Search results

1 – 10 of over 135000
Article
Publication date: 7 December 2022

Haowei Zhang, Lili Sun, Chengli Song, Ying Liu, Xueting Xuan, Fei Wang, Jing Zhong and Li Sun

Design, fabricate and evaluate all-solid-state wearable sensor systems that can monitor ion concentrations in human sweat to provide real time health analysis and disease…

Abstract

Purpose

Design, fabricate and evaluate all-solid-state wearable sensor systems that can monitor ion concentrations in human sweat to provide real time health analysis and disease diagnosis capabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

A human health monitoring system includes disposable customized flexible electrode array and a compact signal transmission-processing electronic unit.

Findings

Patterned rGO (reduced-graphene oxide) layers can replace traditional metal electrodes for the fabrication of free-standing all solid film sensors to provide improved flexibility, sensitivity, selectivity, and stability in ion concentration monitoring. Electrochemical measurements show the open circuit potential of current selective electrodes exhibit near Nernst responses versus Na+ and K+ ion concentration in sweat. These signals show great stability during a typical measurement period of 3 weeks. Sensor performances evaluated through real time measurements on human subjects show strong correlations between subject activity and sweating levels, confirming high degree of robustness, sensitivity, reliability and practicality of current sensor systems.

Originality/value

In improving flexibility, stability and interfacial coherency of chemical sensor arrays, rGO films have been the developed as a high-performance alternative to conventional electrode with significant cost and processing complexity reduction. rGO supported solid state electrode arrays have been found to have linear potential response versus ion concentration, suitable for electrochemical sensing applications. Current sweat sensor system has a high degree of integration, including electrode arrays, signal processing circuits, and data visualization interfaces.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2021

Xiangyu Du, Junying Yang, Fei Gao, Xiaoming Han and Linlin Su

This paper aims to reveal the effects of the copper third body on different copper matrix friction materials with a novel experimental way called “exogenous powder.”

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to reveal the effects of the copper third body on different copper matrix friction materials with a novel experimental way called “exogenous powder.”

Design/methodology/approach

An accurate adding device of exogenous copper powder was designed to control the flow rate. The tribological properties with and without exogenous copper powder were investigated by a pin-on-disc tribometer during dry sliding.

Findings

Experimental results indicate that the Cu addition tends to increase the friction coefficient. For pure Cu material, the exogenous copper third body exhibits poor fluidity on the friction surface, causing serious adhesive wear on the friction interface. For the Cu 90% + 10% Gr material, the plasticity of exogenous copper powder may intensify the deformation of the third body of the surface, presenting layered accumulation distribution. For the pure Cu and Cu 95% + 5% SiO2 material, the Cu addition makes the composition and density of the third body uneven in the direction of depth.

Originality/value

The role of the copper component on different materials is revealed from a new perspective, and the relationship between the third body structure and the friction properties is explored.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Samridhi Garg, Monica Puri Sikka and Vinay Kumar Midha

Perspiration and heat are produced by the body and must be eliminated to maintain a stable body temperature. Sweat, heat and air must pass through the fabric to be…

Abstract

Purpose

Perspiration and heat are produced by the body and must be eliminated to maintain a stable body temperature. Sweat, heat and air must pass through the fabric to be comfortable. The cloth absorbs sweat and then releases it, allowing the body to chill down. By capillary action, moisture is driven away from fabric pores or sucked out of yarns. Convectional air movement improves sweat drainage, which may aid in body temperature reduction. Clothing reduces the skin's ability to transport heat and moisture to the outside. Excessive moisture makes clothing stick to the skin, whereas excessive heat induces heat stress, making the user uncomfortable. Wet heat loss is significantly more difficult to understand than dry heat loss. The purpose of this study is to provided a good compilation of complete information on wet thermal comfort of textile and technological elements to be consider while constructing protective apparel.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper aims to critically review studies on the thermal comfort of textiles in wet conditions and assess the results to guide future research.

Findings

Several recent studies focused on wet textiles' impact on comfort. Moisture reduces the fabric's thermal insulation value while also altering its moisture characteristics. Moisture and heat conductivity were linked. Sweat and other factors impact fabric comfort. So, while evaluating a fabric's comfort, consider both external and inside moisture.

Originality/value

The systematic literature review in this research focuses on wet thermal comfort and technological elements to consider while constructing protective apparel.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Massicilia Dahmani, Abdelghani Seghir, Nabil Issaadi and Ouali Amiri

This study aims to propose a numerical modeling procedure for response analysis of elastic body floating in water and submitted to regular waves. An equivalent simplified…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a numerical modeling procedure for response analysis of elastic body floating in water and submitted to regular waves. An equivalent simplified mechanical single-degree-of-freedom system allowing to reproduce the heave movements is first developed, then the obtained lumped characteristics are used for elastic analysis of the floating body in heave motion.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a two-dimensional numerical model of a rigid floating body in a wave tank is implemented under DualSPHysics, an open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. Then, the obtained results are exploited to derive an equivalent mechanical mass-spring-damper model. Finally, estimated equivalent characteristics are used in a structural finite element modeling of the considered body assuming elastic behavior.

Findings

Obtained results concerning the floating body displacements are represented and validated using existing experimental data in the literature. Wave forces acting on the body are also evaluated. It was found that for regular waves, it is possible to replace the complex CFD refined model by an equivalent simplified mechanical system which makes easy the use of structural finite element analysis.

Originality/value

The originality of this work lies in the proposed procedure to evaluate the mechanical properties of the equivalent elastic system. This allows to couple two different software tools and to take advantages of their features.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2022

Sanghee Lee

Architectural history is the fundamental resource that informs the essence of architecture and design thinking; however, education does not appear to link history to…

Abstract

Purpose

Architectural history is the fundamental resource that informs the essence of architecture and design thinking; however, education does not appear to link history to design thinking. A study of architectural history textbooks reveals the inadequacy of relying on the modern paradigm and architecture's typology of styles and periods. Instead, conceptual metaphor theory is recommended as the framework for understanding architectural history from an experiential approach. This study aims to complement architectural history by a new understanding of embodied cognition in generating paradigm change.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviewed architectural history through changing body metaphors in terms of embodied experience. The study examined three different metaphorical structures of the body – nature, machine and neural network – projected on the built environment and experienced in accordance with three periods of architectural history, which are categorized as before modern, modern and after modern.

Findings

As a result of the case study, ancient pyramids can attain more empirical meaning as playful spaces than abstract forms, Greek temples as social spaces than symbolic spaces, medieval churches as atmospheric spaces than visually-centric spaces, modern residential buildings as unsustainable machines and contemporary parks as raising awareness of sustainable environment.

Originality/value

Therefore, this article contributes to understandings and knowledge of how built environments are experienced from the perspective of a neural network, to the development of a pedagogical alternative to traditional architectural history, to linking architectural history to design and practice to re-establish the importance and vitality of architectural history and finally to creating a sustainable didactic.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2022

Shannon Scott, Lisa Rosen and Briana Paulman

Race and ethnicity, BMI and other factors can affect ratings of one’s experiences in school, work and other settings. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

Race and ethnicity, BMI and other factors can affect ratings of one’s experiences in school, work and other settings. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of BMI, race and ethnicity and body satisfaction on the experiences of victimization in a work or academic setting. Additionally, experiences of weight/appearance-based perpetration were explored within the context of prior victimization, perpetration, BMI, race and ethnicity and body satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

A diverse sample of 1,161 female undergraduates completed a series of questionnaires online. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between body satisfaction, BMI and race and ethnicity and weight/appearance-based teasing perpetration and victimization.

Findings

Results indicated that lower body satisfaction was significantly related to an increase in weight/appearance-based victimization. Additional analyses examining the perpetration of weight/appearance-based teasing were conducted. Participants who reported experiencing victimization were also more likely to perpetrate weight/appearance-based teasing, although BMI was not associated with perpetration.

Research limitations/implications

Implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed. In particular, academic settings provide a landscape for reducing and preventing victimization because of the resources available for students in addition to policies and procedures that can be implemented.

Originality/value

The findings of this study provide evidence that various identities and beliefs, such as race and ethnicity, BMI and body satisfaction, play a role in victimization and perpetration. This study used a novel, emerging adulthood population.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Futoshi Kobayashi

The purpose of this study is to investigate cross‐cultural differences between American and Japanese college students' body type under/overestimation regarding their own…

472

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate cross‐cultural differences between American and Japanese college students' body type under/overestimation regarding their own bodies within the framework of self‐construal theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Information from 137 American college students and 160 Japanese college students was collected in using a survey method. Their height, body weight, gender, and self‐estimated body types from three different options (underweight, normal weight, and overweight) was collected in order to assess the relationship between self‐estimated and real body types of these participants. The real body type based on one's body mass index and the self‐estimated body type were compared for each participant.

Findings

Japanese students were found to be more in the underweight category and less in the overweight category than American students. It was also found that Japanese students, and female students in general, were more likely to overestimate their body types and American students, and male students in general, were more likely to underestimate their body types.

Research limitations/implications

The present study used self‐report survey method and should be considered a pilot study. In future research, the height and weight of participants should actually be measured to obtain more reliable data. Future research should investigate other possible psychological factors for creating different body types between different cultures.

Originality/value

The present study was the first cross‐cultural study regarding body type under/overestimation regarding their own bodies between American and Japanese college students.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1949

W.J. Duncan

THE paper reviews the problem of the influence of the walls of a closed tunnel in increasing the velocity in the neighbourhood of a model under test. It is shown that, for…

Abstract

THE paper reviews the problem of the influence of the walls of a closed tunnel in increasing the velocity in the neighbourhood of a model under test. It is shown that, for a perfect fluid, considerations of continuity suffice to establish an exact value of the mean interference velocity for any cross‐section of the tunnel. This mean interference velocity is expressed in terms of the perturbation velocity which would be caused by the same model in the absence of the walls. The linearized theory of subsonic compressible flow is applied and it is shown that the interference velocity for a small two or three dimensional model is increased in proportion to l/β3, where β=√(l—M2) and M is the Mach number. Interference caused by a body with a long parallel middle body, the influence of the wake from a model and of the boundary layer on the tunnel walls are briefly considered.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Amy Jennings, V. Costarelli, G.J. Davies and P.W. Dettmar

Several recent observational studies detected inverse associations between dietary calcium intake and body weight. It was demonstrated that low calcium diets lead to an…

546

Abstract

Purpose

Several recent observational studies detected inverse associations between dietary calcium intake and body weight. It was demonstrated that low calcium diets lead to an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations, which in turn act to promote body fat deposition, reduce lipolysis and reduce thermogenesis. Most of the studies have been conducted on adults, however, it was recently demonstrated that longitudinal calcium intake is negatively associated with children's body fat levels. The purpose of the current study is to investigate possible associations between habitual calcium intake and body weight in a group of 7–10 years old children.

Design/methodology/approach

Eighty‐five children, 21 boys and 64 girls (mean age: 9.2±0.9) were recruited from 12 primary schools in the London area. Dietary intake was measured using the 7‐day weighed inventory method. Body weight and height measurements were also recorded.

Findings

Data suggested that girls have significantly lower intakes of calcium than boys and that 48 per cent of boys and 38 per cent of girls were overweight (above the 91st centile). However, there were no significant correlations between body weight or body mass index (BMI) and habitual intake of dietary calcium in this age group, which is in contrast with the results of similar studies conducted in adults.

Originality/value

One explanation could be that the possible effect of calcium on adiposity and body weight is more pronounced in adulthood than in childhood. It is important for future studies to measure levels of body fat in children together with body weight in conjunction with calcium intake in order to elucidate the original hypothesis.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Peter R.M. Jones, Peng Li, Katherine Brooke‐Wavell and Gordon M. West

Presents a standard data format for describing and interpolating 3‐D human body shapes from data collected by a 3‐D body scanner. The body data were treated as a series of…

638

Abstract

Presents a standard data format for describing and interpolating 3‐D human body shapes from data collected by a 3‐D body scanner. The body data were treated as a series of horizontal cross‐sections. Each cross‐section was described by 16 data points. The 3‐D surface can be calculated by interpolating between these sections. This procedure allowed editing and manipulation of raw scanned data, as well as substantial data reduction. Horizontal cross‐sections of the body were chosen to correspond to particular anatomical surface landmarks, rather than distances from a reference point. Hence, each data element described a particular anatomical location, irrespective of body shape and size. This feature allowed comparison and averaging of 3‐D shapes, greatly enhancing the application of 3‐D scanned data. The standard data format allows 3‐D scanned data to be transferred into CAD/CAM systems for automated garment design and manikin manufacture.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 135000