA (Hignett and McAtamney, 2000), Ovako Working Posture Analyzing System (OWAS) (Karhu et al., 1977) and PLIBEL (Kemmlert, 1995) are the scientific observation-based methods. Within the scope of this study, the working stations and the working postures of the operators who work in the clothing sector were examined and their movements that could cause harm to the body were examined and in conclusion some suggestions were suggested to prevent these movements.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the standard unit of times in clothing sector are short and the work done is very repetitive, 30 min recording was thought as enough for each operator examined. These recorded videos were then divided into 30 s photographs to obtain the poses of the operators’ working postures. In the scope of the research, first, the PLIBEL observation form was filled as the PLIBEL method is more general one. According to the working postures, the body regions which are damaged or can be damaged were identified and the PLIBEL form was filled in the consideration of the risk factors in the form (Malchaire 2011). In addition, the photographs were also analyzed with REBA and OWAS methods for having more quantitative and detailed results.

Findings

The working postures of the operators who work in the cutting, sewing, ironing, quality control and packaging departments of six clothing companies were examined in the scope of this research with PLIBEL, REBA and OWAS methods in terms of ergonomy. The results belonging to each department were given separately. REBA and OWAS methods have been applied in order to investigate the working postures in more detail due to the lack of providing numerical data of the PLIBEL method. The reliability of the study has been approved with obtaining the similar results from the REBA and OWAS methods. According to Table VIII, both of the methods show that all the departments in question need ergonomic arrangements. It was analyzed that the cutting department is in the first place which needs ergonomic arrangement immediately (REBA %90.58, OWAS %87.69).

Practical implications

This study is composed of 65 operators who have experience between 5 and 22 years and in the age range of 22–43 working in the cutting, sewing, ironing, quality control and packaging departments in eight different clothing companies. These 65 operators were recorded by video camera during their work. The recording time were selected randomly. The movements of operators during their own work have been taken into consideration.

Originality/value

This paper indicates the usability of the PLIBEL, OWAS and REBA methods in clothing sector. Using these methods in clothing sectors states the value and the originality of this paper.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Fangfang Zhang and Trevor John Little

3D garment design technology is developing rapidly thereby creating a need for different approaches to developing the patterns. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

3D garment design technology is developing rapidly thereby creating a need for different approaches to developing the patterns. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the 3D dynamic ease distribution for a 3D garment design.

Design/methodology/approach

Standard garments were created from Size 2 to Size 14 for ten human subjects. Landmarks location on both human body and the standard garment under dynamic postures are recorded, and he fit and comfort evaluation of the standard garment were collected from the ten human subjects. Finally, these data were used to evaluate the 3D dynamic ease distribution for a 3D garment design.

Findings

3D dynamic ease evaluation is challenging and the findings showed that the upper-arm design is a core element of the whole 3D garment design. The upper arm is not only a connecting part for both front and back pieces of the garment, but is also the main active part of the body, so it is the essential element to affect the comfort and fit of the garment under dynamic postures.

Originality/value

This research provides a novel 3D ease evaluation by analyzing the landmarks location of both human body and standard garment, and fit and comfort evaluation of the standard garment, which are all carried under dynamic postures.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article

Xinzhou Wu and Victor Kuzmichev

The purpose of this paper is to present a method of digital twins of female bodies and the optimization of wetsuit patterns with the help of virtual technologies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a method of digital twins of female bodies and the optimization of wetsuit patterns with the help of virtual technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the new anthropometrical grouping of female torsos has been developed with 3D body scanning technology. Second, soft tissue deformation under the influence of typical diving postures and hydraulic pressure has been explored. Through real experiments, the relationship between textile material strain and body measurement changing has been applied to establish deformed digital twins of female bodies. Finally, during the evaluation of the virtual wetsuit test on digital twins through material strain and pressure values in CLO 3D, the optimized pattern of the wetsuit has been designed.

Findings

The experimental results show that the digital twins based on real data transformation are feasible and practical, and the process of establishing digital twins with 3D body scanning technology is valid and accurate.

Originality/value

The researches on the wetsuit of structure and body dynamic measurements still have many gaps existing in the real and virtual experiments. Thus the manuscript addresses these issues and provides the deformed digital twin for wetsuit pattern design for the first time. This study can be used for designing and optimizing the wetsuit and further improving the efficiency of manufacture and evaluation.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

Yao‐Wen Hsu, Yi‐Chan Chung, Chung‐Ching Chiu, Ching‐Piao Chen and Chih‐Hung Tsai

Unnatural working postures usually cause musculoskeletal problems for workers in work field, especially in traditional industry. Many analysis and survey methodologies…

Abstract

Unnatural working postures usually cause musculoskeletal problems for workers in work field, especially in traditional industry. Many analysis and survey methodologies have been developed to identify unnatural postures and disorder risks in workplaces. The Ovako Working Posture Analyzing System (OWAS) and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) are the representative methods and applied widely. This study applied the both tools to investigate the work field of a manufacturing factory of the water heater’s case. We divided the manufacturing process into nine workshops, took the pictures of working motions by DV camera and analyzed the postures on OWAS. From the OWAS results, we could identify the risks level of musculoskeletal symptoms as four Action Categories (AC). And from the comparison of OWAS and NMQ results, we could provide the suggestions to improve the working methods and environment. From the results of OWAS, we found that the operators) head/neck and back were above AC3 in some workshops. If the situation continued in long period, the operators might have the risk to get musculoskeletal symptoms. From the investigation of NMQ, we also found that the percentage of aches on neck, shoulders and lower back were higher than other parts of body. The correlation between aches and jobs was more than 75 per cent. So we provided some suggestions to improve: work rotation and adjustment of work surface/height to fit in with Ergonomics. Then the risks of musculoskeletal symptoms would be reduced.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

Keywords

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Article

Abiola Akanmu, Johnson Olayiwola and Oluwole Alfred Olatunji

Carpenters are constantly vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders. Their work consists of subtasks that promote nonfatal injuries and pains that affect different body

Abstract

Purpose

Carpenters are constantly vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders. Their work consists of subtasks that promote nonfatal injuries and pains that affect different body segments. The purpose of this study is to examine ergonomic exposures of carpentry subtasks involved in floor framing, how they lead to musculoskeletal injuries, and how preventive and protective interventions around them can be effective.

Design/methodology/approach

Using wearable sensors, this study characterizes ergonomic exposures of carpenters by measuring and analyzing body movement data relating to major subtasks in carpentry flooring work. The exposures are assessed using Postural Ergonomic Risk Assessment classification, which is based on tasks involving repetitive subtasks and nonstatic postures.

Findings

The findings of this paper suggest severe risk impositions on the trunk, shoulder and elbow as a result of the measuring and marking and cutting out vent locations, as well as in placing and nailing boards into place.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the type and size of wearable sensor used, only results of risk exposures of four body-parts are presented.

Practical implications

This study draws insights on how to benchmark trade-specific measurement of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Safety efforts can be targeted toward these risk areas and subtasks. Specifically, results from these will assist designers and innovators in designing effective and adaptable protective interventions and safety trainings.

Originality/value

Extant studies have failed to provide adequate evidence regarding the relationships between subtasks and musculoskeletal disorders; they have only mimicked construction tasks through laboratory experimental scenarios. This study adds value to the existing literature, in particular by providing insights into hazards associated with floor carpentry subtasks.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article

Maxwell Fordjour Antwi-Afari, Heng Li, David John Edwards, Erika Anneli Pärn, De-Graft Owusu-Manu, Joonoh Seo and Arnold Yu Lok Wong

Work-related low back disorders (LBDs) are prevalent among rebar workers although their causes remain uncertain. The purpose of this study is to examine the self-reported…

Abstract

Purpose

Work-related low back disorders (LBDs) are prevalent among rebar workers although their causes remain uncertain. The purpose of this study is to examine the self-reported discomfort and spinal biomechanics (muscle activity and spinal kinematics) experienced by rebar workers.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 20 healthy male participants performed simulated repetitive rebar lifting tasks with three different lifting weights, using either a stoop (n = 10) or a squat (n = 10) lifting posture, until subjective fatigue was reached. During these tasks, trunk muscle activity and spinal kinematics were recorded using surface electromyography and motion sensors, respectively.

Findings

A mixed-model, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that an increase in lifting weight significantly increased lower back muscle activity at L3 level but decreased fatigue and time to fatigue (endurance time) (p < 0.05). Lifting postures had no significant effect on spinal biomechanics (p < 0.05). Test results revealed that lifting different weights causes disproportional loading upon muscles, which shortens the time to reach working endurance and increases the risk of developing LBDs among rebar workers.

Research limitations/implications

Future research is required to: broaden the research scope to include other trades; investigate the effects of using assistive lifting devices to reduce manual handling risks posed; and develop automated human condition-based solutions to monitor trunk muscle activity and spinal kinematics.

Originality/value

This study fulfils an identified need to study laboratory-based simulated task conducted to investigate the risk of developing LBDs among rebar workers primarily caused by repetitive rebar lifting.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

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Article

Sara Bragança, Miguel Carvalho, Pedro Arezes and Susan P. Ashdown

This paper presents an analysis of several issues that are preponderant for the work-wear design. The purpose of this paper is to create a prototype of a women’s base…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents an analysis of several issues that are preponderant for the work-wear design. The purpose of this paper is to create a prototype of a women’s base upper body garment, based on the information gathered.

Design/methodology/approach

All the necessary information was collected through questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and evaluation of compression forces between the different prototypes.

Findings

It was possible to conclude that to create a better design some alterations need to be made in the standard base pattern design, such as measurements across the back length.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the fact that these design changes have a great impact on the stretch ability and on the compression forces, using softer fabric, such as cotton, is always better for an increased comfort. However, in more professional situation where these fabrics should not be used, these design changes can really make a difference.

Practical implications

A test with a set of compression sensors showed that the simple alteration of one measurement in the design of the base patterns highly reduces the compression forces.

Social implications

These simple alterations allow the garments to adjust to the users’ needs, promoting higher levels of comfort and lower levels of limitations of movement.

Originality/value

The designs presented in this paper can be easily adapted to a variety of garments, such as jackets or dresses, both for leisure or professional activities.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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