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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2004

Roderick M. Rejesus, Bertis B. Little and Ashley C. Lovell

Defines data mining as the extraction of potentially useful information from large databases. Shows how data mining can be applied to detecting anomalous behaviour in…

Abstract

Defines data mining as the extraction of potentially useful information from large databases. Shows how data mining can be applied to detecting anomalous behaviour in American agriculture and thus support the Risk Protection Agency in its compliance mission to detect fraud in crop insurance, using corn as the crop studied and percentage of acres harvested as the key indicator for “proof of concept”. Indicates potential areas of improvement, such as the development of a single data warehouse, and the role of social scientists with knowledge of data analysis and agricultural management. Concludes that data mining could be more effective than the current technique of random selection for investigation of individual entities.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Dianne N. Irving

Outlines some basic human embryological facts and considers several myths such as “the immediate product of fertilization is just a potential human being”. Gives medical…

Abstract

Outlines some basic human embryological facts and considers several myths such as “the immediate product of fertilization is just a potential human being”. Gives medical facts to clarify these issues and concludes that these have far reaching implications for many areas of research. Argues that these decisions, at present, are based more on myth than science.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2017

Giaime Berti, Catherine Mulligan and Han Yap

The chapter introduces digital food hubs as disruptive business models in the agri-food system shifting away from the unsustainable industrialized and conventional food…

Abstract

The chapter introduces digital food hubs as disruptive business models in the agri-food system shifting away from the unsustainable industrialized and conventional food sector and moving toward a re-localized food and farming pattern. They are new digital business models developed to support small and mid-size farms with a value focus, forming new ways to leverage the technology as a facilitator for coopetitive organizational forms. Indeed, they respond to a competitive strategy constituted by a “value strategy” oriented to the production and distribution of “shared value.” Second, they are based on an “organizational strategy” that shifts from individual competition to “coopetition” through the development of local “strategic networks” among small size producers. Central to the development of these business models is the digital disruption that has offered the space for the creation of unconventional exchange and transaction mechanisms distinguishing them from the already existing traditional ways of work. The agri-food markets exhibit structural holes that impede small farms from connecting with local consumers. This is due to a lack of material infrastructures and organizational forms on behalf of small farms that cannot reach the consumers, as well as the concentration of power in the hands of a restricted numbers of distributors, which causes the unequal redistribution of the economic value and impedes small farms accessing the food market. The advent of the digital technology is reshaping the market relationship by allowing out centralized intermediaries and creating new bridges between producers and consumers.

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Global Opportunities for Entrepreneurial Growth: Coopetition and Knowledge Dynamics within and across Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-502-3

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2020

Tom Pakkanen, Jukka Sirén, Angelo Zappalà, Patrick Jern, Dario Bosco, Andrea Berti and Pekka Santtila

Crime linkage analysis (CLA) can be applied in the police investigation-phase to sift through a database to find behaviorally similar cases to the one under investigation…

Abstract

Purpose

Crime linkage analysis (CLA) can be applied in the police investigation-phase to sift through a database to find behaviorally similar cases to the one under investigation and in the trial-phase to try to prove that the perpetrator of two or more offences is the same, by showing similarity and distinctiveness in the offences. Lately, research has moved toward more naturalistic settings, analyzing data sets that are as similar to actual crime databases as possible. One such step has been to include one-off offences in the data sets, but this has not yet been done with homicide. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how linking accuracy of serial homicide is affected as a function of added hard-to-solve one-off offences.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample (N = 117–1160) of Italian serial homicides (n = 116) and hard-to-solve one-off homicides (n = 1–1044, simulated from 45 cases) was analyzed using a Bayesian approach to identify series membership, and a case by case comparison of similarity using Jaccard’s coefficient. Linking accuracy was evaluated using receiver operating characteristics and by examining the sensitivity and specificity of the model.

Findings

After an initial dip in linking accuracy (as measured by the AUC), the accuracy increased as more one-offs were added to the data. While adding one-offs made it easier to identify correct series (increased sensitivity), there was an increase in false positives (decreased specificity) in the linkage decisions. When rank ordering cases according to similarity, linkage accuracy was affected negatively as a function of added non-serial cases.

Practical implications

While using a more natural data set, in terms of adding a significant portion of non-serial homicides into the mix, does introduce error into the linkage decision, the authors conclude that taken overall, the findings still support the validity of CLA in practice.

Originality/value

This is the first crime linkage study on homicide to investigate how linking accuracy is affected as a function of non-serial cases being introduced into the data.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Romina Gambacorta

During the last two decades the share of foreign-born residents in Italy has grown considerably, from just over 1 percent to about 8 percent. This chapter seeks to clarify…

Abstract

During the last two decades the share of foreign-born residents in Italy has grown considerably, from just over 1 percent to about 8 percent. This chapter seeks to clarify the status of immigrants in Italy by examining the evolution of their economic situation and, in particular, the presence of economic hardship. Poverty is measured by considering not only the usual income-based indicators but also others that take into account households’ real and financial wealth. The picture that emerges is one of a higher incidence of economic hardship among immigrant households that strongly affects the dynamics of poverty nationwide. The economic gap with respect to natives appears to increase in the years considered, but the condition of poverty is not more persistent for immigrants than for Italians.

Details

Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Elena Bassoli, Andrea Gatto and Luca Iuliano

Additive manufacturing is today a viable industrial solution alongside traditional processes. Techniques like selective laser sintering (SLS) address the issues of digital…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing is today a viable industrial solution alongside traditional processes. Techniques like selective laser sintering (SLS) address the issues of digital production and mass customization in a variety of materials. Composite parts can be obtained with specific functional and mechanical properties. Building orientation during additive manufacturing often causes anisotropy of parts' properties that is still unspecified in technical information. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanical performances and failure mechanisms of an aluminium‐filled polyamide and of a new alumina‐polyamide composite produced by SLS, in comparison with unfilled PA.

Design/methodology/approach

A specific focus is set on the evaluation of primary and secondary anisotropy in the case of metal or ceramic filler, as well as on the specific contribution of powder distribution modes and joining phenomena. Macroscopic mechanical tests and the observation of joining and failure micro‐mechanisms are integrated.

Findings

The results prove the absence of relevant anisotropy amongst specimens that are produced with the axis parallel to the plane of powder deposition. Samples whose axis is parallel to the growth direction Z, instead, reveal a significantly different response with respect to other orientations.

Originality/value

An original explanatory model is assumed and validated, based on an anisotropic distribution of the reinforcing particles during parts' production, which determines the efficacy of the strengthening mechanisms during crack propagation.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Leehe Friedman, Yair Samban, John Tyson Chatagnier and Alex Mintz

This chapter offers an analysis of the decision code of Khaled Mashal, the former leader of the Hamas organization. Using the Applied Decision Analysis (ADA) method, it…

Abstract

This chapter offers an analysis of the decision code of Khaled Mashal, the former leader of the Hamas organization. Using the Applied Decision Analysis (ADA) method, it examines five decisions made by Mashal in 2011–2017. The analysis suggests that Mashal tends to use mainly the poliheuristic decision rule in these decisions, and considers the political-organizational dimension of Hamas as non-compensatory. Thus, Mashal made these decisions by first eliminating any alternative which risked his organization’s political status, and only then he rationally chose the alternative with the greatest expected utility from the remaining ones.

Details

How Do Leaders Make Decisions?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-812-8

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2008

Coralie Damay

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young children define prices and expensiveness.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young children define prices and expensiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Individual interviews were conducted. The sample was composed of 29 French children aged between five and 13 years old.

Findings

The findings show that children acquire price and expensiveness concepts very early but that their definitions are multidimensional.

Research limitations/implications

The method of individual interviews conducted with French children led to a limitation of the representativeness. Moreover, this research is based on data obtained by interview, therefore it is possible that some children over‐rationalized their answers.

Practical implications

Before working on specific concepts with children, it is useful to be sure that these terms have a meaning for this specific population. The paper allows us to understand what the concepts of price and expensiveness are for children. Future research should further extend the knowledge about the way young consumers elaborate the notion of price.

Originality/value

Few empirical studies have been conducted on the elaboration of prices and expensiveness concepts among children. The first step is to understand what these concepts mean for children.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Fabio Berti, Antonella D’Agostino, Achille Lemmi and Laura Neri

Italy has become a migrant receiving country and it has to face with the problem of social inclusion of immigrants. The purpose of this paper is to measure the gap on…

Abstract

Purpose

Italy has become a migrant receiving country and it has to face with the problem of social inclusion of immigrants. The purpose of this paper is to measure the gap on poverty and deprivation between immigrants and natives since manifest conditions of both of them are an important signal, although not exclusively, of social exclusion.

Design/methodology/approach

Poverty analysis typically relies on a single monetary variable such as income and it is characterized by a simple dichotomization of the population into poor and non-poor. In this paper the authors stress the importance of using a multidimensional and fuzzy approach in order to study disparities between immigrants and natives. The authors cover several of the multifaceted aspects of resources necessary to maintain adequate living standards in a developed country. With the fuzzy methodology, the authors also overcome any limitation of the conventional approach based on the simple dichotomization of the phenomenon.

Findings

The empirical analysis is based on data from two official surveys. The authors find that between Italian and immigrant households there are significant differences in poverty and deprivation levels, with a strong disadvantage for the latter. The authors argue that any serious attempt to reduce poverty and deprivation must now include comprehensive reforms in the nation's immigration policies if they are to be taken seriously.

Originality/value

The paper makes an original contribution to the understanding of inequality between immigrants and natives, by studying a complex phenomena such as poverty and deprivation in a multidimensional perspective using a fuzzy approach.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Ngurah Agus Sanjaya Er, Mouhamadou Lamine Ba, Talel Abdessalem and Stéphane Bressan

This paper aims to focus on the design of algorithms and techniques for an effective set expansion. A tool that finds and extracts candidate sets of tuples from the World…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the design of algorithms and techniques for an effective set expansion. A tool that finds and extracts candidate sets of tuples from the World Wide Web was designed and implemented. For instance, when a given user provides <Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesian Rupiah>, <China, Beijing, Yuan Renminbi>, <Canada, Ottawa, Canadian Dollar> as seeds, our system returns tuples composed of countries with their corresponding capital cities and currency names constructed from content extracted from Web pages retrieved.

Design/methodology/approach

The seeds are used to query a search engine and to retrieve relevant Web pages. The seeds are also used to infer wrappers from the retrieved pages. The wrappers, in turn, are used to extract candidates. The Web pages, wrappers, seeds and candidates, as well as their relationships, are vertices and edges of a heterogeneous graph. Several options for ranking candidates from PageRank to truth finding algorithms were evaluated and compared. Remarkably, all vertices are ranked, thus providing an integrated approach to not only answer direct set expansion questions but also find the most relevant pages to expand a given set of seeds.

Findings

The experimental results show that leveraging the truth finding algorithm can indeed improve the level of confidence in the extracted candidates and the sources.

Originality/value

Current approaches on set expansion mostly support sets of atomic data expansion. This idea can be extended to the sets of tuples and extract relation instances from the Web given a handful set of tuple seeds. A truth finding algorithm is also incorporated into the approach and it is shown that it can improve the confidence level in the ranking of both candidates and sources in set of tuples expansion.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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