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Article

Nicolas Fleury

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role played by parental education endowments vs intergenerational transmission of education in education differences between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role played by parental education endowments vs intergenerational transmission of education in education differences between second-generation immigrants and natives for the French case.

Design/methodology/approach

First, estimates of human capital accumulation functions are performed by using a representative sample of the French population. Second, the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique is implemented to underline the specific roles of differences in parental education endowments and of differences in intergenerational transmission in education between origins.

Findings

The econometric estimates of human capital accumulation function parameters underline that the determinants of education level (and their magnitude), differ substantially between natives and migrants. They also underline evidence of heterogeneity in the intergenerational transmission of education among the different origins of migrants in France. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition results show that parental education endowments account differences for a significant part of the education gaps among origins. No evidence is found that differences in parental transmissions of education explain these gaps.

Originality/value

The paper focusses on France, a country with a rich history of immigration in the twentieth century. The econometric analysis is based on a rich source of data for France that allows studying intergenerational mobility in education and also distinguishing natives from second-generation migrants based on their geographical origin.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Content available
Article

Pawel Strawinski, Aleksandra Majchrowska and Paulina Broniatowska

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relation between occupational segregation and the gender wage differences using data on three-digit occupational level of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the relation between occupational segregation and the gender wage differences using data on three-digit occupational level of classification. The authors examine whether a statistically significant relation between the share of men in employment and the size of the unexplained part of the gender wage gap exists.

Design/methodology/approach

Traditional Oaxaca (1973) – Blinder (1973) decomposition is performed to examine the differences in the gender wage gaps among minor occupational groups. Two types of reweighted decomposition – based on the parametric estimate of the propensity score and non-parametric proposition presented by Barsky et al. (2002) – are used as the robustness check. The analysis is based on individual data available from Poland.

Findings

The results indicate no strong relation between occupational segregation and the size of unexplained differences in wages. The unexplained wage differences are the smallest in strongly female-dominated and mixed occupations; the highest are observed in male-dominated occupations. However, they are probably to a large extent the result of other, difficult to include in the econometric model, factors rather than the effects of wage discrimination: differences in the psychophysical conditions of men and women, cultural background, tradition or habits. The failure to take them into account may result in over-interpreting the unexplained parts as gender discrimination.

Research limitations/implications

The highest accuracy of the estimated gender wage gap is obtained for the occupational groups with a similar proportion of men and women in employment. In other male- or female-dominated groups, the size of the estimated gender wage gaps depends on the estimation method used.

Practical implications

The results suggest that decreasing the degree of segregation of men and women in different occupations could reduce the wage differences between them, as the wage discrimination in gender balanced occupations is the smallest.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the few conducted at such a disaggregated level of occupations, and one of few studies focused on Central and Eastern European countries and the first one for Poland.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Yir-Hueih Luh and Min-Fang Wei

The Old Farmer Pension Program (OFPP) represents Taiwan’s long-standing efforts aiming at improving farm household income and well-being; however, how effective the…

Abstract

Purpose

The Old Farmer Pension Program (OFPP) represents Taiwan’s long-standing efforts aiming at improving farm household income and well-being; however, how effective the pension program is in terms of achieving the policy agenda has remained unclear. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on data drawn from the Survey of Family Income and Expenditure during 1999–2013, two identification strategies are used to examine the effect of OFPP. First the authors apply the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition to address the concern if the program reaches the socially/economically disadvantaged farm households. The second identification strategy involves using the static and dynamic decomposition approaches to identify the major factors contributing to farm household income inequality and the redistribution role of the OFPP.

Findings

Results from the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition indicate that about 60 percent of the income gap can be eliminated if the pension recipients’ socio-economic characteristics are the same as the non-recipient group, suggesting it is the disadvantaged group that receives the old farmer pension. Moreover, the results suggest the significant contributions of household investments in health and human capital as well as diversification toward nonfarm activities, to income inequality among Taiwan’s farm households. Results from the dynamic decomposition suggest that the first-wave adjustment of the OFPP enlarges farm household income inequality, the following two waves of adjustment, however, plays an equalizing role.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature by providing a methodological refinement promoting the view that it calls for the use of the dynamic (change) decomposition framework to investigate the inequality-enlarging or inequality-equalizing role each income determinant plays.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Book part

Yang Wang, Nora Lustig and Otavio Bartalotti

Between 1995 and 2012, the wage distribution of male workers in Brazil shifted to the right and became less dispersed. This paper attempts to identify the reasons for that…

Abstract

Between 1995 and 2012, the wage distribution of male workers in Brazil shifted to the right and became less dispersed. This paper attempts to identify the reasons for that movement in male wage distribution, focusing on the impact of education expansion on wage distribution. The Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) and Recentered Influence Function (RIF) decomposition results show that both changes in returns on skills and upgrades in the composition of work skills contribute to increases in the average wage and wages at the 10th and 50th percentiles. The shifts in returns to skills had a decreasing impact on wages at the 90th percentile and are identified as the primary force reducing wage inequality. Education expansion had an equalizing impact on wage distribution, primarily through the decline in return to education.

Details

Income Inequality Around the World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-943-5

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Book part

Zhen Wang

Purpose – The chapter studies gender occupational segregation of rural-urban migrant workers in China based on 2006 survey data from five Chinese cities.Methodology – The…

Abstract

Purpose – The chapter studies gender occupational segregation of rural-urban migrant workers in China based on 2006 survey data from five Chinese cities.

Methodology – The multinomial logit (MNL) model is used to analyze migrant workers' occupational attainment by gender. The OaxacaBlinder decomposition method is employed to analyze factors affecting gender occupational segregation, which can be classified into observed factors and unobserved factors, including gender discrimination.

Findings – The index of dissimilarity based on the data shows that gender occupational segregation for migrant workers exists. The result of OaxacaBlinder decomposition shows that the unobserved effects account for more than three-fourths of the total gender occupational segregation.

Research limitations – The “index problem” and the assumption of the same occupational preference between men and women of the OaxacaBlinder decomposition need to be addressed further.

Social implications – The existing gender equality policies and social protection confined to urban workers should be extended to migrant workers. Increasing training investment in migrant workers is also recommended.

Details

Social Production and Reproduction at the Interface of Public and Private Spheres
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-875-5

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Article

Julia Bredtmann and Sebastian Otten

– The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the gender wage differential of labor market entrants and the determinants of their starting wages.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the gender wage differential of labor market entrants and the determinants of their starting wages.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper makes use of a unique data set on graduates in economics from a large German university that contains detailed information on the graduates’ course of study, their additional qualifications and their transition from university to the labor market. Based on these data, Mincer-type earnings functions as well as wage decompositions as proposed by Blinder (1973) and Oaxaca (1973) are performed.

Findings

The paper finds a significant gender wage differential of 7 percent. Blinder-Oaxaca decompositions suggest that the major part of this gap remains unexplained by gender differences in observable characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

The main feature of our analysis – having a highly homogeneous sample of graduates from a single university – comes at the costs of reduced ability to draw generalized conclusions from our findings.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the determinants of entry wages for a homogeneous group of high-skilled workers using a unique data set of graduates in business and economics from a large German university. Concentrating on a highly homogeneous sample limits the problem of unobserved heterogeneity, which results in an overestimation of the unexplained component of standard decompositions analyses. Hence, the finding that a large part of the gender pay gap remains unexplained can be considered as an indicator for gender discrimination in the labor market for economics graduates.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Sten Anspal

The Ñopo (2008) method of non-parametric decomposition, a matching-based alternative to Oaxaca (1973) and Blinder’s (1973) method of wage gap decomposition, is subject to…

Abstract

Purpose

The Ñopo (2008) method of non-parametric decomposition, a matching-based alternative to Oaxaca (1973) and Blinder’s (1973) method of wage gap decomposition, is subject to the so-called “index number problem” common to the Oaxaca-Blinder and many related methods: its results are sensitive to the (arbitrary) choice of either male or female sex as the reference category in decomposition. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue by proposing an extension to the method that is invariant to the choice of reference category.

Design/methodology/approach

The Ñopo method is modified such that the wage structure of the average worker instead of either male or female worker’s is used as the reference, enabling one to distinguish the “male advantage” and “female advantage” portions of the gender wage gap. As an illustration, a decomposition of the gender wage gap is performed with the modified method, using data from 15 OECD countries.

Findings

The empirical results using the Ñopo decomposition indicate substantial differences in estimates of the unexplained gap depending on which sex is used as the reference category. Moreover, this disparity varies significantly with the choice of covariates used in the decomposition. This confirms there is significant cross-country variation in the asymmetry between male advantage and female disadvantage and that a decomposition method making this explicit would be relevant in real world settings.

Originality/value

The extension of the Ñopo method proposed in this paper offers a way of decomposing the wage gaps in a way that is not sensitive to the choice of the reference category.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 36 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Tatiana Kossova, Elena Kossova, Arina Sitnikova and Maria Sheluntcova

The paper investigates changes in consumption of pure alcohol, vodka, beer, wine and fortified wine by neighboring age classes of Russians.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper investigates changes in consumption of pure alcohol, vodka, beer, wine and fortified wine by neighboring age classes of Russians.

Design/methodology/approach

Data source is the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – HSE from 2000 to 2017. Age groups are those born in 1934 and older, in 1935–1944 and further with a 10-years interval till the group of 1985 and younger. The amount of consumed alcohol is estimated with Heckman model. LR-test is used to determine the similarity of alcohol consumption behavior of age groups. OaxacaBlinder decomposition presents the difference in the average level of alcohol consumption among two neighboring age classes with the explained and unexplained parts.

Findings

Male and female respondents from the group (1985+) drink significantly less absolute alcohol than the previous age class born in 1975–1984. OaxacaBlinder decomposition shows that an increase in absolute alcohol consumption for women and a decrease in absolute alcohol consumption for men come from the unexplained difference of consumption volumes. Policy measures should be targeted on the prevention of excessive alcohol consumption among Russian women since they demonstrate an increase in the consumption of vodka, beer and fortified wine from one generation to another.

Originality/value

For the first time, the paper presents decomposition of changes in alcohol consumption volumes for neighboring age groups of Russians. The change in consumption volumes might be due to the change of objective characteristics of individuals and unobservable factors like the influence of advertising, government policy and the entry of new alcohol producers into the market.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Content available
Article

Nhung Le Thi Kim and Huyen Le Thanh

This article studies the impact of micro and macro factors on firm performance in the context of an emerging economy just changed from a subsidized economy to a market economy.

Abstract

Purpose

This article studies the impact of micro and macro factors on firm performance in the context of an emerging economy just changed from a subsidized economy to a market economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors carried out an investigation into 30 listed food processing companies in Vietnam from 2014 to 2019. The data are analyzed by using STATA software. In this study, beside the regression analytical technique, the BlinderOaxaca decomposition analysis is used to study more deeply the effect of variables on financial performance of food processing companies, so its results are reliable base to give suggestions.

Findings

The results of empirical research help us to have some following conclusion. First, two variables consisting of total assets turnover ratio (ATR) and growth in sales significantly influence financial performance, when it is measured by return on equity (ROE) or return on sales (ROS). Second, leverage significantly negatively impacts return on sale. Third, there are difference in financial performance and the effect of predictors on dependent variable “ROS” between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non SOEs, and the causes come from the component effect.

Originality/value

In fact, although a range of previous researches on that topic have been carried out, none of them dig deeper reasons resulting to the differences in financial performance between SOEs and non SOEs, whereas Vietnamese economy has just changed to a market economy since 1986, making impacts of State ownership totally different from other countries. In this study, the authors use the t-test and analysis to have more accurate conclusions about that problem.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

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Article

Yousef Veisani, Shahab Rezaeian, Fathola Mohamadian and Ali Delpisheh

This paper aims to evaluate the socio-economic factors of inequalities in common mental disorders (MDs) between advantaged and disadvantaged groups and also to determine…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the socio-economic factors of inequalities in common mental disorders (MDs) between advantaged and disadvantaged groups and also to determine the main contributors of inequality.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016–2017. The authors included 763 persons by stratified cluster sampling; clusters were cities, geographical area and households. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to estimate of main inequalities determinant between advantaged and disadvantaged groups.

Findings

Overall prevalence of MDs was 22.6 and 35.6% in the advantage and disadvantaged groups, respectively. The concentration index was −0.013 [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): −0.022, −0.004]; therefore, MDs were more concentrated in the deprived group. The risk of MDs in deprived group and females was 81 and 60% higher than advantaged group (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.57) and males (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.24), respectively. Educational status [−0.06 (95% CI: −0.10, −0.01)] was the highest level of contribution in inequality in gaps between groups.

Originality/value

The socio-demographic inequality in MDs among adult population was more explained by lower educational level, married persons and unemployment variables.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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