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Outlines the findings of a study into the secondary destination choices of tourists visiting the Philippines. Defines the tourist mega‐system. Looks at the framework and…
Outlines the findings of a study into the secondary destination choices of tourists visiting the Philippines. Defines the tourist mega‐system. Looks at the framework and methodology used and attempts to link these with the holistic approach of Jafari regarding tourism structure and stages which the tourists go through.
This paper aims to reduce the cost, limit the time and increase raw material source availability, coral aggregate seawater concrete (CASC) composed of coral, coral sand…
This paper aims to reduce the cost, limit the time and increase raw material source availability, coral aggregate seawater concrete (CASC) composed of coral, coral sand, seawater and cement can be widely used for the construction of ports, levees, airports and roads to achieve practical engineering values. However, the naturally porous coral structure and abundant Cl− in the seawater and coral lead to extremely severe reinforcement corrosion for CASC. It is well known that Cl− is the main cause of reinforcement corrosion in the marine environment. Therefore, it is necessary to research the reinforcement corrosion of CASC in the marine environment.
In this study, linear polarization resistance was adopted to test the linear polarization curves of reinforcement in CASC with different exposure times. Ecorr, Rp, Icorr and Vcorr were calculated according to the weak electrochemical polarization theory and Stern–Geary formula. The effects of concrete cover thickness, exposure time, reinforcement types and inhibitor on reinforcement corrosion in CASC were analysed. The reinforcement corrosion degradation rule was determined, which provided theoretical support for the durability improvement, security assessment, service life prediction and service quality control of CASC structures in marine islands and reef engineering.
The corrosion resistance was enhanced with increased concrete cover thickness, and the concrete cover thickness for organic new coated steel should be at least 5.5 cm to reduce the reinforcement corrosion risks in CASC structures. The corrosion resistance of different types of reinforcements followed the rule: 2205 duplex stainless steel > 316 stainless steel > organic new coated steel > zinc-chromium coated steel > common steel. In the early exposure stage, the anti-corrosion effectiveness of the calcium nitrate inhibitor (CN) was superior to that for the amino alcohol inhibitor (AA). With the extension of exposure time, the decreasing rate of anticorrosion effectiveness of CN was higher than that of AA.
Reinforcement corrosion of CASC in a marine environment was studied. Concrete cover thickness, exposure time, reinforcement type and inhibitor influenced the reinforcement corrosion were investigated. New technique of reinforcement anti-corrosion in marine engineering was proposed. Possible applications of CASC in marine engineering structures were suggested.
Coral aggregate seawater concrete (CASC) is a new type of lightweight aggregate concrete that is becoming widely used in reef engineering. To investigate the corrosion…
Coral aggregate seawater concrete (CASC) is a new type of lightweight aggregate concrete that is becoming widely used in reef engineering. To investigate the corrosion behavior of different kinds of rebar in CASC exposed to simulated seawater for 0-270 d, the electrochemical techniques, including linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), were used in the present work.
The electrochemical techniques, including LPR technique and the EIS, were used in the present work.
Based on the time-varying law of linear polarization curves, self-corrosion potential (Ecorr), polarization resistance (Rp), corrosion current density (Icorr), corrosion rate (i), and the characteristics of EIS diagrams for different types of rebar in CASC, it can be found that the anti-corrosion property of them can be ranked as epoxy resin coated steel > 2205 duplex stainless steel (2205S) > 316 L stainless steel (316 L) > organic coated steel > ordinary steel. Additionally, the linear regression equation between Rp and charge transfer resistance (Rct) was established. Finally, the EIS corrosion standard of rebar was established from the LPR corrosion standard, which provides a direct standard for the EIS technique to determine the condition of rebar in CASC.
The linear regression equation between polarization resistance and charge transfer resistance was established. And the EIS corrosion standard of rebar was established from the LPR corrosion standard, which provides a direct standard for the EIS technique to determine the condition of rebar in CASC.
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today…
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.
The Communist revolution in China has led to the appearance in this country of increasing numbers of Chinese books in Russian translation. The Chinese names in Cyrillic transcription have presented many librarians and students with a new problem, that of identifying the Cyrillic form of a name with the customary Wade‐Giles transcription. The average cataloguer, the first to meet the problem, has two obvious lines of action, and neither is satisfactory. He can save up the names until he has a chance to consult an expert in Chinese. Apart altogether from the delay, the expert, confronted with a few isolated names, might simply reply that he could do nothing without the Chinese characters, and it is only rarely that Soviet books supply them. Alternatively, he can transliterate the Cyrillic letters according to the system in use in his library and leave the matter there for fear of making bad worse. As long as the writers are not well known, he may feel only faintly uneasy; but the appearance of Chzhou Ėn‐lai (or Čžou En‐laj) upsets his equanimity. Obviously this must be entered under Chou; and we must have Mao Tse‐tung and not Mao Tsze‐dun, Ch'en Po‐ta and not Chėn' Bo‐da. But what happens when we have another . . . We can hardly write Ch'en unless we know how to represent the remaining elements in the name; yet we are loth to write Ch'en in one name and Chėn' in another.
Ecology shows us not only environmental problems; it shows that we need a new balance and harmony between individuals, beings, communities and all of Nature. We need a new…
Ecology shows us not only environmental problems; it shows that we need a new balance and harmony between individuals, beings, communities and all of Nature. We need a new contract with Nature (SERRES, 1991) and new Ethics (GUATTARI, 1990) for our lives. What is therefore new in Architecture? The environmental ethics have given us a universal and supra-generational vision of the management of our Nature and, as a consequence, a new way to construct our “second” nature. What is essential for this new architecture that the new ethics demand?
Exploring this subject, the paper firstly analyzes how the relationship between ethics and architecture has been described by other authors. Secondly, how the relationship between mainstream architecture and ecology is evolving, from technical matters to social and more complex issues, to work towards ethics. Finally, the convergence between them (Ethics, Architecture and Nature) could provide the clues to understand the ends and means of eco-architecture.
As a result of this analysis, we interpret that there are underlying keys in the post-eco-architecture. These summarize in new roles for the “locus” and the break of habitual limits of architecture, which have been replaced for new ones. There are no limits of scale: macro-structures such as mega-cities, as well as micro-organism are involved in the architectural process. The client of our construction is universal: we do not build only for our client, we must think about all beings, including animals since we know how our decisions may inflict damage to biodiversity. The site has no boundaries: we know how any local actions can have an effect in remote locations of the planet, since natural phenomena are interconnected. There is also no time limit: we must build now, but we must think about future generations.
Presents a multicriteria approach to the ABC classification problemin inventory control. The proposed method, based on Saaty′s AnalyticHierarchy Process, rates items on…
Presents a multicriteria approach to the ABC classification problem in inventory control. The proposed method, based on Saaty′s Analytic Hierarchy Process, rates items on both qualitative and quantitative criteria. Demonstrates the model through an example, using real data from the maintenance department stock room of a pharmaceutical company. A series of simulation experiments show how the resulting classification can benefit inventory control in this company.
A methodology for implementing CAPM systems is described. Theresearch was motivated by evidence of dissatisfaction with theperformance of current systems, and the…
A methodology for implementing CAPM systems is described. The research was motivated by evidence of dissatisfaction with the performance of current systems, and the existence of no generic methodology. A superposition process was employed. Areas of functional management were explored for sources of implementation methodologies and yielded a number of attributes for successful implementation. The emergent structure was then validated against field studies. The result, a methodology for improving control, is a three‐level hierarchy. The first level assesses the ability of the organisation to absorb change. The next considers the options for better control. The lowest level is concerned with implementation.