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Article

Manhal Gobara Hamid and Abdel Azim Ahmed Mohamed Nour

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of different drying methods on quality attributes of beetroot slices.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of different drying methods on quality attributes of beetroot slices.

Design/methodology/approach

Three drying methods (sun, oven and freeze-drying) were applied to dry fresh slices of beetroot cultivar (Beta vulgaris). The chemical composition, minerals, nitrate, betalains, total phenolic, total flavonoid and color were measured for fresh and dried slices.

Findings

The chemical composition, minerals, nitrate, bioactive compounds and color were measured for fresh and dried slices. Regardless of the drying method, the results showed that the chemical composition, total energy, minerals and nitrate of the dried slices were significantly (p=0.05) increased compared to that of fresh slices. Sun and oven drying of the slices significantly (p=0.05) reduced total betalain and betacynin. However, betaxanthin was significantly (p=0.05) increased. Total phenolics content of fresh beetroot was significantly (p=0.05) increased after sun and oven drying but total flavonoids were decreased. The 2,2,-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) of fresh beetroot was increased significantly (p=0.05) after sun and oven drying. The measurement of the color of the powder showed that there is a decrease in lightness (L) depending on the drying method applied. A maximum reduction in lightness was observed in powder of sun-dried slices. The color of the powder obtained from freeze-dried slices was stable compared to other drying methods.

Practical implications

Beetroot is a rich source of nutrients but with short shelf life. Dried beetroot has more keeping quality than the fresh one.

Originality/value

The study uses beetroot as a rich source of nutrients as well as natural antioxidant source. Betalain compounds are preserved in beetroot and a high source of phenolics and flavonoids. Flavonoids are a group of phenolic products of plant metabolism with high antioxidant properties to protect against diseases without side effects.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article

Ummi Nur Ain Abdul Razak, R.M. Taha, Siti Aisha Na’illa Che Musa and Normadiha Mohamed

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential of betacyanin pigment extracted from Hylocereus polyrhizus fruit pulp and peel as a natural colorant and to observe…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential of betacyanin pigment extracted from Hylocereus polyrhizus fruit pulp and peel as a natural colorant and to observe the effects of pH and light on betacyanin contents.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, pigment from the pulp and peel of H. polyrhizus fruits was extracted using 80 per cent methanol and 80 per cent acetone. Effects of pH and light exposure during storage on betacyanin content were evaluated. The betacyanin extract, mixed with 20 per cent poly(methyl methacrylate) and coated onto glass slides, was tested with different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaCl) to determine its durability. An ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing the betacyanin content.

Findings

Betacyanin pigment extracted from pulp using 80 per cent acetone as the solvent at pH 1.0 had the highest betacyanin content. Betacyanin content decreased when stored under exposure of light compared to storage in dark. In this study, increasing concentration of NaCl decreased the absorbance values at faster rates for betacyanin-coated glass slides.

Research limitations/implications

Acetone is volatile and evaporates rapidly. Pigments extracted with acetone were stored in glass vials which were closed tightly to prevent evaporation.

Social implications

The social implication is the use of natural pigments from cactus species as a valuable and eco-friendly source in a coating system without adverse effects for human health.

Originality/value

The method for detection of stability and effectiveness of betacyanin pigment used as a natural colorant for coating application was beneficial and recent for environment-friendly and natural plant-based product development.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Maria Rita Alaniz Porto, Vivian Sayuri Okina, Tatiana Colombo Pimentel, Sandra Garcia and Sandra Helena Prudencio

The purpose of this study was to evaluate beet and orange mixed juices added with lyophilized Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic culture.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate beet and orange mixed juices added with lyophilized Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Two formulations of probiotic beet and orange mixed juices (1:1 e 1:2 v/v) were prepared, stored at 4°C for 28 days and were evaluated for probiotic survival, physicochemical stability, antioxidant activity and sensory acceptance. The probiotic culture was added in a lyophilized form and was not propagated in culture media or juice.

Findings

Physicochemical characteristics (pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and color) and antioxidant activity showed no undesirable alterations during storage. The number of probiotics followed established minimum requirement for probiotic foods (109 CFU/200mL) during the 28 days of storage. The juices showed good sensory acceptance and purchase intention, especially regarding the color of the product.

Practical implications

The beet and orange mixed juices are suitable carriers for L. acidophilus with a shelf life of at least 28 days at 4°C.

Originality/value

Direct addition of the probiotic culture could result in high probiotic survival in mixed juices, dispensing the propagation step.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article

Ruben Suarez-Hernandez, Jose G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Gloria F. Dominguez-Patiño and Alberto Martinez-Villafañe

The purpose of this investigation is to study the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel (CS) using a “green” inhibitor, Opuntia ficus-indica, in an aerated, 0.5 M H2SO4

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this investigation is to study the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel (CS) using a “green” inhibitor, Opuntia ficus-indica, in an aerated, 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at different concentrations and temperatures.

Design/methodology/approach

Weight loss determinations, surface studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization were applied during the investigation.

Findings

It was observed that Opuntia ficus-indica extract can decrease the corrosion rate of CS, and its efficiency increases with increasing concentration up to 1,000 ppm and with time, but decreases with increasing the temperature from 25 to 600C. The inhibitory activity is due to the presence of phenolic compounds in its chemical structure.

Research limitations/implications

The work was done under static conditions, whereas in acid cleaning conditions, there is a dynamic system. However, the findings may apply to both the systems.

Practical implications

CS is used in acidic environments in the acid cleaning industry.

Social implications

Results of this work show that it is possible to reduce the cost of repair of equipment and the environmental impact of corrosion.

Originality/value

There are very few investigations on the study of Opuntia ficus-indica leaf extract as a green inhibitor in an acidic environment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 61 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

J.B. Adams

Anthocyanins. The anthocyanin pigments impart the pleasing red and purple colours associated with many fruits and vegetables. They belong to the class of compounds…

Abstract

Anthocyanins. The anthocyanin pigments impart the pleasing red and purple colours associated with many fruits and vegetables. They belong to the class of compounds referred to as ‘flavonoids’ and, in chemical terms, they are flavylium salts differing in the number and position of free or methylated hydroxyl groups and with a sugar moiety linked through position 3 or positions 3 and 5 in the ring. A commonly occurring anthocyanin pigment, cyanidin‐3‐glucoside, is shown in figure 3. The anthocyanins are soluble in water and are unstable under a variety of enzymic and non‐enzymic conditions.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 81 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Prashant Singh, Sanjay Yadav, Ashok Pathera and Diwakar Sharma

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of vacuum tumbling and red beetroot juice (RBJ) incorporation on quality characteristics of marinated chicken breast and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of vacuum tumbling and red beetroot juice (RBJ) incorporation on quality characteristics of marinated chicken breast and leg meat cuts.

Design/methodology/approach

Vacuum tumbling of breast and leg meat cuts was carried for a duration of 2 h and compared with control (0 h tumbling) and traditionally marinated (6 h) meat cuts. Vacuum-tumbled treatments were also marinated using RBJ in place of water to assess the combined effect of RBJ and vacuum tumbling. All the cuts were cooked in an oven at 170°C for 40 min. Quality characteristics of fresh and refrigerated products were analysed.

Findings

Vacuum tumbling for 2 h resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in marinade pickup, water-holding capacity (WHC), cooking yield, moisture and ash content and a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in hardness, gumminess, chewiness and shear press values in both types of meat. Breast meat treatments had significantly (p < 0.05) higher WHC, moisture, protein, cohesiveness and gumminess and significantly lower fat content, hardness and shear press values than leg meat treatments. Control breast and leg meats had marinade pickup of 9.19 and 9.31 per cent and cooking yield of 69.08 and 68.31 per cent, respectively, whereas corresponding values for treated breast and leg meats varied from 11.28 to 11.98 per cent and 73.32 to 74.94 per cent, respectively. Sensory scores declined significantly (p < 0.05) during refrigerated storage. On the 12th day of storage, control breast and leg meat cuts had acceptability scores of around 5.0, whereas all other treatments had acceptability scores between 6.0 and 7.0 on an eight-point scale, with RBJ-treated products having the highest acceptability. All the products were also microbiologically safe up to the 12th day of refrigerated storage.

Originality/value

The research is valuable to meat processors because vacuum tumbling for 2 h using RBJ as marinade can be used in place of 6 h of traditional marination for developing marinated chicken breast and leg meat products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Hashimah Elias, Rosna Mat Taha, Nor Azlina Hasbullah, Rashidi Othman, Noraini Mahmad, Azani Saleh and Sakinah Abdullah

This paper aims to study the effect of different organic solvents on the extraction of pigments present in callus cultures of E. cinerascens.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of different organic solvents on the extraction of pigments present in callus cultures of E. cinerascens.

Design/methodology/approach

Attempts have been made to extract pigments from callus cultures through tissue culture system as an alternative replacement for conventional plant cultivation as tissue culture provides unlimited supplies of plant samples. Callus of E. cinerascens was induced from stem explant cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with combination of 0.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and 0.5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid maintained under photoperiod of 16 h light and 8 h dark. Fresh samples of the callus were harvested and dissolved in various types and concentrations of solvents such as 100 per cent acetone, 80 per cent acetone, 95 per cent ethanol, 100 per cent methanol and 90 per cent methanol. Each of the mixtures was directly centrifuged to get clear supernatant containing pigments of interest. The pigments were detected and subsequently quantified via two simple techniques, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer and thin layer chromatography (TLC).

Findings

UV-Vis spectrophotometer detected two families of pigments present in the callus cultures, namely, carotenoids (carotene and xanthophyll) and tetrapyrroles (chlorophyll a and b). Pigment contents in various solvent extractions were estimated using spectroscopic quantification equations established. Through TLC, spots were seen on the plates, and Rf values of each spots were assessed to indicate the possible existence of carotenoids and tetrapyrroles.

Originality/value

This preliminary study offers significant finding for further advance research related on natural pigments extracted from E. cinerascens that would provide profits in the future applications, especially in food industry, medicine, agriculture, etc.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Chin Xuan Tan, Seok Shin Tan, Hasanah Mohd Ghazali and Seok Tyug Tan

Thompson red avocado is a bright red-coloured fruit when ripe. As the global market for avocado fruit is increasing, this unique avocado variety could potentially be the…

Abstract

Purpose

Thompson red avocado is a bright red-coloured fruit when ripe. As the global market for avocado fruit is increasing, this unique avocado variety could potentially be the savory fruit for consumers. The study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of different parts of Thomson red avocado fruit.

Design/methodology/approach

Physical parameters were measured using a calibrated digital balance and a vernier caliper. The methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and a calibrated digital pH meter were used to measure the proximate composition and pH values of different fruit parts. Meanwhile, the total soluble solids and titratable acidity were determined using titration methods.

Findings

Thompson red avocado is a medium-sized fruit with an average mass, length and diameter of 216.92 g, 9.50 and 7.20 cm, respectively. The major part of the fruit is pulp (56.01%), followed by seed (33.04%) and peel (10.94%). Each of these fruit parts was further investigated for their proximate composition, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. All the fruit parts were found to be low in protein (<1%) and titratable acidity (<0.42%), but high in moisture content (>60%). The pH of these fruit parts was in the range of 5.04–5.59. Compared to the peel and seed, the pulp has the highest crude fat (20.79%), but the lowest ash content (1.47%), total carbohydrates (3.39%) and total soluble solids (7.83 ºBrix).

Originality/value

The physical and chemical properties of the commercial avocado varieties such as Fortuna, Collinson, Hass and Barker are well-documented in the literature. Unlike typical avocado fruits, which change from green into dark black, dark green or deep purplish colour when ripe, Thompson red variety changes into red colour when ripe. As the global market for avocado fruit is increasing, the unique, bright-red-coloured Thompson red avocado could potentially be the savoury fruit for consumers. Previous studies reported the nutritional composition of avocado fruit is affected by variety and geographical locations, but the data on the nutritional profile of Thompson red avocado fruit are scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the physical properties and nutrient contents of Thompson red avocado fruit.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

J.B. Adams

The colour of foods has a great influence on their acceptability to the consumer. Foods appear coloured because the pigments they contain absorb light of some wavelengths…

Abstract

The colour of foods has a great influence on their acceptability to the consumer. Foods appear coloured because the pigments they contain absorb light of some wavelengths and reflect or transmit light of others. Hence, much research has been directed towards the identification of pigments and their behaviour during processing. As a result of the complex nature of foods it is not surprising that much of our present knowledge is derived from studies on isolated pigments or model systems. The data from such studies may, however, only account for some of the changes which take place in the actual food. Colour is affected not only by the concentration of pigments but also by the physical structure of the food and the way in which light is scattered from its surface.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 81 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Siti Aisha Na’illa Che Musa, R.M. Taha, Ummi Nur Ain Abdul Razak, Nordiyanah Anuar and A.K. Arof

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of natural colorant extracted from fruit flesh and leaves of Cucumis melo L. (C. melo L.) in coating applications.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of natural colorant extracted from fruit flesh and leaves of Cucumis melo L. (C. melo L.) in coating applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Carotenoids and chlorophylls compounds were extracted from C. melo L. fruit flesh and C. melo L. leaves with the best extraction solvents. Both compounds were tested at various pH for colour stability tests. Then, the most stable pH of both extracts was mixed with 20 per cent poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) together with tetrahydrofuran and acrylic polyol to form a coating system on glass slides. The coated glass slides were exposed to three different temperatures. The effects of heat on the coated glass slides were evaluated using spectrophotometer at 400-700 nm wavelengths.

Findings

Results revealed that carotenoids extracted from C. melo L. were less stable to be applied in coating applications since the colour degraded in a very short time; however, the chlorophylls extracted were more stable where the colour retained for longer duration.

Originality/value

The method of the plant pigment production of C. melo L. with PMMA was a modified method that could give other various applications as natural product based on plant pigments.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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