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1 – 10 of over 23000
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

R. Jeziórska

To convert the post‐production polyethylene terephthalate (PET)‐containing fabrics waste into new value‐added polymeric materials using maleic anhydride grafted linear…

6894

Abstract

Purpose

To convert the post‐production polyethylene terephthalate (PET)‐containing fabrics waste into new value‐added polymeric materials using maleic anhydride grafted linear low‐density polyethylene (LLDPE‐g‐MAH) for improved toughness and to optimise the results of such a modification.

Design/methodology/approach

For effective toughening, various blends were made of polyamide 6 (PA) and post‐production PET‐containing fabrics waste (PET) by incorporating different concentrations of maleic anhydride grafted, linear low‐density polyethylene (LLDPE‐g‐MAH). The reactions of LLDPE‐g‐MAH with blend components were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, solubility behaviour of the products in formic acid and rheological measurements. Blends investigated were prepared in a co‐rotating twin‐screw extruder and characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The static tensile property and impact strength of the blends were also measured.

Findings

The modification of polyamide 6 and post‐production PET‐containing fabrics waste using LLDPE‐g‐MAH showed significant enhancement of impact and interfacial adhesion over the unmodified one. The modification caused a chemical linkage between LLDPE‐g‐MAH and blend components which led not only to forming PA‐co‐LLDPE‐g‐MAH‐co‐PET copolymers, but also to ensuring the intrinsically strong chemical bonds across LLDPE‐g‐MAH phase/PET phase/PA matrix interface, which was the main cause to the improved impact strength and interface adhesion. The optimum results were obtained at 10 per cent of LLDPE‐g‐MAH.

Research limitations/implications

The post‐production PET‐containing fabrics waste used in the present context was defibrated before processing.

Practical implications

The method developed provided a simple and practical solution to recycling and improving the toughness of post‐production PET‐containing fabrics waste.

Originality/value

The method of recycling post‐production PET‐containing fabrics waste was novel and the new polymeric materials obtained could find numerous applications such as hybrid films, fibres and engineering polymers.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2015

Mohammad Abdul Jalil, Rabindra Chandra Sinha, A.K.M. Mahabubuzzaman, Md. Milon Hossain and Mohammad Arafat Idris

A study is performed on the properties of jute-pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) blended yarn and 100% jute yarn. The jute-PALF blend ratios of two counts of yarn (5 and 7…

Abstract

A study is performed on the properties of jute-pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) blended yarn and 100% jute yarn. The jute-PALF blend ratios of two counts of yarn (5 and 7 lbs/spy) are 70:30 and 80:20 respectively. The physical properties of the blended yarns such as load at break, strain at break, tenacity at break, tensile modulus and quality ratio are tested and measured. It is observed from the test results that the physical properties of the blended yarns are better than those of the 100% jute yarn. The experimental results also show that the physical and structural properties of the blended yarn changes with the increase of PALF in the blend ratio. So the blending of PALF has a positive impact on yarn properties. Another study is done, in which it is found that surface appearance properties like color strength (K/S value) and whiteness, yellowness and brightness indices of the blended yarns are almost the same as those of the jute yarn due to the blending of jute-PALF. Therefore, the blending ratio does not cause any notable changes in the natural color of the jute yarn.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2022

Amir A. Abdelsalam, Salwa H. El-Sabbagh, Wael S. Mohamed and Mohsen A. Khozami

This study aims to investigate the swelling behavior, mechanical and thermal properties of ternary rubber blend composites prepared by melt blending based on carbon black…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the swelling behavior, mechanical and thermal properties of ternary rubber blend composites prepared by melt blending based on carbon black (CB)-filled natural rubber (NR)/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) blends, containing a variety of compatibilizers. Various compatibilizers, maleic acid anhydride (MAH), prepared emulsion and adhesion system (HRH) were used. A series of NR/SBR/NBR blends at a 30/30/40 blend ratio reinforced with 45 phr of CB were prepared using the master-batch method.

Design/methodology/approach

Thermal aging properties of the composites characterized by their aging coefficient and retention in tensile and elongation at break (E.B. %). Thermal degradation of ternary rubber blend composites based on melt blending has been studied using thermogravimetric analysis.

Findings

The swelling coefficient decreased with increased compatibilizer loading. Results also showed that the tensile strength and E.B. (%) decreased with aging over the entire aging period. Additionally, the addition of compatibilizers into the ternary rubber blend composite had slightly improved the thermal stability.

Research limitations/implications

Interactions between the different components of blends at the interfaces have a high impact on the interfacial properties of the rubber blend.

Practical implications

Compatibilizers significantly improve the properties of the resulting composites with the loading of investigated compatibilizers because of the uniform dispersion of CB in the rubber matrix.

Social implications

Using blends in the rubber industry led to the high-efficiency production of low-cost products.

Originality/value

The rubber blending has a significant positive effect on a wide range of applications such as structural applications, aerospace, military, packaging, tires and biomedical, so improving the compatibility of blends will make new materials suitable for new applications.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 14 April 2022

Norman Rudhumbu

The study applied the Unified Theory of Technology Acceptance and Use Theory 2 (UTAUT2) to predict blended learning acceptance by students in universities in Zimbabwe…

Abstract

Purpose

The study applied the Unified Theory of Technology Acceptance and Use Theory 2 (UTAUT2) to predict blended learning acceptance by students in universities in Zimbabwe. Blended learning is a heterogeneous mode of teaching and learning that combines face-to-face (F2F) and online modes. Owing to advances in technology, and recently, the advent of pandemics, such as COVID-19, the need for multimodal teaching approaches, such as blended learning, to enhance access to education in universities has become very important.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach that used a structured questionnaire for data collection from a sample of 432 postgraduate students was used. Data validation was done using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The structural equation modelling technique was used for data analysis.

Findings

Results showed that out of the seven factors of the UTAUT2, the factors such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, facilitating conditions and hedonic motivation significantly and positively influenced the behavioural intentions of students in universities to accept blended learning. On the other hand, habit and price value did not significantly influence university students' behavioural intentions to accept the bended learning mode. It was further shown in the study that behavioural intentions significantly influenced the acceptance of blended learning by university students. In light of the above results, it was concluded that the UTAUT2 could be used to predict the acceptance of blended learning by university students.

Research limitations/implications

The main study limitation was that it was only carried out at universities that had information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure challenges owing to the fact that the economic situation in Zimbabwe is depressed. Limited ICT infrastructure in the universities might have had some impact on the nature of behavioural intentions of students to accept blended learning as a learning mode. Further research could be carried out in countries with better economies that are able to fund ICT infrastructures of their universities and to establish whether the results of the current study could either be confirmed, disconfirmed or enriched.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that universities need to increase investment in ICT infrastructure as well as in capacitating students with the necessary ICT skills for the effective use of institutional ICT when learning using the blended learning mode. Without adequate and appropriate ICT infrastructure as well as necessary ICT skills, students may develop low motivation levels and negative attitudes towards blended learning, which may eventually may affect their acceptance of the learning mode.

Originality/value

There is no known study that has been conducted using the UTAUT2 to establish antecedents of behavioural intentions of students to accept blended learning in the context of Zimbabwean universities. This study therefore opens new ground on factors influencing the acceptance of blended learning in the context of Zimbabwean universities. Also, the results showed that habit and price value do not significantly contribute to the behavioural intentions of university students to accept blended learning, which is not consistent with findings of past studies. This inconsistency opens new opportunities for further studies on the conditions under which these two factors can be used to significantly contribute to the development of behavioural intentions of students to accept blended learning.

Details

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1858-3431

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 April 2022

Christoph Viebig

Current research lacks a clear definition of blended learning in entrepreneurship education (EE), a comprehensive overview of the recent research, and a conceptualization…

111

Abstract

Purpose

Current research lacks a clear definition of blended learning in entrepreneurship education (EE), a comprehensive overview of the recent research, and a conceptualization of different types of blends with their respective challenges and advantages. In response to that, the author systematically reviewed the literature on blended learning in EE and developed four archetypes of blends for entrepreneurship educators.

Design/methodology/approach

The author conducted a systematic literature review and identified 75 relevant peer-reviewed articles published between 2004 and 2021.

Findings

The findings suggest that blended learning is a common yet underexplored and undertheorized phenomenon in EE. The findings display the rationale and motives, educator characteristics, content, teaching methods, student characteristics, and results of blended learning in EE.

Originality/value

The paper is original because it posits blended learning as an independent and unique mode of delivery in EE. In addition, the author suggests four archetypes of blends in EE: the traditional blend, the for-action blend, the in-action blend, and the experiential blend. For each of these blends, the author identified specific advantages and challenges and discussed under which circumstances educators may employ them.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 March 2013

Katerina Bohle Carbonell, Amber Dailey-Hebert, Maike Gerken and Therese Grohnert

Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional format which emphasizes collaborative and contextual learning and hence has favored face-to-face course design. However…

Abstract

Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional format which emphasizes collaborative and contextual learning and hence has favored face-to-face course design. However, with the plentitude of online tools which technology offers nowadays, PBL courses can also be effectively offered to students who cannot physically be present at the campus. The change process from offline to hybrid, blended, or online PBL courses need to be carefully managed and the right combination of technology and learning activities selected from the ever increasing available set. Hybrid, blended, or online courses differ in the amount of integration between offline and online activities. A mixed-method design was used to elaborate on how the different (hybrid, blended, or online) PBL courses can be effectively build and taught to create learner engagement. Twelve people (change agent, instructor, and participants) were interviewed and 82 students filled out a course evaluation form. The data was used to describe how a hybrid, blended, or online course was created and how the instructor and students perceived it. Instructional and change management implications for implementation are presented. Instructional implications deal with the needs of the learner, the role of the instructor, and the importance of sound technology integration in the course. Change management implication highlights the need to foster intra-institutional collaboration.

Details

Increasing Student Engagement and Retention in e-learning Environments: Web 2.0 and Blended Learning Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-515-9

Book part
Publication date: 19 March 2013

Patrick Lynch, Mary T. Holden, Anthony Foley, Denis Harrington and Jennifer Hussey

While larger tourism enterprises benefit from a graduate management intake and continuing executive development, the owner of the small tourism operation is limited in…

Abstract

While larger tourism enterprises benefit from a graduate management intake and continuing executive development, the owner of the small tourism operation is limited in continuing education and professional development opportunities due to resource poverty, lack of appropriate and available tertiary tourism education. This chapter details the pedagogical and technological challenges faced by the education team at Waterford Institute of Technology (WIT) in developing and implementing an innovative blended learning degree, customised to meet the requirements of the entrepreneur for a sense of involvement, relevance and flexibility. Understanding how to harmonise blended learning with face-to-face PBL was the cornerstone of success in the design and implementation of the programme and the insights gained will provide guidelines to educators who are responsible for the development of relevant and accessible business degree programmes for owner/managers of micro/small business enterprises.

Details

Increasing Student Engagement and Retention in e-learning Environments: Web 2.0 and Blended Learning Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-515-9

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2022

Geetha Margret Soundri, Kavitha S. and Senthil Kumar B.

The essential properties of active sports fabrics are moisture management, quick-drying, body heat management and thermal regulations. Fibre type, blending nature, yarn…

Abstract

Purpose

The essential properties of active sports fabrics are moisture management, quick-drying, body heat management and thermal regulations. Fibre type, blending nature, yarn and fabric structure and the finishing treatment are the key parameters that influenced the performance of the clothing meant for sportswear. This study aims to investigate the effect of fibre blending and structural tightness factors on bi-layer sport fabric's dimensional, moisture management and thermal properties.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, 12 different bi-layer inter-lock fabrics were produced. Polyester filament (120 Denier) yarn was fed to form the backside of the fabric, and the face side was varied with cotton, modal, wool and soya spun yarns of 30sNe. Three different types of structural tightness factors were considered, such as low, medium and high were taken for sample development. The assessment towards dimensional, moisture management and thermal properties was carried out on all the samples.

Findings

The polyester-modal blend with a high tightness factor has shown maximum overall moisture management capability (OMMC) values of 0.73 and air permeability of 205.3 cm3/cm2/s. The same sample has shown comparatively higher thermal conductivity of 61.72 × 10–3 W m-1 °C-1(Under compression state) and 58.45 × 10–3 W m-1 °C-1 (under recovery state). In the case of surface roughness is concerned, polyester-modal blends have shown the lowest surface roughness, surface roughness amplitude and surface friction co-efficient. Among the selected fibre combinations, the overall comfort level of polyester-modal bi-layer knitted structure with a higher tightness factor is appreciable. Polyester-modal is more suitable for active sportswear among the four fiber blend combinations.

Research limitations/implications

The outcome of this study will help to gain a better understanding of fibre blends, structural tightness factor and other process specifications for the development of bi-layer fabric for active sportswear applications. The dynamic functional testing methods (Moisture management and Thermal properties) were carried out to simulate the actual wearing environment of the sports clothing. This study will create a new scope of research opportunities in the field of bi-layer sports textiles.

Originality/value

This study was conducted to explore the influence of fibre blend and structural tightness factor on the comfort level of sportswear and to find the suitable fibre blend for active sportswear clothing.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2022

Sarah Dodds, Rebekah Russell–Bennett, Tom Chen, Anna-Sophie Oertzen, Luis Salvador-Carulla and Yu-Chen Hung

The healthcare sector is experiencing a major paradigm shift toward a people-centered approach. The key issue with transitioning to a people-centered approach is a lack of…

Abstract

Purpose

The healthcare sector is experiencing a major paradigm shift toward a people-centered approach. The key issue with transitioning to a people-centered approach is a lack of understanding of the ever-increasing role of technology in blended human-technology healthcare interactions and the impacts on healthcare actors' well-being. The purpose of the paper is to identify the key mechanisms and influencing factors through which blended service realities affect engaged actors' well-being in a healthcare context.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper takes a human-centric perspective and a value co-creation lens and uses theory synthesis and adaptation to investigate blended human-technology service realities in healthcare services.

Findings

The authors conceptualize three blended human-technology service realities – human-dominant, balanced and technology-dominant – and identify two key mechanisms – shared control and emotional-social and cognitive complexity – and three influencing factors – meaningful human-technology experiences, agency and DART (dialogue, access, risk, transparency) – that affect the well-being outcome of engaged actors in these blended human-technology service realities.

Practical implications

Managerially, the framework provides a useful tool for the design and management of blended human-technology realities. The paper explains how healthcare services should pay attention to management and interventions of different services realities and their impact on engaged actors. Blended human-technology reality examples – telehealth, virtual reality (VR) and service robots in healthcare – are used to support and contextualize the study’s conceptual work. A future research agenda is provided.

Originality/value

This study contributes to service literature by developing a new conceptual framework that underpins the mechanisms and factors that influence the relationships between blended human-technology service realities and engaged actors' well-being.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Daniel F.O. Onah, Elaine L.L. Pang and Jane E. Sinclair

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an innovative educational technology, which has become widely used for distance learning by independent learners. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide an innovative educational technology, which has become widely used for distance learning by independent learners. However, there has been little work so far to study the effects of using MOOCs as part of a blended classroom approach in which learning activities take place both online and in a traditional classroom setting. The purpose of this study is to investigate the aspects of blended MOOC usage in the context of a computing course for first-year undergraduates at a UK university.

Design/methodology/approach

The MOOC was implemented on a purpose-built platform that supports learners to make informed choices about their learning path. This research investigates students’ capacity for self-regulated learning (SRL) and understands their preparedness for independent study, profile the general areas of SRL strength and weakness, which may affect their ability to learn effectively in a self-directed environment. An existing survey instrument, based on a six-dimensional conceptualization of SRL was adapted to investigate the self-regulation in the MOOC study.

Findings

The results demonstrate that the dimensions of self-evaluation and time management represent particular areas of weakness for these students. Furthermore, profiles of SRL for individual students show considerable differences in capability within the study. However, the deficiencies in SRL dimensions contrast with the students’ of generally high levels of attainment. This leads us to question the validity of the existing SRL. Furthermore, a high level of social interaction and help-seeking was reported in relation to the MOOC study indicating the increasing importance of social learning and the importance of co-regulation for SRL.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study presents findings from a small data sample, it points to a number of areas for future implementation and exploration. Firstly, in line with the action research approach, students’ SRL could, in the future, be tested early in the course with the MOOC component being ideally placed to provide personalised support for each student in aspects which they may benefit from developing further. Secondly, for students in the cohort studied in this paper, a longitudinal study will track how their SRL develops as they progress through the degree. We feel that it is important to gain further qualitative data to understand how students work in practice and the strategies they adopt when confronted with different modes of learning. Finally, it is necessary to consider the conceptualisation of SRL to understand if existing instruments could be adapted to provide a more accurate assessment of the effectiveness of learners’ self-regulation.

Originality/value

There has been little research on the effects of using a MOOC as the online component of a blended classroom learning approach. This study has used a theoretical perspective of SRL to investigate the approaches to self-regulation adopted by undergraduate computer science students studying in a blended MOOC environment. The MOOC used for this purpose was developed on the innovative eLDa platform, allowing students to determine, track and visualise their individual path through topics and materials offered in the MOOC.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 23000