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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Somrerk Chandra-ambhorn, Sermsak Srihirun and Thamrongsin Siripongsakul

The purpose of this study is to investigate the aesthetic blackening coating formed by a hydrothermal process, focusing on the formation of magnetite and the oxide…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the aesthetic blackening coating formed by a hydrothermal process, focusing on the formation of magnetite and the oxide adhesion for improving the corrosion resistance of the steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The aesthetic black coating was applied on AISI 4140 steel using a hydrothermal process with a non-toxic solution consisted of ferrous sulphate hydrate (FeSO4·7H2O), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O). Upon process parameters temperature and time, the morphology of the coatings and oxidation kinetics were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Furthermore, the samples with coatings were subjected to the adhesion test using a tensile testing machine equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.

Findings

From the formation parameters due to temperature and time for the conversion coatings, it was found that the oxidation kinetics had special characteristics which were in accordance with a linear rate law and Arrhenius relation. For the samples blackened, the XRD analysis results revealed that the magnetite was successfully formed on the surface of the steel. On the other hand, increasing the blackening temperature worsened the scale adhesion as observed by the lower strain provoking the first spallation and the higher sensitivity of the oxide to spall out with the imposed strain.

Originality/value

The effects of parameters of the formation of conversion coatings were investigated to understand the kinetics of the coatings. Furthermore, a tensile adhesion test using a CCD camera was applied to evaluate the adhesion between the native oxide formed by conversion coating.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2022

Yasmin Ibrahim

The burnt-out Grenfell tower is a symbol of trauma and sacrificed lives. The brutalist block as a technology of trauma, viewed through its mediated depictions, reveals its…

Abstract

The burnt-out Grenfell tower is a symbol of trauma and sacrificed lives. The brutalist block as a technology of trauma, viewed through its mediated depictions, reveals its condemned predicament between slippages in bureaucracy and governance. Through the formal enquiry into the disaster, the Grenfell victims' trauma is revived, replayed and contained within an archive in which victimhood is captured in a number of stages. The charred remains of the tower as a chronotrope of trauma and of lives cut short yields readings into the politics of social housing, gentrification and social displacement. The testimonials from Grenfell are temporally elongated both through the public review but also in the traces of victims' narratives left on social media in real time through flesh witnessing and as an online repository of death narratives. As a tower of trauma and as the forensic evidence of a disaster, Grenfell is part of the iconography of the ‘blackened’ and their necroaesthetics.

Details

Technologies of Trauma
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-135-8

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Aiqin Gao, Hongjuan Zhang and Kongliang Xie

– The purpose of this paper is to synthesise a tetrakisazo reactive dye and to characterise its dyeing property to meet the demand for better black reactive dyes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesise a tetrakisazo reactive dye and to characterise its dyeing property to meet the demand for better black reactive dyes.

Design/methodology/approach

The novel tetrakisazo navy-blue reactive dye based on 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid was designed and synthesized. The dyeing behaviour of it on cotton fabric was discussed. The synergistic blackening effect and absorbance spectra were investigated by absorbance and reflectance spectra, K/S and colorimetric data.

Findings

The exhaustion and fixation of the designed reactive dye were higher than 20 per cent than those of the commercial reactive dye, CI Reactive Black 5. The novel reactive dye has complementary with Reactive Red SPB and Reactive Yellow C-5R in absorbance spectra from 360 to 700 nm. Three reactive dyes had synergistic effect in colour deepening properties. The dyed cotton fabric possessed high K/S value and low reflectance in the whole visual spectrum range from 360 to 700 nm.

Practical implications

Comparison with the commercial Reactive Black DN-RN, the blackness of the dyed fabrics with the mixture dyes was greatly improved and the fastness properties on cotton fabrics were also good.

Originality/value

The paper is an original research work. Because the mixture dyes had better blackness and good fastness properties, it would have wide application in the dyeing of cotton fabric.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1972

This article describes an automatic installation at the Fabrique Nationale D'Armes de Guerre, Belgium

Abstract

This article describes an automatic installation at the Fabrique Nationale D'Armes de Guerre, Belgium

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Article
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Nigel Craig, Nick Pilcher, Alan M. Forster and Craig Kennedy

The spirits industry is a major economic contributor worldwide, often requiring years of maturation in barrels that is associated with significant release of ethanol into…

Abstract

Purpose

The spirits industry is a major economic contributor worldwide, often requiring years of maturation in barrels that is associated with significant release of ethanol into the surrounding environment. This provides carbon nutrition for colonisation of black fungal growths, one type being Baudoinia compniacensis, or Whisky Black. Although growth is localised in production areas, numerous sites exist globally, and this paper's purpose is to investigate the extent and implications of colonisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents and discusses the results of a visual survey of the area surrounding a site where whisky is maturing in nearby bonded warehouses. The evaluation considers radial zoning distance from the ethanol source and material substrate types and surface textures. Classical key stages of Building Pathology, namely manifestation, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy, are considered.

Findings

Key findings are that the colonisation of the fungus is non-uniform and dependent on the substrate building material. Additionally, rougher-textured building materials displayed heavier levels of fungal manifestation than smooth materials. Aspects such as distance, wind direction and moisture are considered relative to the extent and level of fungal growth.

Originality/value

This investigation provides the first assessment of the extent and nature of the fungal growth in properties built in surrounding areas to bonded warehouses. Such information can facilitate open dialogue between stakeholders that recognise the aspirations of values of corporate social responsibility, whilst balancing the economic importance of distilling with recognition of the fungus's impact on property values and appropriate recurring remedial treatments.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Black Metal, Trauma, Subjectivity and Sound: Screaming the Abyss
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-925-6

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1965

Calvin F. Long

PHOSPHATING is a process designed to provide steel surfaces with a scuff‐resistant coating, capable of rapid break‐in. A glance through a microscope will reveal that this…

Abstract

PHOSPHATING is a process designed to provide steel surfaces with a scuff‐resistant coating, capable of rapid break‐in. A glance through a microscope will reveal that this process is far more than a mere blackening of the surface.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 17 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Guohao Chen, Lingyun Li, Jian Ouyang, Zhuoyan Zhu, Feng Wang, Yuanyuan Wang, Junjie Xue and Jingmao Zhao

The aim of the present paper was to investigate the inhibition performance of the OF and/or IM on L360 steel in CO2/H2S environments. The pipeline steel surface usually…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present paper was to investigate the inhibition performance of the OF and/or IM on L360 steel in CO2/H2S environments. The pipeline steel surface usually has been pre-treated before using in the oil/gas field, such as by passivation, blackening, and phosphiding. The effectiveness of inhibition can vary because there are many differences between the metal matrix and the treated film.

Design/methodology/approach

Imidazoline (IM) was synthesized by using oleic acid and diethylenetriamine, and its composition was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The oxide film (OF) covering a sample of L360 steel was characterized using X-ray diffraction, and its surface morphology was observed using scanning electron microscope. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were conducted to study the inhibition performance of IM- and/or OF-covered L360 steel in the CO2/H2S environments.

Findings

The results show that IM and OF can prevent corrosion on L360 steel in CO2/H2S environments, and the synergistic inhibition effect of IM and OF was very evident. A possible model is proposed to explain the synergistic inhibition effect in the CO2/H2S environments of IM and OF on L360 steel.

Originality/value

Few reports have concerned the effect of the OF on the inhibitor’s performance, especially in CO2/H2S systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibition performance of the OF and/or IM on L360 steel in CO2/H2S environments. A model is proposed to explain the synergistic inhibition effect mechanism between IM and OF.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 62 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2022

Yasmin Ibrahim

Abstract

Details

Technologies of Trauma
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-135-8

Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2020

Abstract

Details

Black Metal, Trauma, Subjectivity and Sound: Screaming the Abyss
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-925-6

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