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The purpose of this paper is to review studies focusing on the magnitude of money laundering and their effects on a country’s economy. The relevant concepts are identified…
The purpose of this paper is to review studies focusing on the magnitude of money laundering and their effects on a country’s economy. The relevant concepts are identified on the basis of discussions in the literature by prominent scholars and policy makers. There are three main objectives in this review: first, to discuss the effects of money laundering on a country’s macro-economy; second, to seek measurements from other scholars; and finally, to seek previous findings about the magnitude and the flows of money laundering.
In the first part, this paper outlines the effects of money laundering on macroeconomic conditions of a country, and then the second part reviews the literature that measures the magnitude of money laundering from an economic perspective.
Money laundering affects a country’s economy by increasing shadow economy and criminal activities, illicit flows and impeding tax collection. To minimise these negative effects, it is necessary to quantify the magnitude of money laundering relative to economic conditions to identify the most vulnerable aspects of money laundering in a country. Two approaches are used in this study: the first is the capital flight approach, as money laundering will cause flows of money between countries; the second is the economic approach for measuring money laundering through economic variables (e.g. tax revenue, underground economy and income generated by criminals) separately from tax evasion.
The paper offers new insights for the measurement of money laundering, especially for developing countries. Most methods in quantifying money laundering have focused on developed countries, which are less applicable to developing countries.
The purpose of this paper is to present research work on systemic and cybernetic knowingness: relating according to classical and original concepts: “(a)symmetry” and…
The purpose of this paper is to present research work on systemic and cybernetic knowingness: relating according to classical and original concepts: “(a)symmetry” and “subtleness”. There is an entire project focused on contemporary complexity versus the information‐knowledge dynamics.
The starting point is related to the denominations: “perverse effects” and “asymmetric conflicts”. The paper supports innovative (a)symmetric approaches on human beings, ITC and community: shrinking the gap between humanist and technologist perspectives; promoting an anthropocentric perspective with stimuli from the real world expressed by (old and new) ideas regarding the (re)construction of a world/e‐world balance through/within the triad: production, intelligence and morality; and illustrating a positive e‐world response by sketching innovative, synergy‐based, experimental ITC models, considering metaphors linked to the idea of an open definition of subtleness.
The paper finds a shrinking gap between our world and our e‐world, able to integrate biased perspectives and realising a composition of (a)symmetric matter within information/knowledge economy/society. Based on semantic transfer, there is a promising path to a creative partnership between humanists and technologists within the interactive modelling: connectedness‐communication versus incursion‐anticipation. From a knowledge engineering perspective, a solution can be reached more effectively by: a Wienerian view on the information and knowledge as (a)symmetric concepts/constructs – and a dually Göedelian view on the observability and controllability of a subtle entity/system toward a wisdom and/or consciousness society.
This paper provides information and knowledge on “information‐knowledge dynamics” research.