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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Yang Sun, Isaac Cheah, Billy Sung and Eun-Ju Lee

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Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Felix Septianto, Yuri Seo, Billy Sung and Fang Zhao

This study aims to investigate how the effectiveness of luxury advertising can be improved by matching the emotional (promotion pride vs prevention pride) and luxury value…

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1055

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how the effectiveness of luxury advertising can be improved by matching the emotional (promotion pride vs prevention pride) and luxury value (authenticity vs exclusivity) appeals within advertising messages.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments were conducted. Studies 1A and 1B establish the influence of incidental emotions and regulatory focus on consumer preferences for divergent luxury value appeals (exclusivity vs authenticity) within advertisements. Study 2 shows the match-up effects of congruent emotional and luxury value appeals on advertising effectiveness.

Findings

The authors offer causal evidence that promotion pride increases the preference for exclusivity appeals, whereas prevention pride increases the preference for authenticity appeals in luxury advertising.

Research limitations/implications

The study offers a novel perspective into the ways consumers evaluate different value appeals in luxury advertising and establishes the important role played by emotions within such evaluations.

Practical implications

Marketers of luxury products can increase the effectiveness of their advertising campaigns by considering the fit between emotional and luxury value appeals. Specifically, the authors show that the congruent matching of promotion pride with exclusivity appeals and of prevention pride with authenticity appeals within advertising messages can elicit more favorable consumer responses.

Originality/value

The study is the first to illustrate novel “match-up” effects: it shows when and how different luxury value appeals (exclusivity vs authenticity) and emotions (promotion pride vs prevention pride) influence the effectiveness of luxury advertising.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Billy Sung, Siobhan Hatton-Jones, Min Teah, Isaac Cheah and Ian Phau

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perception of luxuriousness as a novel underlying mechanism of the shelf-based scarcity effect by using both…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perception of luxuriousness as a novel underlying mechanism of the shelf-based scarcity effect by using both psychophysiological measures (Study 1) and self-reported measures (Study 2).

Design/methodology/approach

Two within-subject experimental designs were conducted to examine the effects of low, medium and high stock depletion levels (i.e. shelf-based scarcity) on consumer responses. In Study 1, facial expression analysis was used to examine consumers’ liking, and left frontal asymmetry brainwaves were used to examine consumers’ approach motivation as a proxy for purchase intention. Study 2 extended the findings with self-reported measures.

Findings

In Study 1, perceived product luxuriousness was found to underlie the shelf-based scarcity effect on facial expressions and left frontal asymmetry brainwaves after controlling for other previously proposed mediators (i.e. product popularity and quality). The shelf-based scarcity effect is only observed between low vs high stock levels, whereas moderate stock level depletion does not evoke the shelf-based scarcity effect. Study 2 used self-reported measures to replicate the effect of shelf-based scarcity on product luxuriousness. However, the findings demonstrated the limitation of self-reported measures to identify a significant spill-over effect of perceived luxuriousness to attitude.

Research limitations/implications

Extending previous literature that relied heavily on self-reported measures, the current research used psychophysiological methods to uncover perceived luxuriousness as a novel underlying mechanism for the shelf-based scarcity effect. Thus, the findings are not only the first to provide psychophysiological evidence of the shelf-based scarcity effect but also to validate perceived luxuriousness as an underlying mechanism of the shelf-based scarcity effect.

Practical implications

The current findings suggest that the shelf-based scarcity effect is only evoked by high (instead of moderate) levels of stock depletion. The study also shows that shelf-based scarcity does not necessarily signal product popularity, but instead it may serve as a cue of product luxuriousness. Adding to other manipulations of retail spaces that elicit luxury perception (e.g. artwork, sensory delight and themed store atmospherics), this implies that businesses are able to use shelf-based scarcity as a cue to enhance or complement the luxury image or the perception of the brand or product.

Originality/value

The current research is the first study to use psychophysiological techniques to examine perceived luxuriousness as an underlying mechanism of shelf-based scarcity. It also demonstrates that self-report measures are not sensitive to such an effect in comparison to psychophysiological techniques, explaining why perceived luxuriousness has not been previously found to be an underlying mechanism of shelf-based scarcity.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Kevin Teah, Billy Sung and Ian Phau

The purpose of this study is to examine how perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) motives may influence situational scepticism towards luxury brands and its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) motives may influence situational scepticism towards luxury brands and its effects on brand resonance, resilience to negative information and consumer advocacy of luxury brands. The moderating role of perceived fit towards luxury brand CSR initiatives is also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental approach on a 2 × 2 matrix was used. Data are collected through a consumer panel.

Findings

Values-driven motives were found to lead to lower consumer situational scepticism and egoistic-driven motives would lead to higher levels of consumer situational scepticism. While higher consumer situational scepticism leads to lower brand resonance, there is no significant relationship between scepticism and resilience to negative information and consumer advocacy. The findings also suggest that perceived fit moderates the relationship between consumer situational scepticism to resilience to negative information and consumer situational scepticism to consumer advocacy.

Originality/value

The key originality of the study is that it provides empirical insights into situational scepticism of CSR initiatives and its influence in consumer and management outcomes in luxury brands.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

Xujia Wang, Billy Sung and Ian Phau

The purpose of this study is to investigate how exclusivity and rarity (natural versus virtual) influence consumers' perceptions of luxury. Further, it examines whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how exclusivity and rarity (natural versus virtual) influence consumers' perceptions of luxury. Further, it examines whether exclusivity and rarity can function as distinct marketing strategies in today's luxury market environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Online questionnaires were administered by adapting developed scales from prior research. Research stimuli were chosen from three luxury categories including bags, wine and cruise. Confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regressions were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results confirmed that exclusivity, natural rarity and virtual rarity were perceived as relatively distinct constructs among our sample. Findings also highlighted that perceived natural rarity (PNR) has consistently emerged as a positive and significant contributor to consumers' perceptions of luxury across all three luxury categories. The influence of perceived exclusivity (PE) on perceptions of luxury has also shown to be significant for two product categories (luxury bag and luxury wine), whereas perceived virtual rarity (PVR) did not show any significant effects across all three categories.

Practical implications

The results indicate that consumers perceive natural rarity, virtual rarity and exclusivity as relatively distinctive marketing strategies. This suggests that luxury businesses can adopt each strategy independently to achieve desired marketing outcomes.

Originality/value

This study offers theoretical support for the proposition that exclusivity and rarity may have different functions in luxury marketing implementations. It provides empirical evidence showing the distinctiveness of perceived exclusivity and perceived rarity, which have not be done in previous research.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Billy Sung and Jennifer Yih

The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictive power of anger and its associated appraisal dimensions of consumer responses to two different public relations incidents.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictive power of anger and its associated appraisal dimensions of consumer responses to two different public relations incidents.

Design/methodology/approach

A natural quasi-experiment was conducted within a month after the public relations incidents. Participants randomly viewed one of the two videos relating to the incidents. Path analysis was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of anger, acceptability appraisal, motivational incongruence appraisal, relevance appraisal and other accountability appraisal on consumers’ intention to harm the brand and future purchase intention.

Findings

Appraisals of acceptability, motivational incongruence and relevance, but not other accountability, have both direct and indirect effects on anger and its motivational tendency. Acceptability appraisal directly increases consumers’ intention to harm, whereas relevance appraisal directly increases their intention to harm and reduces future purchase intention. The degree to which these appraisal structure and anger occur account for the level of negative consumer responses toward the two public relations incidents.

Practical implications

The current findings empirically replicate the diverse consumer responses toward two public relations incidents and use anger and its appraisal structure to account for the negative responses. This provides researchers and practitioners a framework to explain and manage consumers’ reaction toward different public relations incidents.

Originality/value

The current findings not only support the motivational role of anger and its accompanying appraisals in public relations incidents, but also demonstrate their predictive power in the given contexts.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2021

Billy Sung, Nicole Hartley, Eric Vanman and Reyhane Hooshmand

The paper aims to examine whether (1) deviation of design (i.e. objective design newness) is distinct to consumers' perception of design newness (i.e. subjective design…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine whether (1) deviation of design (i.e. objective design newness) is distinct to consumers' perception of design newness (i.e. subjective design newness) and (2) subjective design newness rather than objective design newness evokes the emotion of interest and enhances product evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

In total five sets of quasi-experiments were conducted on the natural manipulations of design newness. Specifically, the first four studies examine consumers' perception of design newness, feeling-of-interest and product evaluation toward old and new Apple's iOS (i.e., iPhone OS) icons when a new Apple's iOS is released. The fifth study generalized the findings to the new design of XiaoMi MiPhone.

Findings

Across five quasi-experimental studies, the authors found that (1) consumers do not necessarily perceive an objectively new design to be subjectively new; (2) subjective design newness, but not objective design newness, evokes interest and (3) interest, in turn, enhances product evaluation and behavioral intention toward an innovation.

Research limitations/implications

The current finding extended the current literature on design newness by demonstrating that subjective (vs objective) design newness provides a more holistic account of consumers' interest and positive product evaluation toward the innovations.

Practical implications

The research showed that simply updating or altering the design of a product does not evoke consumers' perception of design newness and positive product evaluation. Instead, designer and managers must explore ways to evoke consumers' perception of novelty, complexity, unfamiliarity, atypicality and difference. Furthermore, the current finding demonstrated that subjective design newness can be used to evoke consumer interest and, therefore, result in positive purchase evaluation.

Originality/value

The current research is the first to examine (1) the difference between objective and subjective design newness, (2) the emotional response toward design newness and (3) the emotion of interest as a mediator that explain the strong relationship between design newness and positive product evaluation.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Matthew Barber, Billy Sung, Sean Lee and Isaac Cheah

The consumption of wine is influenced by seemingly contradictory antecedents such as perceived authenticity and novelty. This paper aims to explore the influence novelty…

Abstract

Purpose

The consumption of wine is influenced by seemingly contradictory antecedents such as perceived authenticity and novelty. This paper aims to explore the influence novelty and authenticity have on wine consumption, in the context of the moderating variables of regionality (i.e. single and multi-region wines) and price (low and high). The research attempts to further understand wine consumption by establishing a conceptual model built on existing wine literature.

Design/methodology/approach

To address the hypotheses and research questions, a panel of 658 consumers who regularly purchased wines produced by the Australian wine industry were recruited. These participants completed a self-administered questionnaire containing stimuli to measure perceived authenticity, perceived novelty, perceived quality, attitudes and purchase intent towards a wine manipulated to have a low vs high price level, as well as single vs multi-regional label. To examine these variables, the study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to confirm the dimensionality of the constructs and structural equation modeling with both path and multi-group analyses to investigate the hypothesised relationships.

Findings

The findings revealed that both authenticity and novelty simultaneously influence perceived quality. Additionally, it was acknowledged that there is no significant difference in wine consumption between single and multi-regional wines; reinforcing current trends of collaboration within the wine industry. Finally, the results also showed that price does moderate wine consumption; revealing ideal prices for wine with particular regional branding strategies.

Originality/value

The current research is the first to show that authenticity and novelty simultaneously and positively influence consumer’s perceived quality of Australian wine. The findings are also the first to show that consumer evaluation of single and multi-origin wines was positive and yielded no significant difference, suggesting that branding wines with multi-origins or multi-region do not change consumers’ perception.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Beulah Pereira, Kevin Teah, Billy Sung and Min Teah

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an in-depth interview with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Larry Jewelry, a luxury jeweller with boutiques in Hong Kong and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an in-depth interview with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Larry Jewelry, a luxury jeweller with boutiques in Hong Kong and Singapore. Given the ever-evolving luxury jewellery market in South East Asia, it is paramount to understand the success factors of the luxury jewellery sector.

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth interview approach is used to understand the antecedents of the success of the luxury jewellery sector. Specifically, this paper presents a complex business model of Larry Jewelry and an in-depth interview with the CEO of Larry Jewelry for current insights in the sector.

Findings

This paper highlights the history of Larry Jewelry, its product segments and the key elements of its business blueprint. Specifically, the success of Larry Jewelry is attributed to its business model and strong branding on quality, craftsmanship, rarity, human interaction and trust.

Originality/value

Despite the substantial growth in the luxury jewellery sector, there is relatively little research on the success factors of this industry, especially in South East Asia. The current research provides practical insights into business blueprint of a successful luxury jeweller in Hong Kong and Singapore.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2019

Billy Sung, Nicholas J. Wilson, Jin Ho Yun and Eun Ju LEE

Neuroimaging technologies such as electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging allow us to analyze consumers’ brains in real time as they experience emotions. These…

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1457

Abstract

Purpose

Neuroimaging technologies such as electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging allow us to analyze consumers’ brains in real time as they experience emotions. These technologies collect and integrate data on consumers’ brains for big data analytics. The purpose of this paper is to identify new opportunities and challenges for neuromarketing as an applied neuroscience.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors discuss conceptual and methodological contributions of neuromarketing based on studies that have employed neural approaches in market-related investigations, explaining the various tools and designs of neuromarketing research. The authors identify marketing-related questions to which neuroscientific approaches can make meaningful contributions, evaluating several challenges that lie ahead for neuromarketing.

Findings

The authors summarize the contributions of neuromarketing and discuss synergistic findings that neuromarketing has the potential to yield.

Research limitations/implications

The authors ask: do consumers’ self-reported choices and their neural representations tell different stories?; what are the effects of subtle and peripheral marketing stimuli?; and can neuromarketing help to reveal the underlying causal mechanisms for perceptual and learning processes, such as motivation and emotions?

Practical implications

The authors identify marketing-related questions to which neuroscientific approaches can make meaningful contributions, evaluating several challenges that lie ahead for neuromarketing.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no current review has identified avenues for future research in neuromarketing and the emerging challenges that researchers may face. The current paper aims to update readers on what neuroscience and other psychophysiological measures have achieved, as well as what these tools have to offer in the field of marketing. The authors also aim to foster greater application of neuroscientific methods, beyond the more biased/post-test methods such as self-report studies, which currently exist in consumer research.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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