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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Yang Sun, Isaac Cheah, Billy Sung and Eun-Ju Lee

1924

Abstract

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2022

Billy Sung, Michelle Stankovic, Sean Lee and Kevin Anderson

This paper aims to test whether passive Wi-Fi visitor analytics is a useful and effective method to measure consumer engagement towards food trucks located within an…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test whether passive Wi-Fi visitor analytics is a useful and effective method to measure consumer engagement towards food trucks located within an outdoor activation area at an Australian metropolitan university.

Design/methodology/approach

Using passive Wi-Fi visitor analytics to ping and track smart devices, data was collected over 90 weekdays capturing data from 522,548 unique smart devices.

Findings

The data collected in this feasibility study was able to identify the most and least popular food trucks by displaying the differences in both bounce and engagement rates, suggesting that passive Wi-Fi visitor analytics are feasible and useful in this context. Furthermore, the results also demonstrate that food truck vendors and marketers should not engage in random rotation, but instead remain static to try and increase familiarity.

Originality/value

Current visitor tracking technology (i.e. ticketed sales, sales data and survey) is limited as it may not provide an accurate measurement of foot traffic, identify engaged patrons who passed by but did not complete a purchase and be available due to commercial sensitivity and confidentiality. Thus, the current research is the first to examine customer engagement (i.e. unengaged walk-by vs engaged but bounced vs engaged sales) with food trucks within an activation area by using passive Wi-Fi visitor analytics.

研究目的

当前的论文旨在研究被动 Wi-Fi 访客分析是否是衡量消费者对位于澳大利亚城市大学户外活动区域内的流动餐车的参与度的有用且有效的方法。

研究方法

使用被动 Wi-Fi 访客分析来跟踪智能设备, 从 522,548 个独特的智能设备收集了超过 90 个工作日的数据。

研究发现

该可行性研究中收集的数据能够通过显示跳出率和参与率的差异来识别最受欢迎和最不受欢迎的流动餐车, 这表明被动 Wi-Fi 访客分析在这种情况下是可行和有用的。 此外, 我们的结果还表明, 流动餐车供应商和营销人员不应随意轮换, 而应保持静止从而增加顾客熟悉度。

研究原创性

当前的访客跟踪技术(即售票销售、销售数据和调查)是有限的, 因为它可能无法:(1)提供客流量的准确测量; (2) 识别路过但未完成购买的参与顾客; (3) 由于商业敏感性和保密性而可用。 因此, 目前的研究是第一个通过使用被动 Wi-Fi 访客分析来检查激活区域内流动餐车的客户参与度(即, 未参与路过, 相比于参与但跳出, 相比于参与售出额)。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Felix Septianto, Yuri Seo, Billy Sung and Fang Zhao

This study aims to investigate how the effectiveness of luxury advertising can be improved by matching the emotional (promotion pride vs prevention pride) and luxury value…

1862

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how the effectiveness of luxury advertising can be improved by matching the emotional (promotion pride vs prevention pride) and luxury value (authenticity vs exclusivity) appeals within advertising messages.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments were conducted. Studies 1A and 1B establish the influence of incidental emotions and regulatory focus on consumer preferences for divergent luxury value appeals (exclusivity vs authenticity) within advertisements. Study 2 shows the match-up effects of congruent emotional and luxury value appeals on advertising effectiveness.

Findings

The authors offer causal evidence that promotion pride increases the preference for exclusivity appeals, whereas prevention pride increases the preference for authenticity appeals in luxury advertising.

Research limitations/implications

The study offers a novel perspective into the ways consumers evaluate different value appeals in luxury advertising and establishes the important role played by emotions within such evaluations.

Practical implications

Marketers of luxury products can increase the effectiveness of their advertising campaigns by considering the fit between emotional and luxury value appeals. Specifically, the authors show that the congruent matching of promotion pride with exclusivity appeals and of prevention pride with authenticity appeals within advertising messages can elicit more favorable consumer responses.

Originality/value

The study is the first to illustrate novel “match-up” effects: it shows when and how different luxury value appeals (exclusivity vs authenticity) and emotions (promotion pride vs prevention pride) influence the effectiveness of luxury advertising.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Billy Sung, Siobhan Hatton-Jones, Min Teah, Isaac Cheah and Ian Phau

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perception of luxuriousness as a novel underlying mechanism of the shelf-based scarcity effect by using both…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perception of luxuriousness as a novel underlying mechanism of the shelf-based scarcity effect by using both psychophysiological measures (Study 1) and self-reported measures (Study 2).

Design/methodology/approach

Two within-subject experimental designs were conducted to examine the effects of low, medium and high stock depletion levels (i.e. shelf-based scarcity) on consumer responses. In Study 1, facial expression analysis was used to examine consumers’ liking, and left frontal asymmetry brainwaves were used to examine consumers’ approach motivation as a proxy for purchase intention. Study 2 extended the findings with self-reported measures.

Findings

In Study 1, perceived product luxuriousness was found to underlie the shelf-based scarcity effect on facial expressions and left frontal asymmetry brainwaves after controlling for other previously proposed mediators (i.e. product popularity and quality). The shelf-based scarcity effect is only observed between low vs high stock levels, whereas moderate stock level depletion does not evoke the shelf-based scarcity effect. Study 2 used self-reported measures to replicate the effect of shelf-based scarcity on product luxuriousness. However, the findings demonstrated the limitation of self-reported measures to identify a significant spill-over effect of perceived luxuriousness to attitude.

Research limitations/implications

Extending previous literature that relied heavily on self-reported measures, the current research used psychophysiological methods to uncover perceived luxuriousness as a novel underlying mechanism for the shelf-based scarcity effect. Thus, the findings are not only the first to provide psychophysiological evidence of the shelf-based scarcity effect but also to validate perceived luxuriousness as an underlying mechanism of the shelf-based scarcity effect.

Practical implications

The current findings suggest that the shelf-based scarcity effect is only evoked by high (instead of moderate) levels of stock depletion. The study also shows that shelf-based scarcity does not necessarily signal product popularity, but instead it may serve as a cue of product luxuriousness. Adding to other manipulations of retail spaces that elicit luxury perception (e.g. artwork, sensory delight and themed store atmospherics), this implies that businesses are able to use shelf-based scarcity as a cue to enhance or complement the luxury image or the perception of the brand or product.

Originality/value

The current research is the first study to use psychophysiological techniques to examine perceived luxuriousness as an underlying mechanism of shelf-based scarcity. It also demonstrates that self-report measures are not sensitive to such an effect in comparison to psychophysiological techniques, explaining why perceived luxuriousness has not been previously found to be an underlying mechanism of shelf-based scarcity.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2022

Chia-Yang Chang, Kuen-Hung Tsai and Billy Sung

This paper examines the effect of market knowledge on market success of product innovativeness and the moderating role of absorptive capacity. We separated market…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the effect of market knowledge on market success of product innovativeness and the moderating role of absorptive capacity. We separated market knowledge into market diversity and market significance components and examined their effects on radical product innovation performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopted the secondary database study. Excluding cases with missing values of main variables, a total of 1,219 Taiwanese manufacturing firms from the Third Taiwan Technology Innovation Survey (TTIS3) database were used to test the hypotheses. A moderated hierarchical regression approach was utilized to analyze the data.

Findings

The results revealed that the relationship between market diversity and radical product innovation performance is a predominantly positive concave downward curve. In contrast, the relationship between market significance and radical product innovation performance is a predominantly negative concave downward curve. Furthermore, the results also indicated that absorptive capacity has different moderating effects on the relationships between market diversity/significance and radical product innovation performance. Absorptive capacity enhances the negative effect of market significance but suppresses the positive effect of market diversity on radical product innovation performance.

Originality/value

This paper is the first research which contributes to examining the relationship between market knowledge and radical product innovation sale performance.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2022

Van Chien Duong, Emma Regolini, Billy Sung, Min Teah and Siobhan Hatton-Jones

The purpose of this study is to understand whether increasing the number of sensory modalities being stimulated impacts consumers’ in-store emotional responses (i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand whether increasing the number of sensory modalities being stimulated impacts consumers’ in-store emotional responses (i.e. in-store enjoyment and arousal), store image perception and brand attitude.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a between-subjects experimental design to examine 551 individuals’ perceptions and emotional responses in four sensory modalities stimulation conditions (i.e. visual, visual-smell, visual-taste and visual-smell-taste). The study used virtual reality visualisation technology and psychophysiological measurements (i.e. skin conductance and facial expression) to improve the ecological validity of the study design.

Findings

The current study supports the importance of multisensory in-store atmospheric design. When increasing the number of sensory modalities being stimulated, more positive emotional responses and perceptions were recorded. Additionally, increasing the number of sensory modalities also increased perceived intensity, and perceived intensity mediate the relationship between the stimulation of multisensory modalities and perception.

Research limitations/implications

The study is without its limitations. For instance, the scope of the study was limited by the exclusion of auditory and haptic stimulation, the lack of manipulation of sensory intensity and the absence of sensory congruency examination.

Practical implications

This study contributes to retail and marketing practices by providing evidence to assist the retail design of in-store sensory cues and customer experiences.

Originality/value

This research uses both self-reported measures and biometric measures to test the sole effect of sensory modalities being stimulated on consumer evaluation. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine store atmospheric designs with psychophysiological methodologies and an immersive, two-story-high, 180-degree-visual-field and dome-shaped display.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Kevin Teah, Billy Sung and Ian Phau

The purpose of this study is to examine how perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) motives may influence situational scepticism towards luxury brands and its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) motives may influence situational scepticism towards luxury brands and its effects on brand resonance, resilience to negative information and consumer advocacy of luxury brands. The moderating role of perceived fit towards luxury brand CSR initiatives is also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental approach on a 2 × 2 matrix was used. Data are collected through a consumer panel.

Findings

Values-driven motives were found to lead to lower consumer situational scepticism and egoistic-driven motives would lead to higher levels of consumer situational scepticism. While higher consumer situational scepticism leads to lower brand resonance, there is no significant relationship between scepticism and resilience to negative information and consumer advocacy. The findings also suggest that perceived fit moderates the relationship between consumer situational scepticism to resilience to negative information and consumer situational scepticism to consumer advocacy.

Originality/value

The key originality of the study is that it provides empirical insights into situational scepticism of CSR initiatives and its influence in consumer and management outcomes in luxury brands.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

Xujia Wang, Billy Sung and Ian Phau

The purpose of this study is to investigate how exclusivity and rarity (natural versus virtual) influence consumers' perceptions of luxury. Further, it examines whether…

1472

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how exclusivity and rarity (natural versus virtual) influence consumers' perceptions of luxury. Further, it examines whether exclusivity and rarity can function as distinct marketing strategies in today's luxury market environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Online questionnaires were administered by adapting developed scales from prior research. Research stimuli were chosen from three luxury categories including bags, wine and cruise. Confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regressions were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results confirmed that exclusivity, natural rarity and virtual rarity were perceived as relatively distinct constructs among our sample. Findings also highlighted that perceived natural rarity (PNR) has consistently emerged as a positive and significant contributor to consumers' perceptions of luxury across all three luxury categories. The influence of perceived exclusivity (PE) on perceptions of luxury has also shown to be significant for two product categories (luxury bag and luxury wine), whereas perceived virtual rarity (PVR) did not show any significant effects across all three categories.

Practical implications

The results indicate that consumers perceive natural rarity, virtual rarity and exclusivity as relatively distinctive marketing strategies. This suggests that luxury businesses can adopt each strategy independently to achieve desired marketing outcomes.

Originality/value

This study offers theoretical support for the proposition that exclusivity and rarity may have different functions in luxury marketing implementations. It provides empirical evidence showing the distinctiveness of perceived exclusivity and perceived rarity, which have not be done in previous research.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Billy Sung and Jennifer Yih

The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictive power of anger and its associated appraisal dimensions of consumer responses to two different public relations incidents.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictive power of anger and its associated appraisal dimensions of consumer responses to two different public relations incidents.

Design/methodology/approach

A natural quasi-experiment was conducted within a month after the public relations incidents. Participants randomly viewed one of the two videos relating to the incidents. Path analysis was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of anger, acceptability appraisal, motivational incongruence appraisal, relevance appraisal and other accountability appraisal on consumers’ intention to harm the brand and future purchase intention.

Findings

Appraisals of acceptability, motivational incongruence and relevance, but not other accountability, have both direct and indirect effects on anger and its motivational tendency. Acceptability appraisal directly increases consumers’ intention to harm, whereas relevance appraisal directly increases their intention to harm and reduces future purchase intention. The degree to which these appraisal structure and anger occur account for the level of negative consumer responses toward the two public relations incidents.

Practical implications

The current findings empirically replicate the diverse consumer responses toward two public relations incidents and use anger and its appraisal structure to account for the negative responses. This provides researchers and practitioners a framework to explain and manage consumers’ reaction toward different public relations incidents.

Originality/value

The current findings not only support the motivational role of anger and its accompanying appraisals in public relations incidents, but also demonstrate their predictive power in the given contexts.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2021

Billy Sung, Nicole Hartley, Eric Vanman and Reyhane Hooshmand

The paper aims to examine whether (1) deviation of design (i.e. objective design newness) is distinct to consumers' perception of design newness (i.e. subjective design…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine whether (1) deviation of design (i.e. objective design newness) is distinct to consumers' perception of design newness (i.e. subjective design newness) and (2) subjective design newness rather than objective design newness evokes the emotion of interest and enhances product evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

In total five sets of quasi-experiments were conducted on the natural manipulations of design newness. Specifically, the first four studies examine consumers' perception of design newness, feeling-of-interest and product evaluation toward old and new Apple's iOS (i.e., iPhone OS) icons when a new Apple's iOS is released. The fifth study generalized the findings to the new design of XiaoMi MiPhone.

Findings

Across five quasi-experimental studies, the authors found that (1) consumers do not necessarily perceive an objectively new design to be subjectively new; (2) subjective design newness, but not objective design newness, evokes interest and (3) interest, in turn, enhances product evaluation and behavioral intention toward an innovation.

Research limitations/implications

The current finding extended the current literature on design newness by demonstrating that subjective (vs objective) design newness provides a more holistic account of consumers' interest and positive product evaluation toward the innovations.

Practical implications

The research showed that simply updating or altering the design of a product does not evoke consumers' perception of design newness and positive product evaluation. Instead, designer and managers must explore ways to evoke consumers' perception of novelty, complexity, unfamiliarity, atypicality and difference. Furthermore, the current finding demonstrated that subjective design newness can be used to evoke consumer interest and, therefore, result in positive purchase evaluation.

Originality/value

The current research is the first to examine (1) the difference between objective and subjective design newness, (2) the emotional response toward design newness and (3) the emotion of interest as a mediator that explain the strong relationship between design newness and positive product evaluation.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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