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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Vadym Mozgovoy

The authors aim to develop a conceptual framework for longitudinal estimation of stress-related states in the wild (IW), based on the machine learning (ML) algorithms that…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to develop a conceptual framework for longitudinal estimation of stress-related states in the wild (IW), based on the machine learning (ML) algorithms that use physiological and non-physiological bio-sensor data.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a conceptual framework for longitudinal estimation of stress-related states consisting of four blocks: (1) identification; (2) validation; (3) measurement and (4) visualization. The authors implement each step of the proposed conceptual framework, using the example of Gaussian mixture model (GMM) and K-means algorithm. These ML algorithms are trained on the data of 18 workers from the public administration sector who wore biometric devices for about two months.

Findings

The authors confirm the convergent validity of a proposed conceptual framework IW. Empirical data analysis suggests that two-cluster models achieve five-fold cross-validation accuracy exceeding 70% in identifying stress. Coefficient of accuracy decreases for three-cluster models achieving around 45%. The authors conclude that identification models may serve to derive longitudinal stress-related measures.

Research limitations/implications

Proposed conceptual framework may guide researchers in creating validated stress-related indicators. At the same time, physiological sensing of stress through identification models is limited because of subject-specific reactions to stressors.

Practical implications

Longitudinal indicators on stress allow estimation of long-term impact coming from external environment on stress-related states. Such stress-related indicators can become an integral part of mobile/web/computer applications supporting stress management programs.

Social implications

Timely identification of excessive stress may improve individual well-being and prevent development stress-related diseases.

Originality/value

The study develops a novel conceptual framework for longitudinal estimation of stress-related states using physiological and non-physiological bio-sensor data, given that scientific knowledge on validated longitudinal indicators of stress is in emergent state.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Anindya Bose and Sarthak Sengupta

A bio-sensor has been developed in this study for the purpose of point-of-care diagnostics. Point-of-care-diagnostic is a type of diagnosis where the diagnostic centre…

Abstract

Purpose

A bio-sensor has been developed in this study for the purpose of point-of-care diagnostics. Point-of-care-diagnostic is a type of diagnosis where the diagnostic centre, i.e. the diagnosis kit is made available at the location of the patient when the patient needs immediate action. In this process of diagnosis a compact, portable, integrated kit must be available which can diagnose the disease of the patient by testing various analytes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a fully experimental methodology, a blood glucose sensor is made by conducting carbon interdigitated electrode (IDE) on a flexible substrate. IDEs are used to increase the effective capacitance of the structure, as well as the effective electroactive area of the sensor. Interdigitated structure permits two-electrode sticks with “each other” and “infuse” together. As a consequence, the distance between electrodes can be tuned to a much smaller value than traditional thin-film architectures. Narrowing the distance between electrodes allows for fast ion diffusion that offers better rate capability and efficiency in power density. The fabricated device exhibits a remarkable value of sensitivity in the order of 2.741 µA mM-1 cm−2.

Findings

A highly sensitive, portable and inexpensive blood glucose sensor has been developed in this context.

Originality/value

This research study can be a scope for future research in the field of bio-sensors.

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Yijun Teh, Asral Bahari Jambek and Uda Hashim

This paper aims to discuss a nanoscale biosensor and its signal analysis algorithms.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss a nanoscale biosensor and its signal analysis algorithms.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, five nanoscale biosensors are reviewed, namely, silicon nanowire field-effect-transistor biosensors, polysilicon nanogap capacitive biosensors, nanotube amperometric biosensors, gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors and quantum dot-based electrochemical biosensors.

Findings

Each biosensor produces a different output signal depending on its electrical characteristics. Five signal analysers are studied, with most of the existing signal analyser analyses based on the amplitude of the signal. Based on the analysis, auto-threshold peak detection is proposed for further work.

Originality/value

Suitability of the signal processing algorithm to be applied to nano-biosensors was reported.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

Kumar Neeraj, Mohammed Mahaboob Basha and Srinivasulu Gundala

Smart ubiquitous sensors have been deployed in wireless body area networks to improve digital health-care services. As the requirement for computing power has drastically…

Abstract

Purpose

Smart ubiquitous sensors have been deployed in wireless body area networks to improve digital health-care services. As the requirement for computing power has drastically increased in recent years, the design of low power static RAM-based ubiquitous sensors is highly required for wireless body area networks. However, SRAM cells are increasingly susceptible to soft errors due to short supply voltage. The main purpose of this paper is to design a low power SRAM- based ubiquitous sensor for healthcare applications.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, bias temperature instabilities are identified as significant issues in SRAM design. A level shifter circuit is proposed to get rid of soft errors and bias temperature instability problems.

Findings

Bias Temperature Instabilities are focused on in recent SRAM design for minimizing degradation. When compared to the existing SRAM design, the proposed FinFET-based SRAM obtains better results in terms of latency, power and static noise margin. Body area networks in biomedical applications demand low power ubiquitous sensors to improve battery life. The proposed low power SRAM-based ubiquitous sensors are found to be suitable for portable health-care devices.

Originality/value

In wireless body area networks, the design of low power SRAM-based ubiquitous sensors are highly essential. This design is power efficient and it overcomes the effect of bias temperature instability.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2009

Gino Rinaldi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy, Ion Stiharu and Nezih Mrad

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the simplicity and versatility of micro‐cantilever based sensors and to present the influence of added mass and stress on the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the simplicity and versatility of micro‐cantilever based sensors and to present the influence of added mass and stress on the frequency response of the sensor in order to determine the most suitable sensing domain for a given application.

Design/methodology/approach

The frequency response of micro‐cantilevers depends not only on the applied mass and surface stress, but also on the mass position. An interpretation of the theoretical frequency results of the 1st and 2nd natural frequencies, for added mass, identifies a nodal point for the 2nd natural frequency which demonstrates mass invariance. Hence, at this nodal point, the frequency response remains constant regardless of mass and may be used for identifying purely induced surface stress influences on the micro‐cantilever's dynamic response. The Rayleigh‐Ritz energy method is used for the theoretical analysis. Theoretical results are compared with experimental results.

Findings

A graph of the 2nd natural frequency of micro‐cantilevers with added mass demonstrates the variability of the frequency with mass position on the micro‐cantilever. Of particular interest is the nodal point at which mass independence is revealed. This nodal point may be exploited to investigate purely stress‐related influences on the dynamic characteristics of micro‐cantilever sensors, thereby eliminating such effects as reactant evaporation from the micro‐cantilever sensor surface. In this regard, the nodal point of the 2nd natural frequency response is used to decouple mass‐stress influences.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the micro‐scale size of the micro‐cantilevers, it may not be possible to apply mass or stress directly at the nodal point and to concentrate its influence there. Hence, a certain amount of influence due to mass‐stress coupling may remain in the frequency responses observed.

Practical implications

Silicon micro‐cantilevers can be easily shaped and sensitized to a variety of influences. These qualities are highly regarded for sensor applications. The work presented herein, contributes to the optimization of micro‐cantilever sensors' dynamic response as a function of mass and surface stress influences. The main criterion for choosing one or the other is based on the time for the surface reaction to take place between the sensing material and the target material. The results presented contribute to the performance optimization of micro‐cantilever based medical and bio‐sensors.

Originality/value

Surface stress effects are generally of much smaller magnitude than mass influences; hence, through an investigation of the stress effects at the nodal point of the 2nd natural frequency it is possible to eliminate the mass influence completely. At this position mass and stress influences are decoupled and the sensor response can be uniquely quantified as a function of the applied stress. This is important for bio‐medical and health monitoring applications in which changes to the applied mass or surface stress on a micro‐cantilever sensor, may be readily observed through changes to the natural frequency response of the micro‐cantilever.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

Valerie M. Owen

Biosensors have been described as a synergistic combination of biochemistry and microelectronics.

Abstract

Biosensors have been described as a synergistic combination of biochemistry and microelectronics.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

Rosemary Albinson

Rosemary Albinson, a staff scientist with Cambridge Consultants Ltd, discusses how biosensors are best developed and commercially exploited.

Abstract

Rosemary Albinson, a staff scientist with Cambridge Consultants Ltd, discusses how biosensors are best developed and commercially exploited.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Mehdi Habibi, Maryam Fanaei and Giti Emtiazi

The purpose of this study is to construct imaging pixels using novel bioactive films. Despite the notable progress in electronic imaging devices, these sensors still…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to construct imaging pixels using novel bioactive films. Despite the notable progress in electronic imaging devices, these sensors still cannot compete with biological vision counterparts such as the human eye. Light sensitive biolayers and pigments in living organisms show superior performance in terms of low noise operation and speed. Although photoactive biolayers have been used to construct electronic imaging devices, they are usually hard to develop, and the organisms that produce these active layers have low growth rates.

Design/methodology/approach

Among 40 pigment producing prokaryotic marine bacteria, four strains which show faster growth rates in the presence of light are screened and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and visible absorption. Subsequently, they are used as active layers in light sensitive sensors. The performance of the obtained cells is eventually evaluated by time domain photoresponse measurements.

Findings

It is shown that while the obtained strains have high growth rates and their mass volume reproduction is relatively simple, they provide many interesting characteristics such as high speed and low noise operation when incorporated as photosensitive layers.

Originality/value

Because the mass reproduction of the obtained cultures is simple, they are an appropriate choice for use in planner and flexible document imaging devices and DNA microarray sensors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Jerome C. Glenn and Theodore J. Gordon

This article reports on an international assessment to identify and discuss environmental issues that may affect the US Army’s transformation efforts. Many factors, such…

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1322

Abstract

This article reports on an international assessment to identify and discuss environmental issues that may affect the US Army’s transformation efforts. Many factors, such as new kinds of weapons, increasing demands on natural resources, urbanization and globalization, are making the planning of environmental viability for life support more important in the future. The article highlights eight environmental security developments and potential military requirements to address them.

Details

Foresight, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

A. Vivek, K. Shambavi and Zachariah C. Alex

This paper aims to focus on research work related to metamaterial-based sensors for material characterization that have been developed for past ten years. A decade of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on research work related to metamaterial-based sensors for material characterization that have been developed for past ten years. A decade of research on metamaterial for sensing application has led to the advancement of compact and improved sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, relevant research papers on metamaterial sensors for material characterization published in reputed journals during the period 2007-2018 were reviewed, particularly focusing on shape, size and nature of materials characterized. Each sensor with its design and performance parameters have been summarized and discussed here.

Findings

As metamaterial structures are excited by electromagnetic wave interaction, sensing application throughout electromagnetic spectrum is possible. Recent advancement in fabrication techniques and improvement in metamaterial structures have led to the development of compact, label free and reversible sensors with high sensitivity.

Originality/value

The paper provides useful information on the development of metamaterial sensors for material characterization.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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