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Book part
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Amandine Ody-Brasier

This article seeks to identify the type of producers most likely to deviate from category-based expectations in the pursuit of profit. I describe circumstances under which…

Abstract

This article seeks to identify the type of producers most likely to deviate from category-based expectations in the pursuit of profit. I describe circumstances under which a category’s core members are, paradoxically, more likely (than its peripheral members) to deviate. This phenomenon reflects market participants’ default expectations about core members and the resulting bias in information-search processes. I offer empirical evidence of Champagne producers getting involved in “buyer’s own brands” (BOB), a behavior that is not directly observed yet deviates considerably from grape suppliers’ category-based expectations. The econometric analysis leverages an exogenous shock that increased the scrutiny of BOB by grape suppliers. I find that before the shock, BOB products were more likely to be supplied by “traditional” houses – which grape suppliers view as core industry members and hence as being above suspicion in that regard. I discuss the implications of these results for prior work in this area as well as the article’s contribution to extant literature.

Details

Frontiers of Creative Industries: Exploring Structural and Categorical Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-773-9

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Bob Little

The purpose of this paper is to set out the results of research which shows the gender pay gap among graduates and outline some of the steps being taken to combat this at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to set out the results of research which shows the gender pay gap among graduates and outline some of the steps being taken to combat this at the University of Bath. Notably, it highlights the Sprint programme, developed for women undergraduates. This programme aims to add value to the overall student experience at university, improve employability and help to ensure that each undergraduate – regardless of her subject, department or career aspirations – can develop to her fullest potential.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper outlines the Sprint programme and reports on how it is being used specifically by the University of Bath. It contains the results of interviews with the deliverers, sponsors and stakeholders of the Sprint programme.

Findings

The Sprint programme helps women focus on their studies at university, achieving results such as improved visibility and effectiveness in tutorials, better time management, less study stress, a boost in confidence and self-esteem. They also use Sprint to sharpen their career goals, raise their aspirations, explore possibilities and to take advantage of the work shadowing, internships and mentoring often offered by corporate sponsors.

Research limitations/implications

It is possible to bridge the gender pay gap as well as benefit women in other ways via learning and development activities, such as those promoted via the Sprint programme.

Practical implications

With help from programmes such as Sprint, women can achieve improved work visibility and effectiveness, better time management, reduced stress, increased confidence and self-esteem. This helps them achieve their career goals, raise their aspirations and generally develop their careers.

Social implications

Women can learn to compete effectively with men in the workplace as well as be successful in their personal lives (in terms of sorting out difficult relationships, improving fitness and gaining a better study/life balance). This offers many benefits for women – and for the well-being of society in general.

Originality/value

The Sprint programme is unique – and is, increasingly, proving valuable. Although the Sprint programme is relatively new – having started in 2013 – it is already bearing positive results. This is not just true in terms of narrowing the gender pay gap but also in terms of improved business networking and heightened self-confidence among other factors.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 48 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Bob Little

– Observes how the introduction of a new learning-management system has made training easier, cheaper and more effective at international freight-forwarder JAS.

Abstract

Purpose

Observes how the introduction of a new learning-management system has made training easier, cheaper and more effective at international freight-forwarder JAS.

Design/methodology/approach

Examines the reasons for the new system, the form it takes and the advantages it has brought.

Findings

Explains that using the system makes things easier for the end-users who have one place to go for their learning materials. It has allowed the company to evaluate end-users’ knowledge of products and services.

Practical implications

Reveals that the cost of delivering each individual piece of learning to any and every user is less than 20 USA cents.

Social implications

Highlights the benefits of a learning-management system for organizations with large numbers of geographically dispersed employees.

Originality/value

Describes a system that has helped JAS to standardize its approach to training globally, allowing consistent, controlled messaging and has created a method and process by which JAS can assess and evaluate its employees’ skills, knowledge base and areas for improvement.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Bob Little

To illustrate the value of using a learning management system to streamline training administration tasks and, especially, to provide evidence of compliance for the

Abstract

Purpose

To illustrate the value of using a learning management system to streamline training administration tasks and, especially, to provide evidence of compliance for the authorities in regulated industries.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach to this topic is via interviews with experts. Officials from five US‐based organisations – four health‐care and one pharmaceutical organisation – explain the value of a learning management system to their particular organisation. They also outline the additional benefits that they have experienced – such as medical staff being able to spend more time with patients. There are also comments from an industry analyst specialising in learning management systems.

Findings

Learning management systems not only enable training to be standardised and co‐ordinated within the largest and most fragmented organisations but also provide accurate records of learning and competence – which are vital in highly regulated industries.

Practical implications

These are that every organisation in a “regulated” industry – especially those in the health‐care sector – should use an enterprise‐wide learning management system to improve the efficiency of their staff training and development. Moreover, they should use the user‐monitoring and record‐keeping functions of the learning management system to keep automated, up‐to‐date records of knowledge, skills and competencies for that industry's regulatory bodies.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates – albeit anecdotally – the value of a learning management system, not just for the training function but also in operational terms. As such, it should be of interest not only to training and HR professionals but also to those responsible for organisational strategy, planning and operation.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Bob Little

The purpose of this paper is to describe and critique “blended learning”, with examples of the use of this approach to delivering learning.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and critique “blended learning”, with examples of the use of this approach to delivering learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper contains information from leading authorities in the UK on e‐learning and blended learning – the eLearning Network, the e‐Learning Centre and Learning Light – along with comments from leading providers of blended learning, including Echelon Learning, Open Mind, Tata Interactive Systems and Trainer1.

Findings

Blended learning is not new and has its critics, but the key principle behind this concept – that learning activities must be appropriate for the learners, not only with regard to their learning preferences but also within the context of their organisation culture – is vital to producing a successful learning programme.

Practical implications

The paper argues that blended learning can – and does – work, providing effective learning solutions. However, it is more important to find an appropriate learning solution – which may well be some sort of blended learning. This calls for a disciplined approach to designing learning solutions, by professionals who have experience in organisational behaviour, pedagogy and learning technologies.

Originality/value

Highlights the principle that learning activities must be appropriate, not only with regard to learners' learning preferences but also within the context of their organisation culture.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2012

John O'Connor and Bob Little

The paper aims to describe the results assessment approach to the evaluation of training and development programmes.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to describe the results assessment approach to the evaluation of training and development programmes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explains the shortfalls with current approaches to evaluation, outlines the research that led to the development of the results assessment approach, and describes a realistic, pragmatic method to evaluate any training initiative.

Findings

Ultimately, “results” are what training and development professionals' customers need – and want – delivered, yet training and development professionals think and act within the limits of a training expertise that often lacks the necessary business perspective. Yet, the good news is that it doesn't take a huge effort or costly resources to improve things.

Practical implications

The results of every significant development programme must fall into one or more of the following domains: perception, transfer and impact.

Social implications

The results assessment evaluation model can play a key part in ensuring training and development activities are central to an organisation's goal, aims and objectives.

Originality/value

The paper describes a model that challenges current training evaluation practice and by focusing on business results enables “training” to become a core business partner.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Bob Little

Globalisation has made English today's international business language. This article aims to explore what this means for suppliers of English language training – and how

Abstract

Purpose

Globalisation has made English today's international business language. This article aims to explore what this means for suppliers of English language training – and how corporate buyers of this training can get value for money from them.

Design/methodology/approach

The article outlines research by goFLUENT – a leading provider of Business English training.

Findings

Companies are looking for employees who can perform well in today's multi‐cultural, multi‐lingual business environment. For those speaking another language there will be more job opportunities, higher pay and faster careers. Increasingly, companies require or give higher priority to employees who speak a second or even a third language – and that is making language learning essential to one's professional growth.

Practical implications

Because of the variety of products and services available, it is helpful for suppliers to respond to companies' RFP requirements in free form and through their own company brochures and materials. However, in order for respondents to understand these companies' scoring systems ‐ and for suppliers to be able to make equivalent comparisons across criteria – suppliers should ask them to answer specific questions.

Social implications

Only 400 million or so of the world's seven billion people speak English as their native tongue but, currently, it is the Chinese who are learning English. Despite the rise of India and China as global economic powers, over two billion people speak English in these countries alone ‐ and the demand for English speakers continues to grow. With emerging markets, there is an appreciable influx of speakers of Mandarin, Hindi, Spanish and Portuguese but, for these people to work on an international scale, proficiency in English is the inevitable standard.

Originality/value

This article focuses on a theme for which there is currently little information of any real substance.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Bob Little

The purpose of this paper is to set out the results of research which showed the gender pay gap among graduates and outline some of the steps being taken to combat this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to set out the results of research which showed the gender pay gap among graduates and outline some of the steps being taken to combat this. In particular, it outlines the Sprint programme, developed for women undergraduates. This programme aims to add value to the overall student experience at university, improve employability and help to ensure that each undergraduate – regardless of her subject, department or career aspirations – can develop to her fullest potential.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper comprises results of research carried out by Oxford University’s Careers Service. It also contains the results of interviews with the developers, deliverers, sponsors and users of the Sprint programme – a programme which was developed as a response to these research findings.

Findings

The Sprint programme helps women focus on their studies at university, achieving results such as improved visibility and effectiveness in tutorials, better time management, less study stress, a boost in confidence and self-esteem. They also use Sprint to sharpen their career goals, raise their aspirations, explore possibilities and to take advantage of the work shadowing, internships and mentoring often offered by corporate sponsors. Participants in the Sprint programme also tend to find it also helps them to achieve results in their personal lives – such as sorting out difficult relationships, improving fitness and gaining a better study/life balance.

Research limitations/implications

It is possible to bridge the gender pay gap as well as benefit women in other ways via learning and development activities, such as those promoted via the Sprint programme.

Practical implications

With help from programmes such as Sprint, women can achieve improved work visibility and effectiveness, better time management, reduced stress, increased confidence and self-esteem. This helps them achieve their career goals, raise their aspirations and generally develop their careers.

Social implications

Women can be helped to compete effectively with men in the workplace as well as be successful in their personal lives (in terms of sorting out difficult relationships, improving fitness and gaining a better study/life balance). This offers many benefits for women – and for the well-being of society in general.

Originality/value

The Sprint programme, along with the approach of The Springboard Consultancy, is unique. Although the Sprint programme is relatively new – having started in 2013 – it is already bearing positive results.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2001

Bob Little

Under pressure from modern business conditions and practices, technology is being harnessed to help more people learn more things quicker than ever before – thus enabling…

Abstract

Under pressure from modern business conditions and practices, technology is being harnessed to help more people learn more things quicker than ever before – thus enabling them not only to do more things but to do new things, and do them better than would have been the case under the traditional, instructor‐led training system. There is a danger, however, that people will fall in love with “technology” and ignore the value of ensuring that e‐learning materials cater for learners’ needs and follow the principles of effective instructional design. One of the leading companies in the field of producing custom built e‐learning solutions, VEGA Skillchange, outlines both its philosophy and the process it uses to ensure that this is the case. Finally, three case studies – Standard Life, Gartmore Investment Management and DailmlerChrysler – illustrate how e‐learning is being used effectively in different contexts to produce competitive advantage.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

David Hawkins and Bob Little

This paper aims to expand the debate around the catalysts required to develop, promote, implement and maintain effective collaborative practice.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to expand the debate around the catalysts required to develop, promote, implement and maintain effective collaborative practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the benefits of business collaboration and partnering, with special reference to the world's first national standard, BS 11000, to address collaborative business relationships.

Findings

Collaborative working is not simply about cutting cost. It offers an alternative and enhanced capability to build new value propositions beyond the capabilities of an individual organisation. The concept of the supply chain is giving way to the concept of a more holistic value chain, value networks and ecosystems. Amid all the changes, one factor remains constant: relationships are a core ingredient for successful business. Staying competitive requires organisations to look beyond their traditional structures and develop both the skills and the processes to meet today's business challenges. It is impractical to rely on individuals and osmosis to deliver collaborative working behaviours. Collaboration must be embedded in the governance and processes of the organisation and reinforced in every aspect of the business through policy, process and systems. The world's first national standard: BS 11000 (collaborative business relationship management) provides a consistent model around which organisations can build more sustainable relationships.

Originality/value

This paper explores the interdependence between operational practices and the behaviours that underpin performance and outcomes.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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