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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Josephine Pui-Hing Wong, Alan Tai-Wai Li, Maurice Kwong-Lai Poon and Kenneth Po-Lun Fung

Canadian HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers and policy-makers are faced with new challenges of providing effective and inclusive care that meets the needs of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Canadian HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers and policy-makers are faced with new challenges of providing effective and inclusive care that meets the needs of the changing populations infected with and affected by HIV. Since 2005 immigrants and refugees from ethno-racial minority communities have comprised close to 20 percent of all new HIV infections in Canada. Anecdotes shared by PLWHAs and service providers indicated that mental health challenges faced by newcomer PLWHAs was a priority concern for HIV prevention, treatment and care. This paper reports on the results of an exploratory study, which examined the complex factors that influence the mental health of immigrants and refugees living with HIV/AIDS (IR-PLWHAs).

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study is informed by a critical social science paradigm, which acknowledges that the everyday reality is shaped by interlocking systems of social processes and unequal power relations. The paper used a qualitative interpretative design and focus groups to explore the intersecting effects of living with HIV/AIDS, migration and settlement, and HIV stigma and discrimination on the mental health of IR-PLWHAs.

Findings

The paper found that in addition to social and economic marginalization, IR-PLWHAs experienced multiple stressors associated with their HIV status: neurocognitive and physical impairments, HIV stigma and discrimination, and fear of deportation. The paper also found that the experiences of stigma and discrimination among IR-PLWHAs were complex and contextual, closely linked to their social positions defined by the intersecting dimensions of race, class, gender, citizenship, sexualities, body norms, and HIV status. The paper concludes that effective HIV prevention, treatment and care, and mental health promotion in newcomer and ethno-racial minority communities must consider the bio-psycho-social connections of different stressors and the interlocking systems of oppression faced by IR-PLWHAs.

Research limitations/implications

This study was exploratory in nature with a small number of participants who were recruited through AIDS organizations in Toronto. Consequently, the recruitment strategy may reach only those who were connected to the AIDS organizations. The paper believes that IR-PLWHAs who were not connected to the AIDS organizations might experience even more social exclusion and marginalization. These factors may limit the transferability of this study.

Originality/value

This is the first study that explores the bio-psycho-social connections and intersecting determinants of mental health among immigrants and refugees living with HIV and AIDS in Canada. The results of this study contribute to cross-sector dialogue among practitioners and researchers in the HIV/AIDS, mental health, and immigration and settlement services sectors.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Felix Gradinger, Julian Elston, Sheena Asthana, Chloe Myers, Sue Wroe and Richard Byng

This integrated care study seeks to highlight how voluntary sector “wellbeing co-ordinators” co-located in a horizontally and vertically integrated, multidisciplinary…

1324

Abstract

Purpose

This integrated care study seeks to highlight how voluntary sector “wellbeing co-ordinators” co-located in a horizontally and vertically integrated, multidisciplinary community hub within one locality of an Integrated Care Organisation contribute to complex, person-centred, co-ordinated care.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a naturalistic, mixed method and mixed data study. It is complementing a before-and-after study with a sub-group analysis of people receiving input from the wider hub (including Wellbeing Co-ordination and Enhanced Intermediate Care), qualitative case studies, interviews, and observations co-produced with embedded researchers-in-residence.

Findings

The cross-case analysis uses trajectories and outcome patterns across six client groups to illustrate the bio-psycho-social complexity of each group across the life course, corresponding with the range of inputs offered by the hub.

Research limitations/implications

To consider the effectiveness and mechanisms of complex system-wide interventions operating at horizontal and vertical interfaces and researching this applying co-produced, embedded, naturalistic and mixed methods approaches.

Practical implications

How a bio-psycho-social approach by a wellbeing co-ordinator can contribute to improved person reported outcomes from a range of preventive, rehabilitation, palliative care and bereavement services in the community.

Social implications

To combine knowledge about individuals held in the community to align the respective inputs, and expectations about outcomes while considering networked pathways based on functional status, above diagnostic pathways, and along a life-continuum.

Originality/value

The hub as a whole seems to (1) Enhance engagement through relationship, trust and activation, (2) Exchanging knowledge to co-create a shared bio-psycho-social understanding of each individual’s situation and goals, (3) Personalising care planning by utilising the range of available resources to ensure needs are met, and (4) Enhancing co-ordination and ongoing care through multi-disciplinary working between practitioners, across teams and sectors.

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Pierre Karli

It matters to be aware of the important role played by the brain in the progressive constitution and unification of the three major facets of the human being: a biological…

489

Abstract

Purpose

It matters to be aware of the important role played by the brain in the progressive constitution and unification of the three major facets of the human being: a biological individual; a social actor; a self‐conscious, reflective, and deliberating subject. The aim is to discuss this role.

Design/methodology/approach

The dialogues carried on by each one of these facets with an environment of its own (the material environment; the social milieu; the subject's inner world) are related to the functioning of three distinct levels of integration, organization, and adaptation within the human brain.

Findings

The neural substrate of basic affective processes pervades the entire brain and the latter processes play a predominant role in the mediation and integration of the individual's interactions with his/her environments. The degree of “plasticity”, i.e. the sensitivity to the shaping influence of environmental conditions, increases markedly from the lower to the higher level of brain functioning. Any individual characteristic of brain functioning is the outcome of a series of complex and evolving interactions between genetic and environmental factors.

Practical implications

Since brain development highly depends on the early environment (the first years of life), it is of the utmost importance to ensure that every developing brain benefits from optimal environmental conditions.

Originality/value

The paper brings together a series of scientific facts in an integrated and dynamic bio‐psycho‐social perspective which aims at working out a “model of man” thought to be an appropriate basis for any study of human development.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2019

Katie Liston and Dominic Malcolm

To examine the ways in which sports-related brain injury (concussion and subconcussion) is both similar to and different from other injuries and to set out a sociological…

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the ways in which sports-related brain injury (concussion and subconcussion) is both similar to and different from other injuries and to set out a sociological understanding of the injury, its manifestation and management.

Approach

There is a broad contextualization of the ‘issue’ of concussion and the processes that have brought this to the fore, an examination of the ways in which concussion has been figuratively clouded from plain view, and an outline of the main contributions of the social sciences to understanding this injury – the culture of risk and the mediating effect of social relationships. The chapter concludes by questioning whether the emergence of concerns over chronic traumatic encephalopathy has stimulated a fundamental change in attitudes towards sport injuries, and if this has had a significant impact on the social visibility of concussion.

Findings

The two available sociological studies of the lived experiences of concussion are situated within a broader analysis of the politicization of sports medicine and the emergence of a particular social discourse around sports-related brain injury.

Implications

The difficulties emanating from the dominance of a biomedical approach to concussion are discussed along with the need for further research, incorporating a more holistic view of concussion, as a bio-psycho-social phenomenon.

Details

The Suffering Body in Sport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-069-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2014

Florian Kiuppis and Susan Peters

Inclusive Education promotes access to quality education, as well as participation and achievement opportunities for all learners in heterogeneous settings, particularly…

Abstract

Inclusive Education promotes access to quality education, as well as participation and achievement opportunities for all learners in heterogeneous settings, particularly for those who are vulnerable, have been marginalized, discriminated against, labeled, and segregated in separate schools for “special needs.” Key issues include equal opportunity, and systemic change to accommodate diversity. This discussion essay addresses the question of how comparative and international education research advances understanding of these issues. As a key strategy for school reform adopted by UNESCO for its millennium development goal of universal education, implications for research and professional development of inclusive education policy and practices are discussed.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2014
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-453-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Anton Dosen and Johan De Groef

Annoying and bothersome behaviours among persons with developmental disabilities (DD) is a relatively frequent phenomenon. However, not all behaviour that is difficult to…

Abstract

Purpose

Annoying and bothersome behaviours among persons with developmental disabilities (DD) is a relatively frequent phenomenon. However, not all behaviour that is difficult to accept in its surroundings should be seen as abnormal or problem behaviour (PB). Some of these behaviours may be an expression of a person’s psychosocial needs and may be considered as adaptive and normal. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Authors attempt to discuss relevant issues in persons with DD which have an impact on their behaviour, intending in this way to define criteria for a reliable differentiation between normal and abnormal behaviour and psychiatric disorders.

Findings

Differentiating between normal and abnormal may be a difficult task for a professional treating persons with DD because of the lack of adequate criteria for such differentiation. The problem becomes even more complex when one attempts to differentiate between PB and psychiatric disorder. By approaching the subject from a developmental perspective and by determining the level of the person’s emotional development, insight in subjective person’s experiences was achieved. On the ground of a “good practice” the authors made schemata outlining criteria for differentiation between these constructs.

Originality/value

The application of these schemata in the practice made it easier to establish appropriate diagnoses and was favourable for the planning of adequate treatment and support of persons with DD and mental health problems.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Kanthee Anantapong and Anthea Tinker

Although there is substantial evidence about the association between frailty and mental illnesses in older people, there is currently little evidence about how this is…

Abstract

Purpose

Although there is substantial evidence about the association between frailty and mental illnesses in older people, there is currently little evidence about how this is integrated into psychiatric clinical practice. The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitudes of a sample of psychiatrists in the UK about the concept and assessment of frailty in their clinical practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews. Interview schedules and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. NVivo software and an audit trail were used for the data analysis.

Findings

There were ten respondents (all psychiatrists) in this study. From the interviews, it appeared that some respondents were not be fully familiar with existing concepts of frailty. However, from their perspectives, frailty appeared to be multidimensional, reversible and for some could be enhanced by older people’s ability. Negative stereotypes of being frail could undermine the accessibility to appropriate assessment and care. Existing multidisciplinary assessments, with some adjustments to the particular needs of psychiatric patients, can be used to establish a frailty index.

Originality/value

The concept of frailty, especially those concerning its multidimensional and homeostatic nature, should be further examined to make it more applicable to psychiatric practice. Without much more effort, frailty could be assessed within current psychiatric practices. This could constitute a care plan tailored for frail people with a psychiatric illness, so as to improve the outcomes of their treatment and quality of life.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Carolyn Blackburn

A case study is reported of a relationship-based early intervention (EI) service for children with complex needs in New Zealand. The purpose of this paper is to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

A case study is reported of a relationship-based early intervention (EI) service for children with complex needs in New Zealand. The purpose of this paper is to explore parent and professional views and perceptions about the key characteristics of a relationship-based EI service.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study involved interviews and observations with 39 participants (10 children, 11 parents and 18 professionals).

Findings

Parents appreciated the knowledgeable, well-trained professionals who invested time in getting to know (and love) children and families and family practices, worked together in harmony and valued the contribution that parents made to their child’s progress and achievement. Professionals described the key characteristics of the service in terms of the range of therapies offered by the service, the focus on a strengths-based and family-focussed approach, play-based assessments, acceptance and value of family practices (including responsiveness to Maori and bi-culturalism), appropriate and respectful places to meet and greet families and work with children, and recruitment and retention of humble professionals who identified with the ethos of the model. Observable social processes and structures within the delivery of the model include respectful professional interactions and relationships with children and families, integrated professional working, effective and timely communication between professionals and families, pedagogy of listening, waiting and personalisation, engaged families and actively participating children.

Originality/value

This case study emphasises the significance of professional love and relational pedagogy to EI services and the value of this to improving parent-child relationships and children’s long-term outcomes.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 18 March 2021

J. Yoon Irons and Grenville Hancox

Abstract

Details

Singing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-332-1

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 November 2020

Oliver Dale, Rex Haigh, Julia Blazdell and Faisil Sethi

968

Abstract

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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