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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

Thomas Leneke, Soeren Hirsch and Bertram Schmidt

The purpose of this paper is to present a new multilayer process for three‐dimensional molded interconnect devices (3D‐MIDs) that allows the assembly of modern area array packaged…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new multilayer process for three‐dimensional molded interconnect devices (3D‐MIDs) that allows the assembly of modern area array packaged semiconductors.

Design/methodology/approach

A new 3D‐MID multilayer process based on local overmolding is developed. To investigate this new process, a 3D demonstrator is designed, simulated and fabricated. Various technologies such as injection molding, maskless laser assisted electroless metallization, overmolding and laser via drilling are used.

Findings

Using the new 3D‐MID multilayer process a 3D demonstrator with three metallization layers is fabricated. Injection molding simulation is utilized to ensure a feasible demonstrator design. It is shown that a surface laser treatment improves layer‐to‐layer adhesion during the process. Shear and pull tests prove the adhesion promotion. The 3D fine‐pitch‐metallization is done down to 60 μm track width. Via resistance is measured by four terminal sensing in agreement with previous results. Design rules for process compatible vias are introduced. The fabricated demonstrator is suitable for flip‐chip‐based area array packaged semiconductors.

Research limitations/implications

A proof of concept is given by the fabricated demonstrator. Further, work should include reliability tests of the multilayer structures and improvement of individual process steps.

Originality/value

The paper describes a new multilayer process for 3D‐MIDs. It overcomes existing restrictions regarding the electrical routing on 3D‐MID surfaces. The compatibility of area array packaged semiconductors with a high‐inputs/outputs count and the 3D‐MID technology is improved.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2023

Sara Gusmao Brissi and Luciana Debs

This study focuses on identifying key principles for implementing strategic changes in design and construction companies interested in successfully using offsite construction…

Abstract

Purpose

This study focuses on identifying key principles for implementing strategic changes in design and construction companies interested in successfully using offsite construction (OSC) in multifamily housing projects, considering the need for more affordable and sustainable multifamily housing in the United States of America (USA).

Design/methodology/approach

Using mixed methods, the study involved three phases of data collection and data analysis: (1) delphi survey, (2) online survey, (3) proposition of principles and validation interviews.

Findings

The key principles identified by the present research are (1) develop product-oriented business model, (2) promote leadership and mindset engagement with OSC principles, (3) engage in partnerships and more innovative contractual models, (4) shift toward digital transformation, (5) develop training and knowledge management strategies, (6) adopt lean construction (LC) practices, (7) develop training and knowledge management strategies and (8) integrate logistics and supply chain management with AEC (architecture, engineering and construction) processes.

Practical implications

The implementation of the principles and strategic changes identified in this study aims to prepare design and construction companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), to embrace the increasing use of OSC in multifamily projects in the USA, which will make them more efficient and resilient and, ultimately, will contribute to the construction of more affordable and sustainable multifamily housing projects in the USA.

Originality/value

This is the first research to address holistic strategies to support design and construction companies in adopting OSC.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 August 2009

Thomas Olk

Since the 1990s, the importance of childhood and children within the political agenda of advanced welfare states has grown rapidly. For example, in 1989 the Canadian House of…

Abstract

Since the 1990s, the importance of childhood and children within the political agenda of advanced welfare states has grown rapidly. For example, in 1989 the Canadian House of Commons launched a resolution aimed at eliminating poverty among Canadian children by the year 2000. With the help of the National Children's Agenda and the National Child Benefit the situation of children should be improved. Nearly 10 years later in the UK, New Labour heralded the political goal to halve child poverty within 10 years and to eradicate it within 20 years. A wide variety of measures and programs like Sure Start and the National Childcare Strategy were started to improve the welfare and well-being of children. In 2002, a new paradigm was established in Germany concerning family policy. The aim was to improve the reconciliation of family and work, the material welfare of young families by a new parental leave scheme, as well as supporting the development of young children by increasing the number of places for children under the age of 3 in early childhood education and care. Additionally, international organisations contributed to this trend. For example, the OECD (cf. 2001, 2006) propagated the development of early childhood education and care (ECEC) as an important contribution to a successful transition into the knowledge society. According to the Lisbon-Strategy, the EU announced new goals for policies concerning children and families as well as introduced benchmarks for evaluating the implementation of these goals in the member states. Finally, in an influential evaluation for the EU President, Esping-Andersen (cf. 2002) and his colleagues argued for a concept of a “child-centered social investment strategy.”

Details

Structural, Historical, and Comparative Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-732-1

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Bertram Gross

Why isn't the four letter word beginning with f— used in the title of this conference.

Abstract

Why isn't the four letter word beginning with f— used in the title of this conference.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 11 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Book part
Publication date: 14 April 2008

Trudie Knijn and Ilona Ostner

At the end of the 20th century, birth-rates had fallen below the replacement rate in many Western countries. Changing attitudes towards having children had resulted in very small…

Abstract

At the end of the 20th century, birth-rates had fallen below the replacement rate in many Western countries. Changing attitudes towards having children had resulted in very small families, even in childlessness, giving rise to the Vienna Institute of Demography analyzing EUROSTAT data on the most common reasons for Europeans between the ages of 18 and 39 being childless. Almost half of these young adults (48 per cent) said they did not want children because they had general concerns about the future; another 46 per cent lacked a steady partner, while 44 per cent reported enjoying the current childless lifestyle and believed it would be difficult to fit in children; more than a third of these young(er) adults feared the loss of leisure time. ‘Harder’ facts, such as the expense of having children and job pressures, seemed to matter less for the childless respondents, albeit still more than a third of them gave such reasons (quoted in Theil, 2006, p. 54). Concerns about the future, lifestyle and steady partnership outweigh other worries. The expense of having children, work commitments and related problems in balancing work and family may be further reasons for delaying or foregoing family formation, but are not of prime importance. Societies intent on encouraging young people to have children, and at a younger age, must take both concerns into account, i.e. invent a broad discourse on policies for children and families and at the same time design wide-ranging policies. Do they deliver? Can they deliver?

Details

Childhood: Changing Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1419-5

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

Joachim Gerd Ulrich

Discusses the impact of high wages and investment strategies in physical and human capital on eastern Germany post unification. Introduces the concept of learning‐by‐doing as an…

Abstract

Discusses the impact of high wages and investment strategies in physical and human capital on eastern Germany post unification. Introduces the concept of learning‐by‐doing as an externality of high quality investment. Provides some eclectic arguments in support of learning‐by‐doing effects which may be used to partly replace costly, publicly financed vocational training programmes.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Abstract

Details

A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-072-2

Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2017

Riccardo Bellofiore and Scott Carter

Resurgent interest in the life and work of the Italian Cambridge economist Piero Sraffa is leading to New Directions in Sraffa Scholarship. This chapter introduces readers to some…

Abstract

Resurgent interest in the life and work of the Italian Cambridge economist Piero Sraffa is leading to New Directions in Sraffa Scholarship. This chapter introduces readers to some of these developments. First and perhaps foremost is the fact that as of September 2016 Sraffa’s archival material has been uploaded onto the website of the Wren Library, Trinity College, Cambridge University, as digital colour images; this chapter introduces readers to the history of these events. This history provides sharp relief on the extant debates over the role of the archival material in leading to the final publication of Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities, and readers are provided a brief sketch of these matters. The varied nature of Sraffa scholarship is demonstrated by the different aspects of Sraffa’s intellectual legacy which are developed and discussed in the various entries of our Symposium. The conclusion is reached that we are on the cusp of an exciting phase change of tremendous potential in Sraffa scholarship.

Details

Including a Symposium on New Directions in Sraffa Scholarship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-539-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2016

Abstract

Details

Governing for the Future: Designing Democratic Institutions for a Better Tomorrow
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-056-5

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Finn Frandsen and Winni Johansen

Previous crisis communication research has primarily examined the external dimension of crisis communication, i.e. the crisis response strategies applied by organizations to…

15629

Abstract

Purpose

Previous crisis communication research has primarily examined the external dimension of crisis communication, i.e. the crisis response strategies applied by organizations to protect and/or restore their image or reputation among external stakeholders in a crisis situation. The purpose of this paper is to set up an integrative framework for the study of internal crisis communication in private and public organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes a theoretical approach reviewing the literature on crisis management and crisis communication and discussing the concept of internal stakeholder and the implications of a staged approach.

Findings

An integrative framework for the study of internal crisis communication is developed based on two assumptions: first, that internal crisis communication research must start with a detailed study of the relationship between an organization and its internal stakeholders (in this case: the employees) to clarify to what extent internal crisis communication differs from external crisis communication; and second, that internal crisis communication research can best be systematized applying a staged approach (precrisis stage, crisis event, postcrisis stage) as an heuristic method.

Originality/value

Apart from a few exceptions, the internal dimension of crises, crisis management, and crisis communication has, by and large, been unexplored.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

1 – 10 of 61