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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

Pedro Lafargue, Michael Rogerson, Glenn C. Parry and Joel Allainguillaume

This paper examines the potential of “biomarkers” to provide immutable identification for food products (chocolate), providing traceability and visibility in the supply…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the potential of “biomarkers” to provide immutable identification for food products (chocolate), providing traceability and visibility in the supply chain from retail product back to farm.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses qualitative data collection, including fieldwork at cocoa farms and chocolate manufacturers in Ecuador and the Netherlands and semi-structured interviews with industry professionals to identify challenges and create a supply chain map from cocoa plant to retailer, validated by area experts. A library of biomarkers is created using DNA collected from fieldwork and the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre, holders of cocoa varieties from known locations around the world. Matching sample biomarkers with those in the library enables identification of origins of cocoa used in a product, even when it comes from multiple different sources and has been processed.

Findings

Supply chain mapping and interviews identify areas of the cocoa supply chain that lack the visibility required for management to guarantee sustainability and quality. A decoupling point, where smaller farms/traders’ goods are combined to create larger economic units, obscures product origins and limits visibility. These factors underpin a potential boundary condition to institutional theory in the industry’s fatalism to environmental and human abuses in the face of rising institutional pressures. Biomarkers reliably identify product origin, including specific farms and (fermentation) processing locations, providing visibility and facilitating control and trust when purchasing cocoa.

Research limitations/implications

The biomarker “meta-barcoding” of cocoa beans used in chocolate manufacturing accurately identifies the farm, production facility or cooperative, where a cocoa product came from. A controlled data set of biomarkers of registered locations is required for audit to link chocolate products to origin.

Practical implications

Where biomarkers can be produced from organic products, they offer a method for closing visibility gaps, enabling responsible sourcing. Labels (QR codes, barcodes, etc.) can be swapped and products tampered with, but biological markers reduce reliance on physical tags, diminishing the potential for fraud. Biomarkers identify product composition, pinpointing specific farm(s) of origin for cocoa in chocolate, allowing targeted audits of suppliers and identifying if cocoa of unknown origin is present. Labour and environmental abuses exist in many supply chains and enabling upstream visibility may help firms address these challenges.

Social implications

By describing a method for firms in cocoa supply chains to scientifically track their cocoa back to the farm level, the research shows that organizations can conduct social audits for child labour and environmental abuses at specific farms proven to be in their supply chains. This provides a method for delivering supply chain visibility (SCV) for firms serious about tackling such problems.

Originality/value

This paper provides one of the very first examples of biomarkers for agricultural SCV. An in-depth study of stakeholders from the cocoa and chocolate industry elucidates problematic areas in cocoa supply chains. Biomarkers provide a unique biological product identifier. Biomarkers can support efforts to address environmental and social sustainability issues such as child labour, modern slavery and deforestation by providing visibility into previously hidden areas of the supply chain.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Mehmet Tolga Taner, Bulent Sezen and Kamal Atwat

This paper aims to compare two diagnostic performance measures, i.e. signal‐to‐noise ratio (S/N ratio) and partial area under receiver operating characteristic curves…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare two diagnostic performance measures, i.e. signal‐to‐noise ratio (S/N ratio) and partial area under receiver operating characteristic curves (pAUC). It proposes the use of S/N ratio rather than pAUC for establishing optimal cut‐off point for diagnostic biomarkers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses the properties, uses, advantages and shortcomings of the two performance measures, namely the partial area under receiver operating characteristic curve (pAUC) and Taguchi's signal‐to‐noise (S/N) ratio. The benefits of S/N ratio have been illustrated in a sample of four biomarkers, each having five cut‐off points. The S/N ratio is compared to the pAUC index. The SAS software is employed to calculate pAUC and AUC.

Findings

This paper shows that S/N ratio can be used as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. The cut‐off point with the highest S/N ratio is the optimal cut‐off point for the biomarker. The proposed method has the advantages of being easier, more practical and less costly than that of pAUC.

Practical implications

This paper includes implications for the development of a more practical, equally powerful and less costly means of measuring clinical accuracy thereby reducing the costs and risks resulting from wrong selection of cut‐off point can be decreased.

Originality/value

This paper supports suggestions in the recent literature to replace pAUC with a new, more meaningful index.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Ted Stephenson, Caio Carvalho Ellero, Daniel Sebastia-Saez, Oleksiy Klymenko, Angela Maria Battley and Harvey Arellano-Garcia

Live non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers is of great importance for the medical community. Moreover, some studies suggest that there is a substantial business gap in the…

176

Abstract

Purpose

Live non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers is of great importance for the medical community. Moreover, some studies suggest that there is a substantial business gap in the development of mass-production commercial sweat-analysing wearables with great revenue potential. The objective of this work is to quantify the concentration of biomarkers that reaches the area of the garment where a sensor is positioned to advance the development of commercial sweat-analysing garments.

Design/methodology/approach

Computational analysis of the microfluidic transport of biomarkers within eccrine sweat glands provides a powerful way to explore the potential for quantitative measurements of biomarkers that can be related to the health and/or the physical activity parameters of an individual. The numerical modelling of sweat glands and the interaction of sweat with a textile layer remain however rather unexplored. This work presents a simulation of the production of sweat in the eccrine gland, reabsorption from the dermal duct into the surrounding skin and diffusion within an overlying garment.

Findings

The model represents satisfactorily the relationship between the biomarker concentration and the flow rate of sweat. The biomarker distribution across an overlying garment has also been calculated and subsequently compared to the minimum amount detectable by a sensor previously reported in the literature. The model can thus be utilized to check whether or not a given sensor can detect the minimum biomarker concentration threshold accumulated on a particular type of garment.

Originality/value

The present work presents to the best of our knowledge, the earliest numerical models of the sweat gland carried out so far. The model describes the flow of human sweat along the sweat duct and on to an overlying piece of garment. The model considers complex phenomena, such as reabsorption of sweat into the skin layers surrounding the duct, and the structure of the fibres composing the garment. Biomarker concentration maps are obtained to check whether sensors can detect the threshold concentration that triggers an electric signal. This model finds application in the development of smart textiles.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2022

Anjali Takke and Pravin Shende

The purpose of this study was to design a paper strip-based non-invasive urine analysis system for the qualitative detection of biomarker aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in renal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to design a paper strip-based non-invasive urine analysis system for the qualitative detection of biomarker aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in renal cancer (RC). RC accounts for 3% of all cancers and 85% of all kidney tumors and mainly originates from the kidney cortex. In recent times, higher urine concentration of AQP1 in patients with RC was confirmed as a specific biomarker of the disease. Hence, the noninvasive, user-friendly and self-diagnostic method is required for the detection of aquaporin biomarkers in RC.

Design/methodology/approach

The present research work was focused on the development and characterization of a dye conjugated cyclodextrin-based miniaturized system for impregnation on Whatman filter paper to identify RC using AQP1 biomarker present in urine samples.

Findings

It was observed that the test strip dipped into the urine sample, and the yellow color intensity increased with a decrease in AQP1 concentration due to the transformation of the dye system of free basic form into bound acidic form. The Hue-Saturation-Value profiling was used to observe the effect of color change using a smartphone application. The paper strip-based urine analysis system is highly sensitive for the detection of AQP1 in the range of 10 to 1,000 ng.

Originality/value

The successful validation indicated that this biosensor is likely to contribute to the development of point-of-care, novel, personalized diagnostics and ensure prolonged survival of RC patients in the near future.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Article
Publication date: 10 September 2017

Mark Scott Rosenbaum, Germán Contreras Ramírez, Karen Edwards, Jiyeon Kim, Jeffery M. Campbell and Marianne C. Bickle

This paper aims to offer insights into the impact of digitization technology on consumer goods manufacturers and retail organizations. The authors propose that the “next…

1683

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer insights into the impact of digitization technology on consumer goods manufacturers and retail organizations. The authors propose that the “next phase” of digitization will entail the employment of digitization technology to offer consumers personalized product offerings and recommendations based on their internal biomarkers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on past investigations into digitization and their retailing experience to speculate on how the next phase of digitization will affect both consumer goods manufacturers and retailers.

Findings

The next phase of digitization will entail the use of nutrigenomics (DNA sequencing), exhaled breath analysis, fitness tracker devices, sensory patches, radio frequency identification tags and quantum ID tags to create customized and recommend products, and support product-to-customer communication regarding authenticity.

Research limitations/implications

Consumers will increasingly rely on technology to inform them of their bodily needs and to receive personalized solutions to help satisfy those needs. Consumer behavior theories must be reconsidered because consumers will become more passive participants in retail consumption as they rely on technology for need-recognition and product-fulfillment.

Social implications

Digitization technologies that use consumers’ biomarkers for new product creation or product recommendation raise new risks and uncertainty. For example, the legal implications of an incorrect product recommendation based on customer biomarkers are unknown. Furthermore, retailers would need to maintain data privacy of biomarker data and be responsible for data breaches.

Originality/value

The research explores how digitization will affect consumers’ in-store experiences with consumer goods products.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2022

Yaser Khajebishak, Sadra Madani, Amir Hossein Faghfouri, Ali Soleimani, Sara Ilaei, Said Peyrovi and Laleh Payahoo

Meteorin like-peptide (Metrnl) modulates energy hemostasis and relieves inflammation and oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate the relationship between Metrnl…

Abstract

Purpose

Meteorin like-peptide (Metrnl) modulates energy hemostasis and relieves inflammation and oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate the relationship between Metrnl levels and inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers and body composition parameters in obese type 2 diabetic patients.

Design/methodology/approach

This analytical cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2020 and March 2021on 93 people (n = 32 obese type 2 diabetic patients, n = 31 healthy obese, n = 30 healthy normal weight). Serum Metrnl levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity were measured using standard methods. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. p-Value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Findings

Serum Metrnl levels were lower in obese diabetic patients than in healthy normal-weight subjects (82.5 [72.4–94.5] ng/mL compared to 154 [129–189] ng/mL). The difference in Metrnl levels between the two groups was significant (p < 0.001). The difference in Metrnl levels between the two groups was significant. Moreover, a significant correlation between Metrnl level and both TNF-a and hs-CRP was detected (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001, respectively) and the correlation between Metrnl and IL-6 was borderline (p = 0.051). A negative correlation was revealed between Metrnl level and anthropometric measurements and body composition (p < 0.05) with the exception of fat-free mass and skeletal muscle mass.

Originality/value

To discover sufficient evidence for the therapeutic function of Metrnl and its use as a prognostic biomarker in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, future clinical studies are needed to highlight other factors influencing Metrnl serum levels.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Heeju Sohn

To evaluate the extent to which a person’s educational attainment moderates the relationship between his or her objective markers of health and self-rated health (SRH).

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the extent to which a person’s educational attainment moderates the relationship between his or her objective markers of health and self-rated health (SRH).

Methodology/approach

I use 10 years’ worth of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2009; N = 30,823) to examine how diagnosed medical conditions, health behaviors, and biomarkers are differentially associated with SRH by educational attainment. I use regression analysis to evaluate these relationships.

Findings

Results show that while medical conditions are negatively associated with SRH equally across education levels, behaviors and biomarkers have stronger association with SRH among individuals with greater education. Those with more education are more likely to have had their blood pressure and cholesterol checked in recent months. They are also more likely to correctly identify themselves as overweight when their body mass index exceeds 25.

Research implications

The chapter’s findings indicate that education may play a role in how people interpret and evaluate their own health. Real differences in how people evaluate their health can impact the conclusions that researchers can draw when comparing SRH between education groups. In addition these results can motivate further research in the causes of health disparities. Self-evaluation of health can potentially influence how people monitor and manage their health. Differences in self-evaluation between levels of educational attainment could contribute to disparities in health and mortality.

Originality/value

This chapter examines the relationship between self-rated health, objective markers of health, and education in a novel framework.

Details

Education, Social Factors, and Health Beliefs in Health and Health Care Services
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-367-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Zunpeng Yu and Long Lu

Gliomas are common intracranial tumors with the characteristic of diffuse and invasive growth. The prognosis is poor, and the recurrence rate and mortality are higher…

Abstract

Purpose

Gliomas are common intracranial tumors with the characteristic of diffuse and invasive growth. The prognosis is poor, and the recurrence rate and mortality are higher. With the development of big data technology, many methods such as natural language processing, computer vision and image processing have been deeply applied in the medical field. This can help clinicians to provide personalized and precise diagnosis and therapeutic schedule for patients with different type of gliomas to achieve the best therapeutic effect. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and extract useful information from published research results by conducting a secondary analysis of the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) literature database were used to retrieve published Chinese and English research papers about human gliomas. Comprehensive analysis was applied to conduct this research. The factors affecting survival and prognosis were screened and analyzed respectively in this paper, and different methods for multidimensional data of patients were discussed.

Findings

This paper identified biomarkers and therapeutic modalities associated with prognosis for different grade of gliomas. This paper investigated the relationship among these clinical prognostic factors and different histopathologic tying and grade of gliomas by comprehensive analysis. This paper summarizes the research progress of biomarker in medical imaging and genomics of gliomas to improve prognosis and the current status of treatment in China.

Originality/value

Combined with multimodal data such as genomics data, medical image data and clinical information data, this paper comprehensively analyzed the prognostic factors of glioma and provided guidance and evidence for rational treatment planning and improvement of clinical treatment prognosis.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2022

Roger D. Masters

Research at the intersection of neurotoxicology, cognitive neuroscience, genetics, and behavior – “toxicogenomics” – promises to improve understanding of behavior and…

Abstract

Research at the intersection of neurotoxicology, cognitive neuroscience, genetics, and behavior – “toxicogenomics” – promises to improve understanding of behavior and public policies. Many toxicants modify neurotransmitters with effects depending on genotype, development, and experience. For example, lead and manganese downregulate dopaminergic or serotonergic function, weaken behavioral inhibition, and are positively correlated with hyperactivity (ADHD), substance abuse, or violent crime. Within this context, the chapter argues that neurotoxicology holds great promise for improving public policies in areas such as criminal justice and education. After discussing research methods, the chapter surveys previous work in neurotoxicology as it pertains to educational outcomes and to crime. Data are summarized linking: (1) children's blood lead levels with poor educational performance; (2) hair and blood levels of heavy metals with violent crime; and (3) uptake of multiple toxicants with pollution from abandoned mines. The chapter concludes by drawing lessons for ongoing research agendas at the intersection of neurotoxins, behavior, and policy.

Details

Biopolitics at 50 Years
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-108-2

Keywords

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