Uncertainty is an under-respected issue when it comes to automatic assessment of human emotion by machines. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the existent approaches towards such measurement of uncertainty, and identify further research need.
The discussion is based on a literature review.
Technical solutions towards measurement of uncertainty in automatic emotion recognition (AER) exist but need to be extended to respect a range of so far underrepresented sources of uncertainty. These then need to be integrated into systems available to general users.
Not all sources of uncertainty in automatic emotion recognition (AER) including emotion representation and annotation can be touched upon in this communication.
AER systems shall be enhanced by more meaningful and complete information provision on the uncertainty underlying their estimates. Limitations of their applicability should be communicated to users.
Users of automatic emotion recognition technology will become aware of their limitations, potentially leading to a fairer usage in crucial application context.
There is no previous discussion including the technical view point on extended uncertainty measurement in automatic emotion recognition.
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.
Since the first Volume of this Bibliography there has been an explosion of literature in all the main areas of business. The researcher and librarian have to be able to…
Since the first Volume of this Bibliography there has been an explosion of literature in all the main areas of business. The researcher and librarian have to be able to uncover specific articles devoted to certain topics. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume III, in addition to the annotated list of articles as the two previous volumes, contains further features to help the reader. Each entry within has been indexed according to the Fifth Edition of the SCIMP/SCAMP Thesaurus and thus provides a full subject index to facilitate rapid information retrieval. Each article has its own unique number and this is used in both the subject and author index. The first Volume of the Bibliography covered seven journals published by MCB University Press. This Volume now indexes 25 journals, indicating the greater depth, coverage and expansion of the subject areas concerned.
– The purpose of this paper is to identify those factors that key actors in university governance hold as to be important in realizing strategic change within their institutions.
The purpose of this paper is to identify those factors that key actors in university governance hold as to be important in realizing strategic change within their institutions.
Key decision-makers in 26 European universities were surveyed on their views on which factors bring about strategic change. The results were interpreted using a theoretical framework emphasizing organizational archetypes and their development.
The findings indicated that strategic changes in universities were perceived as highly dependent on leadership, decision-making procedures, communication and evaluation. However, some differences between the universities in the sample can be identified, supporting indicating the relevance of using organizational archetypes as an analytical tools for observing change within the higher education sector.
The study links organizational level developments on strategic management to macro-level change within the European higher education landscape, and provides new insights intoon the debate on convergence and differentiation in organizational fields.