Search results

1 – 10 of 66
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

Stanislaw Szmigielski

About 50 epidemiological reports about possible associations between cancer morbidity and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) were published between 1979 and 1994…

Abstract

About 50 epidemiological reports about possible associations between cancer morbidity and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) were published between 1979 and 1994. The majority of them (60‐75 per cent) documented a slight (1.5 to twofold) but significant increase in the incidence of certain rare forms of neoplasms (leukaemia, lymphoma, brain tumours). A limited support for carcinogenic potencies of EMFs is provided from cellular studies, but the effects appear to be generally weak, transient and difficult to replicate. Concludes that the available evidence associating cancer and EMF exposure is too tenuous to be convincing but too consistent to be ignored. Further progress needs better quantification of exposure levels and conditions, evaluation of dose‐effect relationships and liability to confounding carcinogenic factors that may influence morbidity rates in the investigated populations.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2019

Barrie Gunter

Abstract

Details

Children and Mobile Phones: Adoption, Use, Impact, and Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-036-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

Roger Coghill

In the last 100 years mankind has, for the first time in evolution,incorporated artificial electromagnetic fields and radiations into thebuilt environment. Thirty years…

Abstract

In the last 100 years mankind has, for the first time in evolution, incorporated artificial electromagnetic fields and radiations into the built environment. Thirty years passed after the discovery of X‐rays before any exposure limits were imposed on these “ionizing” radiations, and the exposure limits have steadily fallen ever since, as early researchers found out to their cost just how dangerous these unseen energies are. Now scientists are asking whether chronic exposure to the non‐ionizing electromagnetic fields ubiquitous in homes, offices and factories, and which also emanate from powerlines, TV and radio masts and radar, are also likely to cause ill health. Sets out the present position in the fierce debate over claimed ill health effects from weak environmental electromagnetic fields, assesses the evidence, and gives practical advice for the structural engineer or surveyor. This is a subject to which professional bodies must give serious consideration within the near future, on the basis of this and other independent advice.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Luca G. Campana, Paolo Di Barba, Fabrizio Dughiero, Michele Forzan, Maria Evelina Mognaschi, Rudy Rizzo and Elisabetta Sieni

In electrochemotherapy, flexible electrodes, composed by an array of needles, are applied to human tissues to treat large surface tumors. The positioning of the needles in…

Abstract

Purpose

In electrochemotherapy, flexible electrodes, composed by an array of needles, are applied to human tissues to treat large surface tumors. The positioning of the needles in the tissue depends on the surface curvature. The parallel needle case is preferred, as their relative inclinations strongly affect the actual distribution of electric field. Nevertheless, in some case, small inclinations are unavoidable. The purpose of this paper is to study the electric field distribution for non-parallel needles.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of electrode position is evaluated systematically by means of numerical models and experiments on phantoms for two different angles (5° and 30°) and compared with the case of parallel needles. Potato model was used as phantom, as this tissue becomes dark after few hours from electroporation. The electroporation degree was gauged from the color changings on the potatoes.

Findings

The distribution of electric field in different needle configuration is found by means of finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments on potatoes. The electric field level of inclined needles was compared with parallel needle case. In particular, the electric field distribution in the case of inclined needles could be very different with respect to the one in the case of parallel needles. The degree of enhancement for different inclinations is visualized by potato color intensity. The FEA suggested that the needle parallelism has to be maintained as possible as if the tips are closer to each other, the electric field intensity could be different with respect to the one in the case of parallel needles.

Originality/value

This paper analyzes the effect of inclined electrodes considering also the non-linearity of tissues.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

H. Brauer, M. Ziolkowski and J. Haueisen

We applied minimum norm estimations using different regularization techniques to the solution of the biomagnetic inverse field problem. Using magnetic field data measured…

Abstract

We applied minimum norm estimations using different regularization techniques to the solution of the biomagnetic inverse field problem. Using magnetic field data measured with a multi‐channel‐SQUID‐sensor‐system we computed reconstruction of the impressed current density distributions which were generated by extended current sources placed inside a human torso phantom. The common inverse techniques usually applied in modern biomedical investigations in bioelectricity or biomagnetism are compared, and their aptitude for reconstruction of 3D current sources in space was evaluated. We analyzed the impact of using magnetic data, electrical data, and combination of both respectively on the localization of an equivalent current dipole (ECD). Finally, we use a visualization tool which enables a comparison of current density reconstruction. The study is, in parts, related to the new TEAM problem No. 31.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Andrzej Krawczyk, Sl§awomir Wiak and Tomasz Zyss

Deals with the problems of interactions between the electromagnetic field and the human brain. In particular, the problem of eddy currents in brain tissue induced for…

Abstract

Deals with the problems of interactions between the electromagnetic field and the human brain. In particular, the problem of eddy currents in brain tissue induced for medical purposes is discussed. The mathematical modelling of the phenomenon is presented.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Antonino Laudani, Salvatore Coco and Francesco Riganti Fulginei

The paper aims to illustrate the two kinds of analysis approach for which finite element method (FEM) can be successfully employed: the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to illustrate the two kinds of analysis approach for which finite element method (FEM) can be successfully employed: the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model and the Langevin-Lorentz-Poisson (LLP) one.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach of this work is to try making a survey of the use of the FEM in the modelling of charge transport/ion flow across membrane channels, in particular for the PNP analysis and for a particle based model such as LLP model.

Findings

In this paper, the two kinds of analysis approach for which FEM can be successfully employed, the PNP model and the LLP one, have been shown. In both cases the FEM is extremely useful to carry out these analysis and the simulation results obtained are in good agreement with experimental results.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is to demonstrate the FEM is extremely useful to carry out analysis and results which are in good agreement with experimental ones.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Hartmut Brauer, Marek Ziolkowski, Uwe Tenner, Jens Haueisen and Hannes Nowak

Applies four different minimum norm estimations with common regularization techniques, often used in biomedical applications to the solution of the biomagnetic inverse…

Abstract

Applies four different minimum norm estimations with common regularization techniques, often used in biomedical applications to the solution of the biomagnetic inverse field problem. Magnetic field data measured with a multi‐channel biomagnetometer sensor system in a magnetically shielded room were used to reconstruct the current density distributions generated by an extended current source which was placed inside a human torso phantom. No one of the tested methods is able to estimate the extension of the source. To improve the results as much as possible a priori information of the source space should be taken into account.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Paolo Di Barba, Fabrizio Dughiero, Michele Forzan and Elisabetta Sieni

This paper aims to present the optimal design of an inductor used to heat a magnetic nanoparticle fluid injected in a cell culture inside a Petri dish.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the optimal design of an inductor used to heat a magnetic nanoparticle fluid injected in a cell culture inside a Petri dish.

Design/methodology/approach

The inductor design is driven by means of a multi-objective optimization algorithm that generalizes the migration-non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA); it is called self-adapting migration-NSGA.

Findings

The optimized device is able to synthesize a uniform magnetic field in a nanoparticle fluid, substantially helping its heating capability. The ultimate scope is to assist the cancer therapy based on magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH).

Originality/value

The optimal design of an inductor for MFH applications has been carried out by applying an improved version of migration-based NSGA-II algorithm including automatic stop and a self-adapting concept. The modified optimization algorithm is suitable to find better optimal solutions with respect to a standard version of NSGA-II.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 July 2018

Elisabetta Sieni, Paolo Di Barba, Fabrizio Dughiero and Michele Forzan

The purpose of this paper is to present a modified version of the non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm with an application in the design optimization of a power inductor…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a modified version of the non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm with an application in the design optimization of a power inductor for magneto-fluid hyperthermia (MFH).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed evolutionary algorithm is a modified version of migration-non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms (M-NSGA) that now includes the self-adaption of migration events- non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms (SA-M-NSGA). Moreover, a criterion based on the evolution of the approximated Pareto front has been activated for the automatic stop of the computation. Numerical experiments have been based on both an analytical benchmark and a real-life case study; the latter, which deals with the design of a class of power inductors for tests of MFH, is characterized by finite element analysis of the magnetic field.

Findings

The SA-M-NSGA substantially varies the genetic heritage of the population during the optimization process and allows for a faster convergence.

Originality/value

The proposed SA-M-NSGA is able to find a wider Pareto front with a computational effort comparable to a standard NSGA-II implementation.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

1 – 10 of 66