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1 – 10 of 31
Article
Publication date: 20 October 2014

He Xu, Yan Xu, Hu Fu, Yixian Xu, X.Z. Gao and Khalil Alipour

The purpose of this paper is to explore a novel control approach for swift and accurate positioning and tracking of a mobile robot. Coordinated movement of the mobile…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore a novel control approach for swift and accurate positioning and tracking of a mobile robot. Coordinated movement of the mobile robot-body and chameleon-inspired binocular “negative correlation” visual system (CIBNCVS) with neck has rarely been considered in conventional mobile robot design. However, it is vital in swift and accurate positioning and tracking of the target. Consequently, it is valuable to find an optimized method where the robot-body, the biomimetic eyes and neck could achieve optimal coordinated movement.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a wheeled mobile robot, a biomimetic dual Pan–Tilt–Zoom visual system with neck is constructed. The cameras can rely on the unique “negative correlation” mode of chameleon vision, and cooperate with neck, achieving swift search of the 160° scope in front of the robot. Genetic algorithm is used to obtain optimal rotation of the neck and robot-body. Variable resolution targeting is also applied for accurate aiming. Using these two approaches, we can achieve efficient targeting with low energy consumption. Particle filter algorithm is further utilized for real-time tracking.

Findings

In the proposed approach, swift and accurate positioning and tracking of the target can be obtained. The rationality of the approach is verified by experiments on flat and sandy terrains with satisfactory results.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a novel control approach for wheeled mobile robots, which achieves coordinated movement of the robot-body and CIBNCVS with neck concerning time and energy saving in the process of swift and accurate tracking.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Thomas Hesselberg

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent research on the interaction between flight mechanics and sensory/control systems in flies. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent research on the interaction between flight mechanics and sensory/control systems in flies. It furthermore, explores the application to biomimetic micro‐air vehicles (MAVs).

Design/methodology/approach

A review of recent literature on flight in flies is given first, whereafter two biomimetic case studies are discussed; the optic flow sensor developed by a French team and the micro‐mechanical flying insect project at the University of Berkeley.

Findings

The paper discusses the many areas where biological knowledge on flight in flies can be used by designers of MAVs.

Practical implications

Fully autonomous MAVs, inspired by insect flight, could be useful in a wide range of areas including search‐and‐rescue, surveillance and for military purposes.

Originality/value

The paper gives an up to date overview of dipteran flight behaviour and points to ways in which this knowledge can be applied to MAVs. The paper should thus be useful for biologists wishing to collaborate with engineers as well as for engineers and sensor designers seeking inspiration from nature.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Chunyan Yao, Dongdong Chen, Zhongli Zheng, Qiangsheng Wang and Kaijie Fu

The purpose of this study is to obtain an effective implant with porous structures on its surface, named porous-surfaced implant, which helps to improve the overall…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to obtain an effective implant with porous structures on its surface, named porous-surfaced implant, which helps to improve the overall stability of the implant and promote the combination of implant and alveolar bone.

Design/methodology/approach

Porous-surfaced implants with a porosity of 16%, 21%and 32% were designed and the effect of porosity on the strength of the implant was analyzed by ABAQUS software. Porous-surfaced implants with different porosity were printed by selective laser melting and the surface morphology was observed. Animal experiments of implants with porous structures and coating were carried out in healthy beagle dogs. The experimental group was treated with hydroxyapatite coating and the control group was not treated. Bone volume (BV) and total volume (TV) of the implant surface of the experimental group and control group were calculated by Skyscan CTvol software.

Findings

With the increase of porosity of porous-surfaced implants, the neck stress of the porous-surfaced implants increased and their strength decreased. In addition, in animal vivo experiments, the ratio value of BV to TV of the porous-surfaced implants was between 55.38% and 79.86%, which was the largest when the porosity of porous-surfaced implants was 16%. The internal and surrounding bone formation content of porous-surfaced implants with hydroxyapatite coating was higher than porous-surfaced implants without coating.

Originality/value

The results of this study show that the pores on the surface of implants can be filled with the new bone and porous-surfaced implants with 16% porosity provide better space for the growth of new bone. The porous structures with hydroxyapatite coating are beneficial to the growth of new bone around implants. The results of this study are helpful to improve the overall stability of implants and to promote the combination of implant and alveolar bone.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Hasim Kafali and Göksel Keskin

The purpose of this paper is to create a conceptual design a bird-inspired unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that can stay in the air for a long time while this design…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to create a conceptual design a bird-inspired unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that can stay in the air for a long time while this design influences the species near the airport with predator appearance. To achieve that goal, reverse engineering methods took into account to find out optimal parameter, and effective bird species were examined to be taken as an example.

Design/methodology/approach

Design parameters were determined according to the behaviour of bird species in the region and their natural enemies. Dalaman airport where is located near the fresh water supplies and sea, was chosen as the area to run. To keep such birds away from the airport and to prevent potential incidents, information from animal behaviour studies is enormously important. According to Tinbergen, chicken and gees reacted to all short-necked birds because they thought they were predators. The entire method is based on information from these data, along with reverse engineering principles.

Findings

UAV can remain in the air for more than 5 min when the engine stops at an altitude of 200 m. Also, when the UAV loses altitude of 100 m, it can cover a distance of about 2 m with the 19.8-glide ratio. Moreover, 380 KV brushless electric motor can provide 5.2 kg thrust force with 17 × 8-inch folding propeller which means 1.3 thrust to weight ratio (T/W). This engine and propeller combination work up to 12 min at maximum power with 7000 mAh lipo-battery. The UAV can climb more than 40 min at 0.2 T/W ratio.

Research limitations/implications

While bird-inspired UAV trials have just begun, general ornithopter studies have taken smaller birds as their source because this is the limit of the flapping wing, one of the largest birds modelled in this study. Thus, it is inevitable the UAV influences other birds in the area. In addition, this bird’s inherent flight behaviour, such as soaring, ridge lifting and gliding, will increase its credibility. Owing to size similarity with UAV systems, reverse engineering methods worked well in the design.

Practical implications

Some of the specialist try to fly trained falcon in airport as an alternative method. This study focussed on the design of a bird-inspired UAV by optimizing the glide performance, both for scare the other birds around the airport and for the observation of birds in the vicinity and for the identification of bird species.

Social implications

As this type of work has been proven to reduce the risk of bird strikes, the sense of flight safety on society will increase.

Originality/value

Researchers and companies generally work on flapping wing models for related subjects. However, these products are kind of model of the Falconiformes species which don’t have too much influence on big birds. For this reason, the authors took account of Imperial eagle’s specifications. These birds perform long soaring flights while seeking for prey like the glider design. So, the authors think it is a new approach for designing UAV for preventing bird-strike.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

3129

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Alida Mazzoli, C Ferretti, A Gigante, E Salvolini and M Mattioli-Belmonte

– The purpose of this study is to show how selective laser sintering (SLS) manufacturing of bioresorbable scaffolds is used for applications in bone tissue engineering.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to show how selective laser sintering (SLS) manufacturing of bioresorbable scaffolds is used for applications in bone tissue engineering.

Design/methodology/approach

Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were computationally designed and then fabricated via SLS for applications in bone and cartilage repair.

Findings

Preliminary biocompatibility data were acquired using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) assuring a satisfactory scaffold colonization by hMSCs.

Originality/value

A promising procedure for producing porous scaffolds for the repair of skeletal defects, in tissue engineering applications, was developed.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Yan Li, Dichen Li, Bingheng Lu, Dajing Gao and Jack Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of additive manufacturing (AM) used for tissue engineering (TE) scaffold. AM processes are identified as an…

1076

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of additive manufacturing (AM) used for tissue engineering (TE) scaffold. AM processes are identified as an effective method for fabricating geometrically complex objects directly from computer models or three-dimensional digital representations. The use of AM technologies in the field of TE has grown rapidly in the past 10 years.

Design/methodology/approach

The processes, materials, precision, applications of different AM technologies and their modified versions used for TE scaffold are presented. Additionally, future directions of AM used for TE scaffold are also discussed.

Findings

There are two principal routes for the fabrication of scaffolds by AM: direct and indirect routes. According to the working principle, the AM technologies used for TE scaffold can be generally classified into: laser-based; nozzle-based; and hybrid. Although a number of materials and fabrication techniques have been developed, each AM technique is a process based on the unique property of the raw materials applied. The fabrication of TE scaffolds faces a variety of challenges, such as expanding the range of materials, improving precision and adapting to complex scaffold structures.

Originality/value

This review presents the latest research regarding AM used for TE scaffold. The information available in this paper helps researchers, scholars and graduate students to get a quick overview on the recent research of AM used for TE scaffold and identify new research directions for AM in TE.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

M. Tarik Arafat, Ian Gibson and Xu Li

This paper aims to review the advances in additive manufactured (AM) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (TE). A discussion on the state of the art and future trends of…

1784

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the advances in additive manufactured (AM) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (TE). A discussion on the state of the art and future trends of bone TE scaffolds have been done in terms of design, material and different AM technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

Different structural features and materials used for bone TE scaffolds are evaluated along with the discussion on the potential and limitations of different AM scaffolds. The latest research to improve the biocompatibility of the AM scaffolds is also discussed.

Findings

The discussion gives a clear understanding on the recent research trend in bone TE AM scaffolds.

Originality/value

The information available here would be useful for the researchers working on AM scaffolds to get a quick overview on the recent research trends and/or future direction to work on AM bone TE scaffolds.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

William A. Lewinger and Roger D. Quinn

Biological systems such as insects have often been used as a source of inspiration when developing walking robots. Insects' ability to nimbly navigate uneven terrain, and…

Abstract

Purpose

Biological systems such as insects have often been used as a source of inspiration when developing walking robots. Insects' ability to nimbly navigate uneven terrain, and their observed behavioral complexity have been a beacon for engineers who have used behavioral data and hypothesized control systems to develop some remarkably agile robots. The purpose of this paper is to show how it is possible to implement models of relatively recent discoveries of the stick insect's local control system (its thoracic ganglia) for hexapod robot controllers.

Design/methodology/approach

Walking control based on a model of the stick insect's thoracic ganglia, and not just observed insect behavior, has now been implemented in a complete hexapod able to walk, perform goal‐seeking behavior, and obstacle surmounting behavior, such as searching and elevator reflexes. Descending modulation of leg controllers is also incorporated via a head module that modifies leg controller parameters to accomplish turning in a role similar to the insect's brain and subesophageal ganglion.

Findings

While many of these features have been previously demonstrated in robotic subsystems, such as single‐ and two‐legged test platforms, this is the first time that the neurobiological methods of control have been implemented in a complete, autonomous walking hexapod.

Originality/value

The methods introduced here have minimal computation complexity and can be implemented on small robots with low‐capability microcontrollers. This paper discusses the implementation of the biologically grounded insect control methods and descending modulation of those methods, and demonstrates the performance of the robot for navigating obstacles and performing phototaxis.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Cijun Shuai, Jingyu Zhuang, Shuping Peng and Xuejun Wen

The paper aims to fabricate an α-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffold with an interconnected porous structure via selective laser sintering (SLS). To inhibit the phase…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to fabricate an α-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffold with an interconnected porous structure via selective laser sintering (SLS). To inhibit the phase transformation from β- to α-TCP in fabrication process of porous scaffolds, a small amount (1 weight per cent) of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is added into β-TCP powder to introduce the transient liquid phase.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for the transient liquid phase of melting PLLA to decrease the sintering temperature in SLS. Meanwhile, the densification of β-TCP is enhanced with a combined effect of the capillary force caused by melting PLLA and the surface energy of β-TCP particles. Moreover, the PLLA will gradually decompose and completely disappear with laser irradiation.

Findings

The testing results show the addition of PLLA enables the scaffolds to achieve a higher β-TCP content of 77 ± 1.49 weight per cent compared with the scaffold sintered from β-TCP powder (60 ± 1.65 weight per cent), when the laser energy density is 0.4 J/mm2. The paper provides the mechanism of PLLA inhibition on the phase transformation from β- to α-TCP. And the optimum sintering parameters are obtained based on experimental results, which are used to prepare a TCP scaffold with an interconnected porous structure via SLS.

Research limitations/implications

This paper shows that the laser energy density is an important sintering parameter that can provide the means to control the micro-porous structure of the scaffold. If the laser energy density is too low, the densification is not enough. On the other hand, if the laser energy density is too high, the microcracks are observed which are attributed to the volume expansion during the phase transformation from β- to α-TCP. Therefore, the laser energy density must be optimized.

Originality/value

The paper provides a feasible method for fabricating TCP artificial bone scaffold with good biological and mechanical properties.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

1 – 10 of 31