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This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the influence of polypropylene (PP) fibres on the thermal strain of high strength concrete (HSC) at…
This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the influence of polypropylene (PP) fibres on the thermal strain of high strength concrete (HSC) at temperatures up to 750°C. Concerning this topic only few results can be found in the literature and systematic investigations are missing. However, basic knowledge is necessary to understand the internal damage processes as well as for structural design.
To explain the differences in the thermal strain of HSC with and without addition of PP fibres the internal damage processes were investigated with acoustic emission (AE) analysis and ultrasound (US). Furthermore the weight loss was measured continuously during heating to monitor the drying of the specimen. This novel approach by combining these different methods with strain measurements at high temperatures allows the integral description of the internal damage processes. The results reveal significant differences in the thermal strain of HSC when PP fibres are added. Between 200°C and 250°C the thermal strain of HSC with PP fibres is superimposed by shrinkage caused by accelerated drying. Above 250°C it is lower than that of plain HSC without PP fibres. It is supposed that it is caused by a more homogeneous distribution of micro cracks whereby the fibre beds acting as defects in the concrete.
Hence this paper gives a contribution to the general understanding of the impact of PP fibres in HSC at high temperatures and points out the influence of the fibres on the thermal strain of HSC.
Work-related violence is a major occupational safety and health (OSH) issue. According to the concept of violence prevention climate, managers play a pivotal role in…
Work-related violence is a major occupational safety and health (OSH) issue. According to the concept of violence prevention climate, managers play a pivotal role in preventing the risk of violence at work. However, research on this is scarce. The objective of this study was, therefore, to examine line managers' use of violence preventive practices in high-risk sectors.
The authors employed three different sources of data (semi-structured interviews and field notes from both leadership seminars and coaching sessions) that were collected in the context of an intervention study in Denmark aimed at improving violence prevention. The authors conducted a thematic analysis of violence prevention experiences among 16 line managers – eight from the prison and probation services and eight from psychiatric hospitals.
Using an existing prevention framework, the authors categorized the descriptions into three types of violence preventive practices used by the line managers across the two sectors: “preventing violence”, “managing episodes of violence” and “promoting the positive”. Especially the category “promoting the positive” is often neglected in the intervention literature.
The study identified new aspects of managers' violence preventive practices than those included in the violence prevention climate concept. Such knowledge may help organizations devise improved systems for violence prevention in high-risk sectors.
The focus of this paper is on the effects of transformational/charismatic leadership and feedback on the occupational self‐efficacy (OCCSEFF) of male and female managers…
The focus of this paper is on the effects of transformational/charismatic leadership and feedback on the occupational self‐efficacy (OCCSEFF) of male and female managers. Given that transformational/charismatic leadership fits the female role better than other leadership styles, it seems likely that female leaders benefit from leading transformationally. However, the feedback they receive may not reflect their actual leadership behaviour and, thus, transformational leadership may not enhance female leaders’ self‐efficacy.
The results of three different studies are reported.
Results indicate that women prefer charismatic leadership and that charismatic leadership is rated more female than male. The feedback female and male leaders receive, however, does not differ. There is a moderating effect of gender on the relationship between individualized consideration and OCCSEFF but none on the relationship between feedback and OCCSEFF.
Sample sizes are in part relatively small.
Female leaders seem not to gain from leading transformationally. More feedback in that direction may help to overcome this problem.
This paper contributes to the discussion of female leadership. In contrast to other work, it highlights the consequences for women themselves.
Research has shown that employee commitment is an important factor in performance. Research into student commitment in the university context is less common and only few…
Research has shown that employee commitment is an important factor in performance. Research into student commitment in the university context is less common and only few studies explore the different components and foci of commitment. The purpose of this paper is to examine the meaning of students’ commitment in the university context.
Based on a survey of 530 students, the results confirmed that, similar to the work context, different components and foci of commitment exist.
Commitment to the university is primarily positively related to extra-role performance. Commitment to the study subject is positively related to both in-role and extra-role performance. Affective commitment to the university shows the strongest relationship with extra-role performance. However, there is a potential conflict between the two types of performance. The relationship between affective commitment to the university and extra-role performance decreases for students with a high intention to study efficiently as an indicator of in-role performance.
The paper concludes that universities should strive to improve their students’ commitment, especially affective commitment to encourage a balance of both in-role and extra-role performance.
This study looks into different foci and components of commitment and the potential for conflict for students between in-role and extra-role performance. The study has shown that commitment to the university and to the study subject likely enhances students’ in-role and extra-role performance; both of which are important to numerous stakeholders in the education context. As in other contexts, affective commitment has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of performance. This knowledge can help universities target their resources when trying to foster student commitment. However, because students might feel that extra-role performance is in conflict with in-role performance, universities might want to emphasize the benefits of both types of performance.