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Article

Jelena Andonovski, Branislava Šandrih and Olivera Kitanović

This paper aims to describe the structure of an aligned Serbian-German literary corpus (SrpNemKor) contained in a digital library Bibliša. The goal of the research was to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the structure of an aligned Serbian-German literary corpus (SrpNemKor) contained in a digital library Bibliša. The goal of the research was to create a benchmark Serbian-German annotated corpus searchable with various query expansions.

Design/methodology/approach

The presented research is particularly focused on the enhancement of bilingual search queries in a full-text search of aligned SrpNemKor collection. The enhancement is based on using existing lexical resources such as Serbian morphological electronic dictionaries and the bilingual lexical database Termi.

Findings

For the purpose of this research, the lexical database Termi is enriched with a bilingual list of German-Serbian translated pairs of lexical units. The list of correct translation pairs was extracted from SrpNemKor, evaluated and integrated into Termi. Also, Serbian morphological e-dictionaries are updated with new entries extracted from the Serbian part of the corpus.

Originality/value

A bilingual search of SrpNemKor in Bibliša is available within the user-friendly platform. The enriched database Termi enables semantic enhancement and refinement of user’s search query based on synonyms both in Serbian and German at a very high level. Serbian morphological e-dictionaries facilitate the morphological expansion of search queries in Serbian, thereby enabling the analysis of concepts and concept structures by identifying terms assigned to the concept, and by establishing relations between terms in Serbian and German which makes Bibliša a valuable Web tool that can support research and analysis of SrpNemKor.

Details

The Electronic Library , vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Book part

Lucía I. Méndez

This chapter examines factors impacting vocabulary development in preschool dual language learners, providing a cultural and linguistic perspective on vocabulary…

Abstract

This chapter examines factors impacting vocabulary development in preschool dual language learners, providing a cultural and linguistic perspective on vocabulary instruction in this population. Through a multidisciplinary review of the research literature, instructional strategies that can support vocabulary development in this population are identified. The chapter concludes with a detailed illustration of how these strategies can be incorporated into a culturally linguistically responsive vocabulary approach for Latino preschoolers.

Details

Early Childhood and Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-459-6

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Article

Werner Winiwarter

The purpose of this paper is to address the knowledge acquisition bottleneck problem in natural language processing by introducing a new rule‐based approach for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the knowledge acquisition bottleneck problem in natural language processing by introducing a new rule‐based approach for the automatic acquisition of linguistic knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

The author has developed a new machine translation methodology that only requires a bilingual lexicon and a parallel corpus of surface sentences aligned at the sentence level to learn new transfer rules.

Findings

A first prototype of a web‐based Japanese‐English translation system called Japanese‐English translation using corpus‐based acquisition of transfer (JETCAT) has been implemented in SWI‐Prolog, and a Greasemonkey user script to analyze Japanese web pages and translate sentences via Ajax. In addition, linguistic information is displayed at the character, word, and sentence level to provide a useful tool for web‐based language learning. An important feature is customization; the user can simply correct translation results leading to an incremental update of the knowledge base.

Research limitations/implications

This paper focuses on the technical aspects and user interface issues of JETCAT. The author is planning to use JETCAT in a classroom setting to gather first experiences and will then evaluate a real‐world deployment; also work has started on extending JETCAT to include collaborative features.

Practical implications

The research has a high practical impact on academic language education. It also could have implications for the translation industry by superseding certain translation tasks and, on the other hand, adding value and quality to others.

Originality/value

The paper presents an extended version of the paper receiving the Emerald Web Information Systems Best Paper Award at iiWAS2010.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1306-6

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Article

Sophia Ananiadou and John McNaught

This paper assesses the degree to which established practices in terminology can provide the translation industry with the lexical means to support mediation of…

Abstract

This paper assesses the degree to which established practices in terminology can provide the translation industry with the lexical means to support mediation of information between languages, especially where such mediation involves modification. The effects of term variation, collocation and sublanguage phraseology present problems of term choice to the translator. Current term resources cannot help much with these problems; however, tools and techniques are discussed which, in the near future, will offer translators the means to make appropriate choices of terminology.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article

Carmen Galvez and Félix de Moya‐Anegón

To evaluate the accuracy of conflation methods based on finite‐state transducers (FSTs).

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the accuracy of conflation methods based on finite‐state transducers (FSTs).

Design/methodology/approach

Incorrectly lemmatized and stemmed forms may lead to the retrieval of inappropriate documents. Experimental studies to date have focused on retrieval performance, but very few on conflation performance. The process of normalization we used involved a linguistic toolbox that allowed us to construct, through graphic interfaces, electronic dictionaries represented internally by FSTs. The lexical resources developed were applied to a Spanish test corpus for merging term variants in canonical lemmatized forms. Conflation performance was evaluated in terms of an adaptation of recall and precision measures, based on accuracy and coverage, not actual retrieval. The results were compared with those obtained using a Spanish version of the Porter algorithm.

Findings

The conclusion is that the main strength of lemmatization is its accuracy, whereas its main limitation is the underanalysis of variant forms.

Originality/value

The report outlines the potential of transducers in their application to normalization processes.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 62 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Marilyn Domas White, Miriam Matteson and Eileen G. Abels

This paper characterizes translation as a task and aims to identify how it influences professional translators' information needs and use of resources to meet those needs.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper characterizes translation as a task and aims to identify how it influences professional translators' information needs and use of resources to meet those needs.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is exploratory and qualitative. Data are based on focus group sessions with 19 professional translators. Where appropriate, findings are related to several theories relating task characteristics and information behavior (IB).

Findings

The findings support some of Byström's findings about relationship between task and information use but also suggest new hypotheses or relationships among task, information need, and information use, including the notion of a zone of familiarity. Translators use a wide range of resources, both formal and informal, localized sources, including personal contacts with other translators, native speakers, and domain experts, to supplement their basic resources, which are different types of dictionaries. The study addresses translator problems created by the need to translate materials in less commonly taught languages.

Research limitations/implications

Focus group sessions allow only for identifying concepts, relationships, and hypotheses, not for indicating the relative importance of variables or distribution across individuals. Translation does not cover literary translation.

Practical implications

The paper suggests content and features of workstations offering access to wide range of resources for professional translators.

Originality/value

Unlike other information behavior studies of professional translators, this article focuses on a broad range of resources, not just on dictionary use. It also identifies information problems associated not only with normal task activities, but also with translators' moving out of their zone of familiarity, i.e. their range of domain, language, and style expertise. The model of translator IB is potentially generalizable to other groups and both supports and expands other task‐related research.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Book part

Sandra Mercuri

In consideration of the needs of the growing numbers of Spanish-speaking emergent bilingual students in U.S. classrooms who are learning English as a new language, this…

Abstract

In consideration of the needs of the growing numbers of Spanish-speaking emergent bilingual students in U.S. classrooms who are learning English as a new language, this study explores the teachers’ understanding of instructional practice using a specific pedagogical framework designed for emergent bilingual classroom contexts called Preview/View/Review (P/V/R). A constructivist and a translanguaging lens informed the theoretical framework for this study. One set of qualitative data from interviews was collected from a random sample of teachers who participated in a Master’s program in bilingual education in a border university in South Texas. Interview questions focused on the teachers’ reflections on the planning for and the implementation of the pedagogical structure P/V/R in their dual language contexts. Three findings arose from the data: (a) participants demonstrated an understanding of planning for and implementation of the P/V/R structure as a scaffold to build background knowledge of new concepts in the different disciplines; (b) the P/V/R structure has the potential to facilitate cross-linguistic transfer and the potential to be implemented as a form of translanguaging pedagogy; and (c) the implementation of a well-planned P/V/R structure enhances students’ engagement with the learning in two languages. One identifiable limitation of the study is the small size of the sample. In addition, classroom observations of the implementation of the structure are needed to mitigate the possible over-reporting of P/V/R as a good practice on the part of the teachers. Insights from this study inform teacher educators in teacher preparation programs who are preparing teachers for working with emergent bilingual learners and the professional development of all teachers, including those who teach in bilingual school contexts.

Details

Research on Preparing Inservice Teachers to Work Effectively with Emergent Bilinguals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-494-8

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Article

Krystyna K. Matusiak, Ling Meng, Ewa Barczyk and Chia-Jung Shih

The purpose of this paper is to explore multilingual access in digital libraries and to present a case study of creating bilingual metadata records for the Tse-Tsung Chow…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore multilingual access in digital libraries and to present a case study of creating bilingual metadata records for the Tse-Tsung Chow Collection of Chinese Scrolls and Fan Paintings. The project, undertaken at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, provides access to digital copies of calligraphic and painted Chinese scrolls and fans from the collection donated by Prof Tse-Tsung Chow (Cezong Zhou).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the current approaches to multilingual indexing and retrieval in digital collections and presents a model of creating bilingual parallel records that combines translation with controlled vocabulary mapping.

Findings

Creating multilingual metadata records for cultural heritage materials is in an early phase of development. Bilingual metadata created through human translation and controlled vocabulary mapping represents one of the approaches to multilingual access in digital libraries. Multilingual indexing of collections of international origin addresses the linguistic needs of the target audience, connects the digitized objects to their respective cultures and contributes to richer descriptive records. The approach that relies on human translation and research can be undertaken in small-scale digitization projects of rare cultural heritage materials. Language and subject expertise are required to create bilingual metadata records.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents the results of a case study. The approach to multilingual access that involves research, and it relies on human translation that can only be undertaken in small-scale projects.

Practical implications

This case study of creating parallel records with a combination of translation and vocabulary mapping can be useful for designing similar bilingual digital collections.

Social implications

This paper also discusses the obligations of holding institutions in undertaking digital conversion of the cultural heritage materials that originated in other countries, especially in regard to providing metadata records that reflect the language of the originating community.

Originality/value

The research and practice in multilingual indexing of cultural heritage materials are very limited. There are no standardized models of how to approach building multilingual digital collections. This case study presents a model of providing bilingual access and enhancing the intellectual control of cultural heritage collections.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article

Shutian Ma, Yingyi Zhang and Chengzhi Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to classify Chinese word semantic relations, which are synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms and meronymys.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to classify Chinese word semantic relations, which are synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms and meronymys.

Design/methodology/approach

Basically, four simple methods are applied, ontology-based, dictionary-based, pattern-based and morpho-syntactic method. The authors make good use of search engine to build lexical and semantic resources for dictionary-based and pattern-based methods. To improve classification performance with more external resources, they also classify the given word pairs in Chinese and in English at the same time by using machine translation.

Findings

Experimental results show that the approach achieved an average F1 score of 50.87 per cent, an average accuracy of 70.36 per cent and an average recall of 40.05 per cent over all classification tasks. Synonym and antonym classification achieved high accuracy, i.e. above 90 per cent. Moreover, dictionary-based and pattern-based approaches work effectively on final data set.

Originality/value

For many natural language processing (NLP) tasks, the step of distinguishing word semantic relation can help to improve system performance, such as information extraction and knowledge graph generation. Currently, common methods for this task rely on large corpora for training or dictionaries and thesauri for inference, where limitation lies in freely data access and keeping built lexical resources up-date. This paper builds a primary system for classifying Chinese word semantic relations by seeking new ways to obtain the external resources efficiently.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

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