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Article

Sanije Krasniqi and Besnik Krasniqi

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the research literature on how sport can be used more productively as a peacebuilding device in post-conflict countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the research literature on how sport can be used more productively as a peacebuilding device in post-conflict countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses interviewing method that includes both semi-structured and unstructured interviews with trainers, instructors and children involved in implementing Open Fun Football Schools (OFFSs) in Kosovo.

Findings

Findings show that OFFSs have played a vital role in peacebuilding in Kosovo by bringing together people from different ethnic backgrounds in Kosovo, which contributed to social inclusion of Albanians and Serbs, and other communities by changing their initial attitudes toward one another.

Research limitations/implications

The main research limitation is the usage of semi-structured and unstructured questionnaires instead of structured questionnaires, which would provide more generalized conclusions about the OFFSs. More research is needed on this topic to investigate the effect of similar programs in other country contexts.

Practical implications

The most important practical implication of the research is that conflict mitigation through football sports programs and activities can be used in other similar contexts by donors and the international community. OFFSs offer a hope for peacebuilding, and if adequately implemented can contribute to peacebuilding in post-conflict societies similar to Kosovo’s context. The positive attitude changes as a result of participation in the OFFS programs shows that these joint programs can promote better ethnic relations. There is a need for the expansion of such programs to reach more people.

Originality/value

The study provides an original contribution as there has been almost no prior research which actually measured the effects of OFFSs on change of youth attitudes through the integrated sport programs with different ethnicity in Kosovo.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article

Besnik Krasniqi and David Branch

The quality of institutions matters for firm growth. Yet, there is a research gap in controlling for moderating effect of size on institutions and firm growth in…

Abstract

Purpose

The quality of institutions matters for firm growth. Yet, there is a research gap in controlling for moderating effect of size on institutions and firm growth in transitional context and especially in post-conflict economies. Building on institutional theory, this research aims to explore the influence of different types of institutional variables (taxes, corruption, administrative, finance and other barriers) on the growth of firms in Kosovo, while controlling for the firm size moderating effect.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses linear regression analysis based on a survey with 451 owner-managers of growing small firms in the post-conflict economy of Kosovo.

Findings

Corruption and administrative burden are crucial factors that influence firm growth. Corruption is found to have a negative effect, and when moderated by the size of the firm, it becomes positive, suggesting that larger firms make use of informal institutions and create links with public officials to manage institutional deficiencies. This size interaction with administrative barrier variables becomes positive. Other control variables (export status, separation of ownership and control, membership in business association) suggest that managerial-level variables have a positive impact on firm growth. The human capital variable specifically indicates that companies compensate for a deficiency in formal education by providing additional training for employees and their managers.

Research limitations/implications

Future research based on qualitative research can contribute to a greater understanding of how larger firms use resources to overcome barriers, and to align their business strategies in the weak post-conflict environments.

Originality/value

This research extends current understanding of how institutional variables interact with firm size and impact firm growth. It also provides implications for policymakers and entrepreneurs/managers for improving the growth of SMEs, and for aligning firms with the institutional environment in post-conflict countries.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article

Florin Aliu, Artor Nuhiu, Besnik A. Krasniqi and Gent Jusufi

This study aims to compare the diversification risk of the crypto portfolio with those of equity portfolios. For this purpose, the hypothetical index was constructed with…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the diversification risk of the crypto portfolio with those of equity portfolios. For this purpose, the hypothetical index was constructed with 20 cryptocurrencies that hold the highest market capitalization in the Coin Market Cap database, named as the Crypto-Index 20.

Design/methodology/approach

The portfolio diversification techniques were used to identify risk linked with the six largest European equity indexes and compared with the Crypto-Index 20. Indexes were considered as an independent portfolio while analysis was completed separately for each of them. Data concerning stock prices and their trade volume were collected from the Thomson Reuters Eikon database while crypto prices and their trade volume from the Coin Market Cap database. The diversification risk of the stock indexes was measured separately for each portfolio with the same risk techniques and the same methodological process.

Findings

Research results indicate that Crypto-Index 20 on average was 76 times riskier than FTSE 100, 55 times riskier than FTSE MIB, 44 times riskier than IBEX 35, 10 times riskier than CAC 40 and 9 times riskier than DAX and MDAX. Crypto-Index 20 comprises a stronger positive correlation and is exposed to higher volatility than six selected European equity indexes.

Originality/value

This research provides practical implications for the investors on the diversification benefits and risks attached to the cryptocurrencies portfolio by comparing it with the traditional equity portfolios. From a policy perspective, regulators might obtain information on the risk properties involved into cryptocurrencies and the possibility of creating an optimal portfolio.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

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Article

Gentrit Berisha, Besnik Krasniqi, Justina Shiroka-Pula and Enver Kutllovci

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between conflict handling styles (CHS) of business managers in their entrepreneurial intentions (EI). The business…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between conflict handling styles (CHS) of business managers in their entrepreneurial intentions (EI). The business manager’s propensity to become entrepreneurs is a relatively unexplored area of research. The relationship between conflict handling style and entrepreneurial intention is under-researched, particularly in a developing country like Kosovo.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-report questionnaire containing measures of conflict handing style, entrepreneurial intention and demographics was delivered to business managers in Kosovo.

Findings

Forcing style has a positive and statistically significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention. Yielding, compromising, problem solving and avoiding have weak and insignificant effects on EI.

Research limitations/implications

The relationship between conflict handling styles of managers and their entrepreneurial intention is investigated. No situational, organizational or environmental factor was considered influencing this relationship.

Practical implications

Conflict management is important in predicting the entrepreneurial intention of managers. Organizations should design human resource interventions aimed at effective team composition and employee retention to ensure performance.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the relationship between conflict handling style and entrepreneurial intention using a manager sample. Furthermore, it is the first study of conflict handling styles and entrepreneurial intention of managers in Kosovo.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article

Colin C. Williams and Besnik Krasniqi

Recently, a small but burgeoning literature has argued that tax non-compliance cannot be fully explained using the conventional rational economic actor approach which…

Abstract

Purpose

Recently, a small but burgeoning literature has argued that tax non-compliance cannot be fully explained using the conventional rational economic actor approach which views non-compliance as occurring when the pay-off is greater than the expected cost of being caught and punished. Instead, a social actor approach has emerged which views tax non-compliance as higher when “tax morale”, defined as the intrinsic motivation to pay taxes, is low. To advance this social actor model, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the individual and national heterogeneity in tax morale, which is crucial if tax compliance is to be improved.

Design/methodology/approach

To do this, the authors report data from the 2010 Life in Transition Survey on tax morale in 35 Eurasian countries.

Findings

Logit econometric analysis reveals, on the one hand, that there is higher tax morale among middle-aged, married, homeowners with children, with a university degree and employed, and on the other hand, that there is higher tax morale in more developed countries with stronger legal systems and less corruption, and higher levels of state intervention in the form of both taxation and expenditure.

Research limitations/implications

Rather than continue with the rational actor approach, this paper reveals that how an emergent social actor approach can help to more fully explain tax non-compliance and results in a different policy approach focused upon changing country-level economic and social conditions associated with low tax morale and thus non-compliance.

Practical implications

These results display the specific populations with low tax morale which need targeting when seeking to tackle tax non-compliance.

Originality/value

This paper provides a new way of explaining and tackling tax non-compliance in Eurasian countries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Book part

Abetare Domi and Besnik Krasniqi

This study analyses small-firm responses to an economic crisis, based on an empirical investigation in the post-conflict economy of Kosovo. Although the recent financial…

Abstract

This study analyses small-firm responses to an economic crisis, based on an empirical investigation in the post-conflict economy of Kosovo. Although the recent financial crisis affected all economies, we can expect differences in its effects across economies depending on their level of economic development, relative exposure to the crisis, as well as differences in entrepreneurial responses to adapt to the crisis. Kosovo makes a unique case to investigate the impact of the crisis on firm adaptive strategies to overcome or cope with the crisis. Drawing on data from in-depth, multiple case studies show that small firms during the crisis have successfully chosen to diversify and expand into new areas of business in order to compensate for low demand. By contrast, cost reduction was not a successful strategic response. The study demonstrates that although crisis affects many small firms, they show underlying resilience and a high level of adaptability and flexibility.

Details

Societal Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-471-7

Keywords

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Article

Iraj Hashi and Besnik A. Krasniqi

This paper seeks to examine the impact of firms' technological capability and other firm and environmental characteristics on the growth of small and medium‐sized…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the impact of firms' technological capability and other firm and environmental characteristics on the growth of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in six transition countries at different stages of transition. It compares three advanced Central Eastern European countries (Poland, Hungary, and Czech Republic) with three laggard countries in South Eastern Europe (Albania, Macedonia, and Serbia and Montenegro).

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical framework is proposed based on three groups of factors influencing SME growth: innovative and entrepreneurial features of the firm, characteristics of the firm, and those related to the institutional/business environment. Subsequently this paper uses the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) conducted by the World Bank/EBRD in 2002 and 2005 to test a number of hypotheses regarding the determinants of SME growth.

Findings

The two groups of countries have similarities and differences: both display similar trends with respect to the growth process; both are affected by entrepreneurship activities positively; but the institutional barriers affecting the two groups are somewhat different. It was also found that, despite the growing importance of SMEs in all transition economies, they still face many institutional barriers – which have prevented them from making a greater contribution.

Research limitations/implications

The key limitations of the empirical investigation are the qualitative nature of survey data and the shortcomings associated with self‐declaration of entrepreneurs. It is important for future research to complement this line of research with panel data.

Originality/value

This cross‐country study extends current understanding of the determinants of SME growth in various stages of transition economies based on a unique data set. It also provides some implications for policymakers as well as entrepreneurs/managers for improving the growth of SMEs.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article

Besnik A. Krasniqi

The purpose of this paper is to explore personal, household and business environmental influences on entrepreneurship in Kosova.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore personal, household and business environmental influences on entrepreneurship in Kosova.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of a econometric investigation using a binary choice model based on a nationally representative labour force and household survey conducted by Riinvest Institute at the end of 2002.

Findings

The results suggest that males, those who live in urban areas, belonging to a larger family/household, have a higher likelihood of being involved in entrepreneurial activities, while a weak positive effect of age and no significant effect of marital status are found. Self‐employed were more likely to be found in sectors where start‐up and sunk costs are expected to be lower (such as services and trade), those sectors that experienced high growth (construction) and in the regions in which entrepreneurship is more developed. In contrast with previous studies, it is found that education received household remittances and the presence of an additional wage earner in a household have negative impact on entrepreneurial activities arising from country‐specific features.

Research limitations/implications

These empirical findings identified determinants influencing entrepreneurial activities providing basis for policy discussion aimed at entrepreneurship development in the country.

Originality/value

The paper complements rather scarce empirical evidence on determinants of entrepreneurship from a unique transition country. It highlights the role of some transition and country‐specific factors in entrepreneurial activity of the population, providing better insights in understanding entrepreneurial behaviour of people in general and in transition economies in particular.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Book part

Vanessa Ratten and Leo-Paul Dana

This book provides an opportunity to explore the societal effects of entrepreneurship and its result on competitiveness. Over the last decade society has changed as the…

Abstract

This book provides an opportunity to explore the societal effects of entrepreneurship and its result on competitiveness. Over the last decade society has changed as the consequence of demographic shifts and increased usage of information communications technology. This has influenced the type of entrepreneurship individuals and firms to engage in and the focus of their businesses. Despite the importance of society to the speed and rate of entrepreneurship, little research exists that specifically examines societal entrepreneurship and competitiveness. This book aims at narrowing this research gap by discussing the interface between society and entrepreneurship. The core theme emerging from the chapters in this book is that the context of entrepreneurship is dependent on societal perceptions.

Details

Societal Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-471-7

Keywords

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