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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2015

Tony Kazda and Bob Caves

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Airport Design and Operation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-869-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Michael Howard, Peter Barrett and David Oldbury MIEH

Reviews the species and characteristics of bird pests, defined asbirds whose activities impinge significantly on buildings and theiroccupants; feral pigeons, starlings…

Abstract

Reviews the species and characteristics of bird pests, defined as birds whose activities impinge significantly on buildings and their occupants; feral pigeons, starlings, house sparrows, swallows and martins. Outlines damage caused, bird‐proofing design techniques, and bird deterrent and removal techniques. Concludes that long‐term solutions, based on an understanding of bird behaviour, are most likely to be successful.

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Structural Survey, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2015

Mohammad Shamsuddoha

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from…

Abstract

Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from unstructured supply chain practices, lack of awareness of the implications of the sustainability concept and failure to recycle poultry wastes. The current research thus attempts to develop an integrated supply chain model in the context of poultry industry in Bangladesh. The study considers both sustainability and supply chain issues in order to incorporate them in the poultry supply chain. By placing the forward and reverse supply chains in a single framework, existing problems can be resolved to gain economic, social and environmental benefits, which will be more sustainable than the present practices.

The theoretical underpinning of this research is ‘sustainability’ and the ‘supply chain processes’ in order to examine possible improvements in the poultry production process along with waste management. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and ‘design science’ methods with the support of system dynamics (SD) and the case study methods. Initially, a mental model is developed followed by the causal loop diagram based on in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observation techniques. The causal model helps to understand the linkages between the associated variables for each issue. Finally, the causal loop diagram is transformed into a stock and flow (quantitative) model, which is a prerequisite for SD-based simulation modelling. A decision support system (DSS) is then developed to analyse the complex decision-making process along the supply chains.

The findings reveal that integration of the supply chain can bring economic, social and environmental sustainability along with a structured production process. It is also observed that the poultry industry can apply the model outcomes in the real-life practices with minor adjustments. This present research has both theoretical and practical implications. The proposed model’s unique characteristics in mitigating the existing problems are supported by the sustainability and supply chain theories. As for practical implications, the poultry industry in Bangladesh can follow the proposed supply chain structure (as par the research model) and test various policies via simulation prior to its application. Positive outcomes of the simulation study may provide enough confidence to implement the desired changes within the industry and their supply chain networks.

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Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-707-3

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Book part
Publication date: 13 January 2010

Tony Kazda, Bob Caves and Milan Kamenický

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Airport Design and Operation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-054643-8

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Petros V. Perdikoulis, Ioannis K. Giannopoulos and Efstathios E. Theotokoglou

The purpose of this paper is to use numerical methods early in the airframe design process and access the structural performance of wing leading edge devices made of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use numerical methods early in the airframe design process and access the structural performance of wing leading edge devices made of different materials and design details, under bird strike events.

Design/methodology/approach

Explicit finite element analysis was used to numerically model bird strike events.

Findings

Structural performance charts related to materials and general design details were drawn to explore the design space dictated by the current applicable airworthiness requirements.

Practical implications

This paper makes use of the current capability in the numerical tools available for structural simulations and exposes the existing limitations in the terms of material modelling, material properties and fracture simulation using continuum damage mechanics. Such results will always be in the need of fine-tuning with experimental testing, yet the tools can shed some light very early in the design process in a relative inexpensive manner, especially for design details down selection like materials to use, structural thicknesses and even design arrangements.

Originality/value

Bird strike simulations have been successfully used on aircraft design, mainly at the manufactured articles design validation, testing and certification. This paper presents a hypothetical early design case study of leading edge devices for appropriate material and skin thickness down selection.

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2020

Bryan Raveen Nelson, Mazrul Aswady Mamat, Wong Cheeho and Salwa Shahimi

Birds are biological indicators for environment health in which their sightings and abundance could reflect a certain situation or become evaluation tool for co-existence…

Abstract

Purpose

Birds are biological indicators for environment health in which their sightings and abundance could reflect a certain situation or become evaluation tool for co-existence of another species. Here, the study aims to observe urban settlements with substantial forestation, may it be artificial or natural, and the occurrence of bird assemblage across time. Considering the foraging activity of birds hardcoded with sustainability, their spatial overlap resultant into service provision, which can mean, baseline occurrence or an expected encounter equates to support system for ecological vigour.

Design/methodology/approach

From this, birds could indicate external environment vulnerability related to climatic fluctuations, whereby documentation of their arrival across spatial-temporal regimes allowed us to understand their distribution between residential and forested areas.

Findings

Though urban birds are abundant and viewed less important for conservation, the existence of certain species such as long-tailed shrike and little green pigeon disclose the types of food they consume and, the other types of birds attracted to their prey. With regard, the sightings of these birds would mean an encounter with 20 or more other species at a bird watching occasion, though it is limited to the sightings of urban birds.

Originality/value

Subject to criteria for green space, attaining plenty of bird species provides understanding of food availability, the support services and opportunity for urban birds to thrive in midst the opportunity for resources such as food, perching grounds and sufficient numbers of counterparts to reproduce into healthy urban bird populations.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2020

Lijuan Shi, Zuoning Jia, Huize Sun, Mingshu Tian and Liquan Chen

This paper aims to study the affecting factors on bird nesting on electronic railway catenary lines and the impact of bird nesting events on railway operation.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the affecting factors on bird nesting on electronic railway catenary lines and the impact of bird nesting events on railway operation.

Design/methodology/approach

First, with one year’s bird nest events in the form of unstructured natural language collected from Shanghai Railway Bureau, the records were structured with the help of python software tool. Second, the method of root cause analysis (RCA) was used to identify all the possible influencing factors which are inclined to affect the probability of bird nesting. Third, the possible factors then were classified into two categories to meet subsequent analysis separately, category one was outside factors (i.e. geographic conditions related factors), the other was inside factors (i.e. railway related factors).

Findings

It was observed that factors of city population, geographic position affect nesting observably. Then it was demonstrated that both location and nesting on equipment part have no correlation with delay, while railway type had a significant but low correlation with delay.

Originality/value

This paper discloses the principle of impacts of nest events on railway operation.

Details

Smart and Resilient Transport, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-0487

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Hasim Kafali and Göksel Keskin

The purpose of this paper is to create a conceptual design a bird-inspired unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that can stay in the air for a long time while this design…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to create a conceptual design a bird-inspired unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that can stay in the air for a long time while this design influences the species near the airport with predator appearance. To achieve that goal, reverse engineering methods took into account to find out optimal parameter, and effective bird species were examined to be taken as an example.

Design/methodology/approach

Design parameters were determined according to the behaviour of bird species in the region and their natural enemies. Dalaman airport where is located near the fresh water supplies and sea, was chosen as the area to run. To keep such birds away from the airport and to prevent potential incidents, information from animal behaviour studies is enormously important. According to Tinbergen, chicken and gees reacted to all short-necked birds because they thought they were predators. The entire method is based on information from these data, along with reverse engineering principles.

Findings

UAV can remain in the air for more than 5 min when the engine stops at an altitude of 200 m. Also, when the UAV loses altitude of 100 m, it can cover a distance of about 2 m with the 19.8-glide ratio. Moreover, 380 KV brushless electric motor can provide 5.2 kg thrust force with 17 × 8-inch folding propeller which means 1.3 thrust to weight ratio (T/W). This engine and propeller combination work up to 12 min at maximum power with 7000 mAh lipo-battery. The UAV can climb more than 40 min at 0.2 T/W ratio.

Research limitations/implications

While bird-inspired UAV trials have just begun, general ornithopter studies have taken smaller birds as their source because this is the limit of the flapping wing, one of the largest birds modelled in this study. Thus, it is inevitable the UAV influences other birds in the area. In addition, this bird’s inherent flight behaviour, such as soaring, ridge lifting and gliding, will increase its credibility. Owing to size similarity with UAV systems, reverse engineering methods worked well in the design.

Practical implications

Some of the specialist try to fly trained falcon in airport as an alternative method. This study focussed on the design of a bird-inspired UAV by optimizing the glide performance, both for scare the other birds around the airport and for the observation of birds in the vicinity and for the identification of bird species.

Social implications

As this type of work has been proven to reduce the risk of bird strikes, the sense of flight safety on society will increase.

Originality/value

Researchers and companies generally work on flapping wing models for related subjects. However, these products are kind of model of the Falconiformes species which don’t have too much influence on big birds. For this reason, the authors took account of Imperial eagle’s specifications. These birds perform long soaring flights while seeking for prey like the glider design. So, the authors think it is a new approach for designing UAV for preventing bird-strike.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Huansheng Ning and Weishi Chen

Bird strike risk (BSR) evaluation is a significant part of the avian radar system worldwide installed and operated at airports. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

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Abstract

Purpose

Bird strike risk (BSR) evaluation is a significant part of the avian radar system worldwide installed and operated at airports. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposed a method using the real-time avian radar data to evaluate BSR with the estimations of bird strike probability and severity. The probability estimation model considered the attributes of the relative positions of the flock and the runway, the altitude of the flock and the aircraft, the flight path of the aircraft, and the ability of the bird species to avoid collision. The severity was estimated by the combination of the Delphi method and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), called DAHP, which took full advantage of the expert knowledge and quantitative calculation.

Findings

The model was tested successfully on the simulated data at Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA) with three runways and real data at Beihai Fucheng Airport (BFA) with one runway.

Practical implications

The BSR evaluation model was specifically designed for the airports with avian radars. It enabled the airport managers to objectively evaluate the risk in real time and to take effective measures.

Originality/value

The proposed BSR evaluation model was constructed with the real-time features of birds and aircraft based on the DAHP framework, providing scientific guidance for aviation safety and environmental management at the airport.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1982

Collisions between birds and aircraft are problems that have been with us since the early days of powered flight. The majority of such occurrences cause slight damage…

Abstract

Collisions between birds and aircraft are problems that have been with us since the early days of powered flight. The majority of such occurrences cause slight damage which does not affect airworthiness of the aircraft, but others have caused structural problems and loss of control with catastrophic results to the aircraft and occupants. The bird strike threat is significantly greater in military aviation since the normal operational environment is at a much lower altitude than in the civil sphere, and it is here that most birds are found.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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