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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

S. Khalil, J. Nam and W. Sun

To introduce recent research and development of biopolymer deposition for freeform fabrication of three‐dimensional tissue scaffolds that is capable of depositing…

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Abstract

Purpose

To introduce recent research and development of biopolymer deposition for freeform fabrication of three‐dimensional tissue scaffolds that is capable of depositing bioactive ingredients.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi‐nozzle biopolymer deposition system is developed, which is capable of extruding biopolymer solutions and living cells for freeform construction of 3D tissue scaffolds. The deposition process is biocompatible and occurs at room temperature and low pressures to reduce damage to cells. In contrast with other systems, this system is capable of, simultaneously with scaffold construction, depositing controlled amount of cells, growth factors, or other bioactive compounds with precise spatial position to form complex cell‐seeded tissue constructs. The examples shown are based on sodium alginate solutions and poly‐ε‐caprolactone (PCL). Studies of the biopolymer deposition feasibility, structural formability, and different material deposition through a multi‐nozzle heterogeneous system are conducted and presented.

Findings

Provides information about the biopolymer deposition using different nozzle systems, the relations of process parameters on deposition flow rate and scaffold structural formability. Three‐dimensional alginate‐based scaffolds and scaffold embedded with living cells can be freeform constructed according to various design configurations at room temperature without using toxic materials.

Research limitations/implications

Other biopolymers may also be studied for structure formation. Studying cell viability and cellular tissue engineering behavior of the scaffolds after the cell deposition should be further investigated.

Practical implications

A very useful and effective tool for construction of bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering applications based on a multi‐nozzle biopolymer deposition.

Originality/value

This paper describes a novel process and manufacturing system for fabrication of bioactive tissue scaffolds, automatic cell loading, and heterogeneous tissue constructs for emerging regenerative medicine.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Nitin Kumar, Preetinder Kaur and Surekha Bhatia

The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the readers with recent developments in biopolymer-based food packaging materials like natural biopolymers (such as starches and…

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1440

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the readers with recent developments in biopolymer-based food packaging materials like natural biopolymers (such as starches and proteins), synthetic biopolymers (such as poly lactic acid), biopolymer blending and nanocomposites grounded on natural and synthetic biopolymers. This paper is an attempt to draw the readers towards the advantages and attributes of new era polymers to diminish the usage of traditional non-biodegradable polymers.

Design/methodology/approach

Plastic packaging for food and associated applications is non-biodegradable and uses up valuable and treasured non-renewable petroleum products. With the current focus on researching alternatives to petroleum, research is progressively being channelized towards the development of biodegradable food packaging, thereby reducing adverse impact on the environment.

Findings

Natural biopolymer-based nanocomposite packaging materials seem to have a scintillating future for a broad range of applications in the food industry, including advanced active food packaging with biofunctional attributes. The present review summarizes the scientific information of various packaging materials along with their attributes, applications and the methods for production.

Originality/value

This is an apropos review as there has been a recent renewed concern in research studies, both in the industry and academe, for development of new generation biopolymer-based food packaging materials, with possible applications in many areas.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2020

Jayaprakash Reddy Joga and Varaprasad B.J.S.

Nowadays, application of biopolymers on geotechnical engineering works is booming to avoid the harsh effects on environment by using conventional methods for soil…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, application of biopolymers on geotechnical engineering works is booming to avoid the harsh effects on environment by using conventional methods for soil treatment. In this present study, xanthan gum (XG) is used as a biopolymer to improve dispersive properties of the soils because these soils are easily prone to erosion, which may lead to the damage of many hydraulic structures.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study, attempts are made to reduce the dispersive potential and increase the Strength and erosion resistance by treating the soils with various percentages of XG (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%). To assess the dispersive potential and erosion resistance of soils, tests such as double hydrometer test, pinhole erosion test, crumb test and cylinder dispersion test were conducted. Further tests were expanded for its geotechnical characteristics such as Atterberg’s limits, standard proctor test, unconfined compressive strength test, one-dimensional consolidation for various curing days. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was also carried out to know the microscopic view towards its particle orientation and bindings. Chemical tests such as sodium absorption ratio, total dissolved solids (TDS) and percentage sodium (PS), electronic conductivity and pH tests were also conducted.

Findings

The results revealed that there is a reduction in the dispersive potential of XG treated soils for all the combinations. Addition of XG decreased the PS in the soil as a result dispersivity of soil decreased. Strength and erosion resistance of soil increased with the addition of XG and 1% XG was observed to be the optimum percentage for stabilizing these types of soils.

Practical implications

These results will be very much helpful for engineers when they come across with dispersive soils for better handling and management.

Originality/value

The originality of this study was an attempt towards sustainable development by treating dispersive soils with XG and effects on various geotechnical and dispersive characterizes.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Arvind Soni, G Kandeepan, S. K. Mendiratta, Vivek Shukla and Ashish Kumar

The purpose of this paper was to develop an antimicrobial edible film coated with essential oils for packaging application with characterization of its physicochemical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to develop an antimicrobial edible film coated with essential oils for packaging application with characterization of its physicochemical properties. Livestock products especially meat products need special packaging system for protection. The most well-known packaging materials are polyethylene or co-polymer-based materials which have led to serious ecological problems due to their non-biodegradability and non-renewable nature. There has been a growing interest for edible films in recent years trying to reduce the amount of wastes, capable of protecting the food once the primary packaging is open, and because of public concerns about environmental protection. Various kinds of antimicrobial substances can also be incorporated into edible films to improve their functionality, as these substances could limit or prevent microbial growth on food surface.

Design/methodology/approach

Biopolymers such as carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose and their various combinations were tried to develop an edible film. The levels of antimicrobial substances such as oregano and thyme essential oils were standardized on the basis of their minimal inhibitory concentration against Escherichia coli, Salmonella pullorum, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Standardized edible film coated with standardized concentration of essential oil was examined for different physicochemical properties and compared with edible film without essential oil.

Findings

In total, 1.5 per cent (w/v) solution of carrageenan was found best suited biopolymer for edible film formation on the basis of thickness, transparency and elongation ability. Combined concentration of oregano (0.02 per cent) and thyme (0.03 per cent) essential oils were found to be best suited for coating the edible film as antimicrobial application.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may benefit from the present attempt in evaluating the potency of easily available agricultural by produces for preparation of economically viable edible film incorporated with various natural biopreservatives in combination for the enhancement of shelf life.

Originality/value

Antimicrobial packaging for enhancing the quality and shelf life of stored meat products offers great scope for further research in this field. Moreover, the literature pertaining to the application of edible films containing biopreservative for chicken meat products is very limited.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Wafika Noshy, Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan and Nada Mohammed

This study aims to restore the lost mechanical properties of the prints with carrageenan, methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (Tylose) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to restore the lost mechanical properties of the prints with carrageenan, methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (Tylose) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel).

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of these materials on the properties of the printed paper (modern and historical samples) has been evaluated under the influence of accelerated aging using pH measurement, the mechanical properties (tensile and elongation), FTIR and color changes.

Findings

The three consolidates reduced the acidity of treated samples significantly, but after ageing, it was observed that the pH of aged treated samples decreased slightly as compared to the untreated samples. The results of the mechanical properties showed the superiority of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel) in improving the tensile and elongation forces of the samples compared to carrageenan and methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose even during the accelerated aging. Consolidation materials succeeded in reducing ΔE of the paper samples under accelerated aging, especially carrageenan. The IR spectra confirmed that no dramatic difference was observed in topically function vibrations of samples after treatment beside that the O-H stretching band intensity increased observably after treatment with the three consolidates, after ageing the treatment, and it protected the treated paper from oxidation processes as the infrared spectrum analysis showed a decrease in intensities of carbonyl and carboxyl groups as compared to aged untreated samples.

Originality/value

The research provides new biopolymers in strengthening the historical printed paper, where printed papers lack studies related to their conservation. This makes the current study a promising step for treating historical printed paper.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2010

Florencia Edith Wiria, Kah Fai Leong and Chee Kai Chua

Tissue engineering (TE) involves biological, medical and engineering expertise and a current engineering challenge is to provide good TE scaffolds. These highly porous 3D…

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Abstract

Purpose

Tissue engineering (TE) involves biological, medical and engineering expertise and a current engineering challenge is to provide good TE scaffolds. These highly porous 3D scaffolds primarily serve as temporal holding devices for cells that facilitate structural and functional tissue unit formation of the newly transplanted cells. One method used successfully to produce scaffolds is that of rapid prototyping. Selective laser sintering (SLS) is one such versatile method that is able to process many types of polymeric materials and good stability of its products. The purpose of this paper is to present modeling of the heat transfer process, to understand the sintering phenomena that are experienced by powder particles in the SLS powder bed during the sintering process. With the understanding of sintering process obtained through the theoretical modeling, experimental process of biomaterials in SLS could be directed towards the appropriate sintering window, so as not to cause unintentional degradation to the biomaterials.

Design/methodology/approach

SLS uses a laser as a heat source to sinter parts. A theoretical study based on heat transfer phenomena during SLS process was carried out. The study identified the significant biomaterial and laser beam properties that were critical to the sintering result. The material properties were thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, surface reflectivity and absorption coefficient.

Findings

The influential laser beam properties were laser power and scan speed, which were machine parameters that can be controlled by users. The identification of the important parameters has ensured that favorable sintering conditions can be achieved.

Research limitations/implications

The selection of biopolymer influences the manner in which energy is absorbed by the powder bed during the SLS process. In this paper, the modeling and investigative work was validated by poly(vinyl alcohol) which is a biomaterial that has been used for many biomedical and pharmaceutical purposes.

Practical implications

The paper can be the foundation for extension to other types of biomaterials including biopolymers, bioceramics and biocomposites.

Originality/value

The formulation of the theory for heat transfer phenomena during the SLS process is of significant value to any studies in using SLS for biomedical applications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2008

Dragan JOCIC

The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the possibilities of obtaining “smart” surface modifying systems (SMSs) based on biopolymer chitosan hydrogels, and to…

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274

Abstract

The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the possibilities of obtaining “smart” surface modifying systems (SMSs) based on biopolymer chitosan hydrogels, and to discuss the possible problems of obtaining “smart” textile materials by attaching these surface modifying systems to regular textile materials. Due to the fact that chitosan based, pH-sensitive, temperature-sensitive and temperature/pH dual-sensitive hydrogels are of special interest in designing "smart" textile materials, current developments in the preparation of chitosan based hydrogels are reviewed.

However, since the main challenge of developing “smart” textile materials is confined to the techniques of successful attachment of the hydrogel layer to the textile substrate, strategies for successful attachment of “smart” hydrogels are presented. It is expected that this innovative strategy will enable creating of new enhanced textile materials, which not only contain fibres that maintain the advantageous and conventional properties but also advanced functionalities and/or environmental responsiveness implemented by modifying the very thin surface layer of the material.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2013

Jinlian Hu and Yong Zhu

The work represents an advance in understanding spider silks related to supercontraction which is clearly the water triggered shape recovery phenomenon. A structural model…

Abstract

The work represents an advance in understanding spider silks related to supercontraction which is clearly the water triggered shape recovery phenomenon. A structural model of spider silks is established, which can integrate a number of phenomena such as tunable mechanical properties, the origin, functions and ground state of supercontraction. The shape memory mechanism of protein fibers lays foundation for man-making and bio-mimicking spider silks using chemical approaches rather than genetic ones.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Amrita Poonia and Alok Mishra

This review discusses the concept of edible nanocoatings (ENCs), the biomaterials used in the coating matrices, techniques of coating development, applications, challenges…

Abstract

Purpose

This review discusses the concept of edible nanocoatings (ENCs), the biomaterials used in the coating matrices, techniques of coating development, applications, challenges and safety regulations associated with nanotechnology in food products. These ENCs are capable of imparting increased shelf life, improved appearance, better physiological qualities and bioactive potentials such as antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. ENCs can be developed using the layer-by-layer method which forms multiple alternative layers adhered together primarily by electrostatic interactions.

Design/methodology/approach

Various keywords such as edible coatings (ECs), safety aspects and nanocoatings were used to search the literature from Google Scholar, Research Gate, ScienceDirect, Springer Link, Taylor and Francis and PubMed. After searching enough literature, 113 articles and research papers were examined, which provides the updated overview of different aspects of edible nano-coatings.

Findings

Consumers today are very much aware of the food quality and its safety. They demand food products with longer shelf life, which are minimally processed with natural or no preservatives. ECs based on biopolymers is an alternative technique, which is biodegradable and can be consumed as such without posing any safety risks. The emergence of nanotechnology in food processing has provided new insights to develop ECs at the nanoscale with improved mechanical and barrier properties

Originality/value

ECs are beneficial to consumers and to the environment. ECs have generated significant attention over years as an alternative to fossil-based plastics, considering their renewable and biodegradable features

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2021

Camila Ianhes Martins de Araujo, Leticia Bicudo Bonato, Carolina Bragine Mangucci, Geoffroy Roger Pointer Malpass, Mônica Hitomi Okura and Ana Claudia Granato

The purpose of this study was to prepare alginate and chitosan-based edible coatings incorporating Schinus terebinthifolia and Piper nigrum essential oils. The prepared…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to prepare alginate and chitosan-based edible coatings incorporating Schinus terebinthifolia and Piper nigrum essential oils. The prepared films were applied on minimally processed pineapple to study the microbial inhibition of Gram + and Gram – bacteria and fungi and to evaluate the shelf life of the minimally processed fruit.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study alginate and chitosan-based edible coating were prepared and applied on minimally processed pineapple. The edible coatings were evaluated microscopically, by the power of reducing microbial contamination, by the shelf-life improvement.

Findings

This study demonstrates that the incorporation of the essential oils P. nigrum and S. terebinthifolia contributed to the inhibition of all the microorganisms studied and improved the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. This is especially true for P. nigrum in the chitosan-based edible coating, where the shelf life was improved by 45 days.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the pandemic, it was not possible to perform the sensory analyses of the antimicrobial alginate and chitosan-based edible coatings prepared.

Practical implications

From the results obtained, it is possible to state that the antimicrobial alginate and chitosan-based edible coatings incorporating S. terebinthifolia and P. nigrum essential oils can be used on minimally processed fruits and prolong their shelf life.

Social implications

Due to the lifestyle of modern consumers, who demand speed and practicality and the need to consume fruits for health and quality of life, minimally processed fruits covered with edible coatings incorporating natural antimicrobial additives can provide a practical solution.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that alginate and chitosan-based edible coatings that incorporate P. nigrum and S. terebinthifolia applied on minimally processed fruit, have been studied.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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