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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Pamela Felder Small

This chapter focuses on academic freedom in the experiences of Black/African American doctoral students and presents an examination of the American Association of…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on academic freedom in the experiences of Black/African American doctoral students and presents an examination of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) Joint Statement on Rights and Freedoms of Students (https://www.aaup.org/report/joint-statement-rights-and-freedoms-students) based on research and practice on the marginalized doctoral student experience. Discussion addresses AAUP policy Statements: Section I (freedom of access to higher education), Section II (freedom of expression in the classroom), and Section III (freedom of inquiry and expression). The purpose of this work is to increase awareness of issues serving as barriers to student rights and freedoms related to self-expression, cultural bias, and student activism at the doctoral level. Strategies that disrupt, minimize, and/or eradicate barriers to actively maintain and pursue student rights and freedoms will be addressed to emphasize their importance to supporting and/or hindering academic success, doctoral degree completion, and creating/sustaining pathways of transition into the career pathways.

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Faculty and Student Research in Practicing Academic Freedom
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-701-3

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Crystal R. Chambers

As the most racially diverse postsecondary sector, community college student populations are heavily Black and Brown. It is well settled that for every student credit hour…

Abstract

As the most racially diverse postsecondary sector, community college student populations are heavily Black and Brown. It is well settled that for every student credit hour earned, a financial reward is generated; however, it is not until individuals attain a baccalaureate degree that they tend to have the socioeconomic power to pull themselves and their families out from poverty. Looking specifically at mathematics achievement and self-efficacy, I examine differences among pathways by institutional level—two-year, four-year, other, or no postsecondary education—and find that there is a division in the mathematics achievement and self-efficacy of Black rural Americans (US) who attend four-year institutions as compared to all others. Thus, while policies advancing free community college may enhance the visibility and perceived affordability of community colleges for Black rural Americans (US), to reduce poverty there needs to be greater attention to the mathematics achievement and self-efficacy in K-12 education.

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

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African American Rural Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-870-3

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Andra D. Rivers Johnson

The role of implicit provider bias in mental health care is an important issue that continues to be of concern in the twenty-first century for the Black/African American

Abstract

The role of implicit provider bias in mental health care is an important issue that continues to be of concern in the twenty-first century for the Black/African American community. Access to mental health and quality care remains elusive as members of this social group lack access to mental health screening, diagnosis, and attention due to institutional and cultural barriers. Supporting the position that implicit and explicit provider bias exists in the mental health profession, this chapter will explore how implicit provider bias is an intractable institutional barrier that prevents Black/African Americans from accessing mental health and quality care. A review of the implications related to mental health outcomes with Black/African American clients will also be explored.

A brief overview of the Black/African American cultural responses to implicit provider bias will be discussed later in this chapter. There will be an exploration of the ways to help identify, address, and eliminate implicit provider bias using evidence-based personal and community engagement strategies that promote mental health wellness within the Black/African American community. Implications for best practices in Black/African American mental health will also be addressed to eradicate the risk of unethical or medical malpractice with Black/African American clients, reduce the mental health disparity experienced by Blacks/African Americans, and create mental health equity for this population.

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The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1990

Ernest Raiklin

The monograph argues that American racism has two colours (whiteand black), not one; and that each racism dresses itself not in oneclothing, but in four: (1) “Minimal”…

Abstract

The monograph argues that American racism has two colours (white and black), not one; and that each racism dresses itself not in one clothing, but in four: (1) “Minimal” negative, when one race considers another race inferior to itself in degree, but not in nature; (2) “Maximal” negative, when one race regards another as inherently inferior; (3) “Minimal” positive, when one race elevates another race to a superior status in degree, but not in nature; and (4) “Maximal” positive, when one race believes that the other race is genetically superior. The monograph maintains that the needs of capitalism created black slavery; that black slavery produced white racism as a justification for black slavery; and that black racism is a backlash of white racism. The monograph concludes that the abolition of black slavery and the civil rights movement destroyed the social and political ground for white and black racism, while the modern development of capitalism is demolishing their economic and intellectual ground.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 17 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Julius L. Davis

There is very little research of Black male mathematics teachers from African countries teaching in the USA, specifically, their preparation and teaching experiences. The…

Abstract

Purpose

There is very little research of Black male mathematics teachers from African countries teaching in the USA, specifically, their preparation and teaching experiences. The purpose of this study is to shed light on three Black male mathematics teachers from two African countries teacher preparation and teaching experiences in three African countries and the USA.teachers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a qualitative narrative research design to examine the teacher preparation and teaching experiences of Black African male mathematics teachers.

Findings

The results of this study reveal that the Black African male mathematics teachers participated in traditional and alternative teacher preparation programs that were unique to the African countries. The results also revealed that these teachers saw their teacher preparation program in the USA as preparing them to teach in this context. The results also revealed that all three of the teachers’ experienced success teaching struggling learners and English language learners mathematics in African countries and the USA.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to a small participant pool of three Black African mathematics teachers that cannot be generalized to other Black male teachers. There needs to be more research of Black male mathematics teachers, in general, and those from other countries, specifically. There also needs to be more research of Black male teachers’ teaching practices that are successful with Black students as well as English language learners.

Practical implications

Based on the study findings, policy-makers and stakeholders interested in recruiting and retaining Black male teachers and specifically, in mathematics needs to expand conceptualization and definitions to include those from other countries.

Originality/value

This results of this study add a valuable contribution to the research of Black male teachers, in general, and mathematics, in particular. It expands conceptualizations of who constitutes a Black male teachers in the USA.

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Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Martha Chinouya and Peter Aspinall

Black Africans’ in England are disproportionately and highly affected by the heterosexually contracted HIV epidemic. Policy and practice frameworks have advocated ethnic…

Abstract

Black Africans’ in England are disproportionately and highly affected by the heterosexually contracted HIV epidemic. Policy and practice frameworks have advocated ethnic matching in HIV prevention. We explore how self‐identifying ‘black African’ workers in London were co‐producers of ‘black African’ identities to target in preventative HIV interventions. Drawing on a focused literature review and 12 in‐depth interviews with workers, the paper identifies themes associated with co‐production of an African identify by workers. The historical inclusion of the category ‘black African’ in the 1991 census coincided with the emergence of Africans as at higher HIV ‘risk’. In co‐producing an African public, the workers projected their heterosexual and Christian affiliations on to the targeted population, perceiving themselves as ‘insiders’ knowledgeable about rumours that had historically co‐produced African identities. Fear of those in authority galvanised the formation of African‐led agencies, offering entry points for HIV prevention to Africans. By projecting aspects of their complex ‘selves’ on to the ‘other’, encounters in public spaces were deemed ‘opportunities’ for outreach interventions. The ethics of ‘cold calling’, confidentiality and informed consent were taken as ‘given’ in these socially produced ‘private’ spaces located in ‘public’ venues. In following HIV prevention frameworks as advocated by Pulle et al (2004), the workers endorsed yet problematised the notion of ethnic matching.

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International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Adrienne N. Erby and Dominique S. Hammonds

In 2017, racial minorities made up 18.6% of the population in Appalachia compared to 39.3% of the United States population. Of this 18.6%, Black/African Americans

Abstract

In 2017, racial minorities made up 18.6% of the population in Appalachia compared to 39.3% of the United States population. Of this 18.6%, Black/African Americans represent the largest minority group, at 9.7% (Pollard & Jacobs, 2019). This chapter focuses on the positionality and experiences of Black women educators teaching critical perspectives at the intersection of race, gender, and class in rural Appalachia. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986, 2000), a coautoethnography is used to highlight the authors' teaching experiences as Black women educators from non-Appalachian areas. Themes and recommendations identified across the authors' experiences are presented.

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African American Rural Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-870-3

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2017

Bryan K. Hotchkins

This chapter explores how participating in campus leadership at HBCUs positively affects African American college student experiences. A review of existing research about…

Abstract

This chapter explores how participating in campus leadership at HBCUs positively affects African American college student experiences. A review of existing research about the benefits of leadership involvement for African American students is followed by a discussion of student leadership at HBCUs. Next, motivations for being involved as leaders are discussed and described. The chapter concludes with recommendations for bolstering student motivations and involvement outcomes, as well as ways to increase African American student leadership at HBCUs. Specifically, this chapter is informed by empirical data gathered during in-depth focus groups with 13 African American student leaders (7 males, 6 women) who occupied leadership roles at their HBCU institutions. Two emergent themes are discussed: (1) playing the game, which spoke to the development of their leadership competencies; and (2) getting something out of it, which focused on building the leadership capital afforded to them as a result of their leadership. Recommendations for bolstering motivations and involvement outcomes for Black leader collegians are described in detail at the end of the chapter to provide insight about best practices of support for this student demographic.

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Black Colleges Across the Diaspora: Global Perspectives on Race and Stratification in Postsecondary Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-522-5

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

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The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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