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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

B.M. McCormack

A high percentage of circuit boards manufactured in the electronics industry are of an irregular shape and are produced on a standard panel outline to facilitate assembly…

Abstract

A high percentage of circuit boards manufactured in the electronics industry are of an irregular shape and are produced on a standard panel outline to facilitate assembly handling. The unused pieces of circuit board pass through the same processes as the useful parts and are normally discarded. This excess material could, among other things, be used to evaluate the quality of a bare board or an assembly. This paper will highlight the usefulness of designing test patterns on this excess material, namely test coupons, in terms of how these can be used to monitor all of the manufacturing and assembly process steps. It will also show how these coupons can be used to make the board easier to assemble and how they may actually lead to an improvement in the quality of the assembly and an increase in production yields. Suggestions will be made as to the types of test pattern that can be used, as well as how these patterns can be utilised as process control checkers. Since the test coupons are incorporated in the board design, a quality check of 100% of the boards that are being processed is possible. This would highlight any board‐to‐board variation if it were present. It would also allow for destructive testing to be carried out, without damaging any of the working product. The applications of these patterns are wide ranging. They can be used to check bare board quality—etch definition, layer registration, plating quality, solder mask definition etc. They can also be used to monitor the assembly processes for SMT and conventional PTH assembly types—cut and clinch quality, paste printing quality, onsertion accuracy, reflow/flow soldering quality and assembly cleanliness, among others. Many of these applications are examined in this paper.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Sandra Alves

This study draws on agency, theory to evaluate the relationship between chief executive officer (CEO) duality and earnings quality, proxied by discretionary accruals…

Abstract

Purpose

This study draws on agency, theory to evaluate the relationship between chief executive officer (CEO) duality and earnings quality, proxied by discretionary accruals. Additionally, this study aims to examine whether board independence moderates the relationship between CEO duality and earnings quality.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a fixed-effects regression model to examine the effect of CEO duality on earnings quality and to test whether board independence moderates that relationship for a sample of non-financial listed Portuguese firms-year from 2002 to 2016.

Findings

Consistent with agency theory, this study suggests that CEO duality decreases earnings quality. Further, the results also suggest that the earnings quality reduction associated with CEO duality is attenuated when the board of directors has a higher proportion of independent directors.

Practical implications

The findings based on this study provide useful information to investors and regulators in evaluating the impact of CEO duality on earnings quality and the effect of board independence on the role of CEO duality, especially under concentrated ownership.

Originality/value

To the knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the role of board independence on the association between CEO duality and earnings quality. In addition, this paper is the first empirical study to investigate the direct and indirect effect of CEO duality on earnings quality in Portugal.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 March 2021

Twaha Kigongo Kaawaase, Catherine Nairuba, Brendah Akankunda and Juma Bananuka

The purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between corporate governance attributes (board expertise, board independence and board role performance)…

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2849

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between corporate governance attributes (board expertise, board independence and board role performance), internal audit quality and financial reporting quality using evidence from Uganda's financial institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study research design is cross sectional and correlational. The study used a questionnaire survey of Chief Finance Officers, Senior Accountants and Internal audit managers of financial institutions in Uganda. Data were analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

Findings

Results indicate that board expertise and board role performance are significantly associated with financial reporting quality. Also, internal audit quality is significantly associated with financial reporting quality. Board independence is not a significant predictor of financial reporting quality.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights of what matters for financial reporting quality in Uganda's financial reporting quality. It uses the qualitative characteristics of financial statements to measure financial reporting quality. This paper focuses mainly on the conceptual framework developed by the International Accounting Standards Board.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

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Article
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Wing Him Yeung and Camillo Lento

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance and earnings opacity in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance and earnings opacity in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Two corporate governance mechanisms form the basis of the analysis: 1) the board of directors and 2) the external audit function. OLS regression analysis is employed on a large sample from 2000 to 2014 with 20,235 firm-year observations.

Findings

Corporate governance is found to be associated with reduced levels of earnings opacity for Chinese listed companies. Furthermore, the association between corporate governance and reduced levels of earnings opacity strengthened after the implementation of various key reforms.

Practical implications

Chinese regulators are advised to proceed with caution as not all Western approaches to corporate governance are transferrable to the Chinese setting.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by analyzing broad latent constructs of corporate governance in addition to individual observable dimensions in order to reveal that various key reforms have been successful in strengthening the link between governance and reporting quality for Chinese listed companies.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Shireenjit K. Johl, Satirenjit Kaur Johl, Nava Subramaniam and Barry Cooper

The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of the internal audit function (IAF), an increasingly common internal governance mechanism, on a firm's financial reporting…

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7407

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of the internal audit function (IAF), an increasingly common internal governance mechanism, on a firm's financial reporting quality. Specifically, this paper investigates the association between the quality of the IAF and abnormal accruals (as a proxy for financial reporting quality) and whether the board of directors play a role in moderating the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a unique dataset of survey responses and archival data. Regression analysis was used to test their hypotheses.

Findings

Although their initial findings show an unexpected positive relationship between internal audit quality and abnormal accruals, this relationship is contingent on whether firms outsource their internal audit activities and/or whether they are politically linked. In estimations excluding outsourcing and political connections observations, this paper shows that the association between internal audit quality and abnormal accruals is negative and in particular internal audit organisational independence, financial focus audit activities and investment are associated with lower income-increasing (opportunistic) abnormal accruals. Next, when this paper interact board quality with internal audit quality, this paper finds although the lower ordered variables board quality and internal audit quality coefficients are negatively related to abnormal accruals, the interaction variable between these two variables is positively associated with abnormal accruals, indicating the possibility of a substitution relationship between board quality and internal audit quality.

Research limitations/implications

Their findings show that certain internal audit attributes play an important role in the financial reporting process and thus these findings are expected to inform the Institute of Internal Auditors and other regulatory bodies on the role of internal audit (being an important internal governance mechanism) in financial reporting, which in turn can assist in market/regulatory reforms/changes and inform the revised Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance.

Originality/value

This paper extends prior internal auditing literature by examining the relationship between internal audit quality and financial reporting quality in the context of a developing country, namely Malaysia, and whether the board of directors moderate the examined association.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 28 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Mark J. Avery, Allan W. Cripps and Gary D. Rogers

This study explores key governance, leadership and management activities that have impact on quality, risk and safety within Australian healthcare organisations.

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores key governance, leadership and management activities that have impact on quality, risk and safety within Australian healthcare organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

Current non-executive directors (n = 12) of public and private health boards were interviewed about contemporary approaches to fiduciary and corporate responsibilities for quality assurance and improvement outcomes in the context of risk and safety management for patient care. Verbatim transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis triangulated with Leximancer-based text mining.

Findings

Boards operate in a strong legislative, healthcare standards and normative environment of quality and risk management. Support and influence that create a positive quality and risk management culture within the organisation, actions that disseminate quality and risk broadly and at depth for all levels, and implementation and sustained development of quality and risk systems that report on and contain risk were critical tasks for boards and their directors.

Practical implications

Findings from this study may provide health directors with key quality and risk management agenda points to expand or deepen the impact of governance around health facilities' quality and risk management.

Originality/value

This study has identified key governance activities and responsibilities where boards demonstrate that they add value in terms of potential improvement to hospital and health service quality care outcomes. The demonstrable influence identified makes an important contribution to our understanding of healthcare governance.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Mark B. Mulcahy

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between reporting a loss and changes in board quality. Low quality corporate governance is associated with adverse…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between reporting a loss and changes in board quality. Low quality corporate governance is associated with adverse accounting outcomes and is characterised by the lack of non-executive and independent directors on the board. Changes in these board quality indicators in response to the reporting of a loss and conditioned by the severity of the loss are examined.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses four years of board information spanning the report of an initial loss for companies listed on the UK stock exchange. An industry and size matched control sample is used in a difference-in-difference analysis to isolate the impact of the loss from underlying changes in board quality.

Findings

Overall the results indicate that more severe initial loss events precipitate improvements in board quality over and above the control sample as well as less severe loss events.

Research limitations/implications

Although unambiguous, the reporting of a loss is only one measure of underperformance. Also the board quality indicators used in this study are two from several individual corporate governance variables and amalgamations used in the extent literature.

Practical implications

The findings demonstrate that the relationship between corporate governance and performance is endogenous and that the majority of any improvement in board quality actually anticipates the reporting of the loss. Any celebration of improvements in governance need to be tempered by an understanding of the precariousness of the firms at which these improvements are made.

Originality/value

This study contributes to a research stream that examines negative shocks, and losses in particular, as an event likely to precipitate firm-level changes in board quality, i.e. firms tend not to make improvements to board quality without the impetus to do so.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Jerry Sun and Guoping Liu

The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction effect of auditor industry specialization and board governance on earnings management. This study examines…

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3100

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction effect of auditor industry specialization and board governance on earnings management. This study examines whether board independence is more or less effective in constraining earnings management for firms audited by industry specialists than for firms audited by non‐specialists.

Design/methodology/approach

The US data were collected from the RiskMetrics Directors database and the Compustat database. Regression analysis was used to test the research proposition.

Findings

It was found that earnings management is more negatively associated with board independence for firms audited by industry specialists than for firms audited by non‐specialists, consistent with the notion that there is a complementary relationship between auditor industry specialization and board governance. The findings suggest a positive interaction effect of auditor industry specialization and board governance on accounting quality.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by documenting explicit evidence that high quality boards can be more effective through hiring industry specialist auditors. This study also suggests that it may be worth investigating the interaction effect among different corporate governance mechanisms on accounting quality.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Hafiza Aishah Hashim and Susela Devi

Purpose – The relationship between the board characteristics (i.e. board independence, CEO duality, board size, board meeting and board tenure) and the ownership structure…

Abstract

Purpose – The relationship between the board characteristics (i.e. board independence, CEO duality, board size, board meeting and board tenure) and the ownership structure (i.e. managerial ownership, family ownership and institutional ownership) and earnings quality is examined.

Design/methodology/approach – Data from 280 non-financial companies listed on Bursa Malaysia's Main Board for the year 2004 is used.

Findings – Significant association was found between board tenure and earnings quality. In addition, a positive significant association was found between outside board ownership and family ownership and earnings quality. However no significant relationship was found between board of directors’ independence and earnings quality.

Research limitations/implications – The association between audit committees’ characteristics and earnings quality was not examined. An examination of the impact of ownership structure on boards of directors and audit committees is warranted. An investigation of the impact of the ownership structure on earnings quality in Malaysia using separate test on family-controlled and non-family-controlled firms is suggested.

Practical implications – The appropriateness of policy directives requiring majority independent directors may be considered by policy makers.

Originality/value – The conflict of interest between outside shareholders and managers in a diffused ownership support the agency theory. However, utility of agency theory to explain the conflicts between the controlling owners and the minority shareholders where ownership concentration is prevalent is limited. Whilst demonstrating the dominant impact of ownership structure on earnings quality in Malaysia the study calls for alternative explanations of corporate governance practices in different institutional settings.

Details

Corporate Governance in Less Developed and Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-252-4

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Louis Rubino and Marsha Chan

The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) has broadened their campaign focus to include protecting hospital patients from five million incidents of medical harm…

Abstract

The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) has broadened their campaign focus to include protecting hospital patients from five million incidents of medical harm through 2008. A critical component of this campaign is the engagement of governance in the process, noting evidence of better patient outcomes for hospitals with governing boards that spend at least 25% of their time on quality and safety. St. Francis Medical Center (SFMC), a 384-bed hospital in Southeast Los Angeles serving a high number of uninsured and underinsured patients and a population characterized by significant poverty, has initiated through a top-down approach, an aggressive plan to improve the care at its facilities through a call to action by its board of directors. In this article innovative methods are shared, tools are provided, and the initial positive results achieved are reported which show how a cultural change is occurring regarding quality and patient safety (QPS) at this hospital's organizational and delivery system level.

Details

Patient Safety and Health Care Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-955-5

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