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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2020

Hummera Saleem, Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Bilal Khan, Shahab Aziz, Maizaitulaidawati Md Husin and Bilal Ahmed Abbasi

This empirical analysis tries to examine determinants of private foreign direct investment (FDI) in Pakistan using the bounds test approach. Main determinants of FDI among…

Abstract

Purpose

This empirical analysis tries to examine determinants of private foreign direct investment (FDI) in Pakistan using the bounds test approach. Main determinants of FDI among them are the size of the market (Q) macroeconomic stability (r), political stability (PRS), real exchange rate (REX) and institutional quality (INQ).

Design/methodology/approach

This study used annual time-series data set starting from 1980 to 2016. This study has used time-series data with ARDL and error-correction model (ECM) and examined main determinants of FDI for Pakistan. The study used the Granger causality test (modified WALD test) to identify the causality among the variables.

Findings

Moreover, empirical findings indicate the long-run relationship between GDP, trade openness and institutional quality toward FDI. However, political instability, inflation and real exchange rate harm FDI in Pakistan. Furthermore, results of Granger causality indicate that the bidirectional causality running from FDI and Q toward FDI is significant, providing evidence of FDI-led growth hypotheses in Pakistan. This study determines the correlation between FDI and Q (GDP growth) related to the “feedback hypothesis” in the short and long run. This study also concludes that the short-run causal connection among FDI, REX, PRS, r and Q follows the “feedback hypothesis.” This describes that FDI, REX, PRS, r and Q variables are jointly determined and affected together.

Originality/value

This study also explores the causal association between FDI and its significant determinants, by using methods of Granger causality test and the approach of Toda-Yamamoto-DoladoLutkephol (TYDL) to examine the causal relationship and its directions among these variables.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Reenu Kumari, Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Sharjeel Saleem, Ghulam Yahya Khan, Bilal Ahmed Abbasi and Lydia Bares Lopez

This study examines the long-term and causal relationship among foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, trade openness and economic growth from India.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the long-term and causal relationship among foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, trade openness and economic growth from India.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has used annual time series data from the period 1985–2018 and applied the Johansen cointegration and vector autoregression (VAR) model.

Findings

The results of Johansen's cointegration confirm no long-term relationship among all the above three variables. Further, the results of VAR Granger causality indicate that FDI causes economic growth and economic growth causes FDI, which confirms the bi-directional causality. In contrast, this study found that there is no bi-directional causality between trade openness and economic growth.

Social implications

Through this study, the government could take the decisions related to foreign investment after adopting more trade openness because the study results revealed that if India follows more trade openness, then how FDI will flow (upward and downward). With impulse analysis, researchers, government and policymakers take the decision-related FDI inflows for the forthcoming ten years after 2018.

Originality/value

This study has found the most exciting results from the impulse functions of FDI inflows, trade openness and economic growth, which showed the situation of these three variables as increase and decrease in the forthcoming ten years.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2018

Vian Ahmed, Zeeshan Aziz, Algan Tezel and Zainab Riaz

The purpose of this paper is to explore the current challenges and drivers for data mining in the AEC sector.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the current challenges and drivers for data mining in the AEC sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a comprehensive literature review, the data mining concept was investigated through a workshop with industry experts and academics.

Findings

The results showed that the key drivers for using data mining within the AEC sector is associated with the sustainability, process improvement, market intelligence, cost certainty and cost reduction, performance certainty and decision support systems agendas in the sector. As for the processes with the greatest potential for data mining application, design, construction, procurement, forensic analysis, sustainability and energy consumption and reuse of digital components were perceived as the main process areas. While the key challenges were perceived as being, data issues due to the fragmented nature of the construction process, the need for a cultural change, IT systems used in silos, skills requirements and having clearly defined business goals.

Originality/value

With the increasing abundance of data, business intelligence and analytics and its related concepts, data mining and Big Data have captured the attention of practitioners and academics for the last 20 years. On the other hand, and despite the growing amount of data in its business context, the AEC sector still lags behind in utilising those concepts in its end products and daily operations with limited research conducted to explore those issues at the sector level. This paper investigates the main opportunities and barriers for data mining in the AEC sector with a practical focus.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Muhammad Faisal Javed, Mohammed Jameel, Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Sumaira Qayyum, Niaz B. Khan and Tufail Ahmad Khan

This study aims to focus on second grade fluid flow over a rotating disk in the presence of chemical reaction. Uniform magnetic field is also taken into account. Because…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on second grade fluid flow over a rotating disk in the presence of chemical reaction. Uniform magnetic field is also taken into account. Because of the smaller magnetic Reynolds number, induced magnetic field is negligible. Heat equation is constructed by considering heat source/sink.

Design/methodology/approach

Suitable variables are used to transform nonlinear partial differential equations to ordinary ones. Convergent series solutions are attained by applying homotopy analysis method.

Findings

Trends of different parameters on concentration, velocity and temperature are shown graphically. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are calculated and investigated under the effect of elaborated parameters. An elevation in the value of magnetic field parameter causes collapse in the velocity distributions. Velocity distribution in increasing function of viscoelastic parameter. Temperature and concentration profiles are decreasing functions of viscoelastic parameter. Concentration distribution reduces by increasing the chemical reaction parameter. There is more surface drag force for larger M, while opposite behavior is noted for β.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, such consideration is yet to be published in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Sumaira Jabeen, Tasawar Hayat, Sumaira Qayyum and Ahmed Alsaedi

The purpose of this paper is to address double stratification and activation energy in flow of tangent hyperbolic fluid. Flow is induced by non-linear stretching sheet of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address double stratification and activation energy in flow of tangent hyperbolic fluid. Flow is induced by non-linear stretching sheet of variable thickness. Heat flux by Cattaneo–Christov theory is implemented.

Design/methodology/approach

Non-linear system is computed for the convergent solutions. Attention is particularly focused to the velocity, temperature and concentration.

Findings

It is found that temperature and thermal layer thickness are decreased for larger stratification.

Originality/value

In view of aforementioned communication, the aim of the present study is fourfold: First, to inspect stagnation point flow of tangent hyperbolic liquid by a stretched sheet; second, to discuss effect of non-Fourier heat flux and double stratification; third, to investigate activation energy; and fourth, to examine variable thickness effect.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2019

Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Sumaira Qayyum, Tasawar Hayat and Ahmed Alsaedi

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Sutterby fluid flow by a rotating disk with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Inspection of heat transfer is through…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Sutterby fluid flow by a rotating disk with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Inspection of heat transfer is through Cattaneo–Christov model. Stratification effect is also considered.

Design/methodology/approach

Nonlinear equations are solved by the homotopy technique.

Findings

Sutterby fluid flow by rotating disk is not considered yet. Here the authors intend to analyze it with Cattaneo–Christov heat flux and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Thermal stratification is also taken into consideration.

Originality/value

No such work is yet done in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Muhammad Bilal Khan, Rehan Zahid, Ali Hussain Kazim and Khalid Javed

Depleting reserves of crude oils and their adverse environmental effects have shifted focus toward environment friendly and biobased lubricant base oils. Natural oils and…

Abstract

Purpose

Depleting reserves of crude oils and their adverse environmental effects have shifted focus toward environment friendly and biobased lubricant base oils. Natural oils and fats act as good lubricants but they have low oxidation and thermal stability which makes them unsuitable for modern day uses. This paper aims to produce trimethylolpropane ester biolubricant from cottonseed oil and study the effects of its use in spark ignition (SI) engines.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, cottonseed oil is converted to TMP lubricant by a two-step based catalyzed esterification. The lubricants thermophysical properties are then analyzed and a 20% blend with synthetic poly-alpha olefin is used in an spark ignition engine.

Findings

The produced lubricant has viscosity @100oC of 4.91 cSt, a viscosity index of 230 and a flash point of 202oC. When used as a 20% blend in a petrol engine, the rate of oil deterioration was reduced by 18%, however, the overall wear increased by 6.7%. However, this increase is offset by its improved environmental impacts.

Originality/value

In its current state, such a biolubricant can be used as an additive to most commercially available lubricants to improve oil deterioration characteristics and environmental impact. However, further work on improving biolubricant’s wear characteristics is needed for the complete replacement of mineral oil-based lubricants.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Basit Shahzad, Ikramullah Lali, M. Saqib Nawaz, Waqar Aslam, Raza Mustafa and Atif Mashkoor

Twitter users’ generated data, known as tweets, are now not only used for communication and opinion sharing, but they are considered an important source of trendsetting…

Abstract

Purpose

Twitter users’ generated data, known as tweets, are now not only used for communication and opinion sharing, but they are considered an important source of trendsetting, future prediction, recommendation systems and marketing. Using network features in tweet modeling and applying data mining and deep learning techniques on tweets is gaining more and more interest.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, user interests are discovered from Twitter Trends using a modeling approach that uses network-based text data (tweets). First, the popular trends are collected and stored in separate documents. These data are then pre-processed, followed by their labeling in respective categories. Data are then modeled and user interest for each Trending topic is calculated by considering positive tweets in that trend, average retweet and favorite count.

Findings

The proposed approach can be used to infer users’ topics of interest on Twitter and to categorize them. Support vector machine can be used for training and validation purposes. Positive tweets can be further analyzed to find user posting patterns. There is a positive correlation between tweets and Google data.

Practical implications

The results can be used in the development of information filtering and prediction systems, especially in personalized recommendation systems.

Social implications

Twitter microblogging platform offers content posting and sharing to billions of internet users worldwide. Therefore, this work has significant socioeconomic impacts.

Originality/value

This study guides on how Twitter network structure features can be exploited in discovering user interests using tweets. Further, positive correlation of Twitter Trends with Google Trends is reported, which validates the correctness of the authors’ approach.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Ejaz Aslam and Razali Haron

The existing literature asserted that the Islamic banking industry progress significantly, but it has increasingly found asset deficient which assaulted the performance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The existing literature asserted that the Islamic banking industry progress significantly, but it has increasingly found asset deficient which assaulted the performance of Islamic banks (IBs). The aim of this study to examine the mediating role of intellectual capital (IC) on the relationship between corporate governance (CG) mechanisms and IBs performance is examined (ATO, NPM).

Design/methodology/approach

A panel sample of 129 IBs is drawn from the 29 organisation of Islamic cooperation (OIC) countries from 2008 to 2017. Two-step system generalized method of moments (2SYS-GMM) was used to account for the unobserved endogeneity and heteroscedasticity problem.

Findings

The empirical findings demonstrate that there is a significant impact of the CG mechanism on IC. Moreover, the empirical findings indicate that CG has a direct influence on banking performance but it affects indirectly through IC. IC also appears to have a mediation role in the relationship between the CG mechanism and the performance of IBs.

Research limitations/implications

As the empirical research on IC from CG point of view in Islamic banking is generally new in the banking literature, the output of this research will contribute to the building up of empirical framework and practices regarding IC in the Islamic banking industry by using the resource-based theory as a leading theory and agency theory as a sub theory. It is anticipated that this study provided a superior comprehensive discussion of the IC in IBs across OIC countries which discovers the CG mechanism to influence the IC to improve banking performance.

Practical implications

This study offers useful insights to the regulators and practitioners to draw the rules and regulations in improving the CG mechanism and the effectiveness of internal controls by acknowledging the importance of IC in Islamic banking institutions. Particularly, the findings of this study may be of benefit to bankers to efficiently use the IC as a premise to design new and creative strategies to achieve a competitive advantage in the banking industry.

Originality/value

The study is unique in its nature because it presents a successful model for IBs to concentrate more on the role of IC in enhancing banking performance, which might be used by the banks to rearrange the roles within CG, to place their priorities regarding the internal governance system and financial plans for competency enhancement.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Ejaz Aslam and Razali Haron

This paper aims to investigate the impact of corporate governance and other related factors on the risk-taking of Islamic banks. Risk-taking is defined according to credit…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of corporate governance and other related factors on the risk-taking of Islamic banks. Risk-taking is defined according to credit risk, liquidity risk and operational risk.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the two step system generalized method of moment (2SYS-GMM) estimation technique by using a panel data set of 129 Islamic banks (IBs) from 29 countries in the Middle East, South Asia and the Southeast Asia regions covering from 2008 to 2017. Governance variables incorporated include board size, board independence, chief executive officer (CEO) power, Shariah board and audit committee, as well as other control variables.

Findings

This study provides evidence that board size and Shariah board are positively and significantly related to credit and liquidity risk. Board independence and CEO power are negative and significantly associated with credit and liquidity risk, but the audit committee has a mixed relationship with bank risk. Male CEOs take more risk compared to the female and more board meeting has an inverse relationship with Islamic banks risk. Bank size, however, does not influence the level of risk in Islamic banks, but leverage has an inverse relationship with bank risk.

Research limitations/implications

The present study sheds light on the risk-taking behaviour of the board of IBs, particularly the board independence and CEO power reducing the level of risk in IBs thereby contributing to the agency theory. Therefore, regulators and policymakers can use the findings of this study to strengthen the internal corporate governance mechanism to protect IBs at a time of financial distress. Moreover, it increases the trust of the shareholders and stakeholders in the effectiveness of governance reforms that have been pursued to reap long-term benefits.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this research is preliminary in examining the board behaviour on risk-taking of IBs from four different regions. The results are robust and suggest that the board of directors mitigate the level of risk in IBs.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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