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Every user of the World Wide Web understands why the WWW is often ridiculed as the World Wide Wait. The WWW and other applications on the Internet have been developed with…
Every user of the World Wide Web understands why the WWW is often ridiculed as the World Wide Wait. The WWW and other applications on the Internet have been developed with a client‐server orientation that, in its simplest form, involves a centralized information repository to which users (clients) send requests. This single‐server model suffers from performance problems when clients are too numerous, when clients are physically far away in the Network, when the materials being delivered become very large and hence stress the wide‐area bandwidth, and when the information has a real‐time delivery component as with streaming audio and video materials. Engineering information delivery solutions that break the single‐site model has become an important aspect of next‐generation WWW delivery systems. Intends to help the information professional understand what new directions the delivery infrastructure of the WWW is taking and why these technical changes will impact users around the globe, especially in bandwidth‐poor areas of the Internet.
Once a year a reference source is published in Surrey, England, that brings visitors such as the military attachés from the Chinese and former Soviet embassies in London…
Once a year a reference source is published in Surrey, England, that brings visitors such as the military attachés from the Chinese and former Soviet embassies in London to Surrey. The source these individuals and organizations are so eager to obtain is Jane's Fighting Ships (JFS), an annual naval compendium which has summarized international naval trends and developments for nearly a century.
This survey covers civil, electrical and electronics, energy, environment, general, materials, mechanical, and traffic and transportation engineering. Areas such as…
This survey covers civil, electrical and electronics, energy, environment, general, materials, mechanical, and traffic and transportation engineering. Areas such as biomedical and chemical engineering will be dealt with in future issues. Readers may find that the classifications included in this survey are not mutually exclusive but do occasionally overlap with one another. For instance, the section on environmental engineering includes a review of a book on the environmental impact of nuclear power plants, which might as easily have been part of the section on energy technology. Before we go into a discussion of data bases and indexes, I would like to note in this introductory section some recent bibliographic aids published during the period surveyed. Most engineering libraries will find them very valuable in their reference and acquisition functions. Since normal review sources will cover these books, I am merely listing them below: Malinowski, Harold Robert, Richard A. Gray and Dorothy A. Gray. Science and Engineering Literature. 2d ed., Littleton, Colorado, Libraries Unlimited, 1976. 368p. LC 76–17794 ISBN 0–87287–098–7. $13.30; Mildren, K. W., ed. Use of Engineering Literature. Woburn, Mass., Butterworths, 1976. 621p. ISBN 0–408–70714–3. $37.95. Mount, Ellis. Guide to Basic Information Sources in Engineering. New York, Wiley, Halsted Press, 1976. 196p. LC 75–43261 ISBN 0–47070–15013–0. $11.95 and Guide to European Sources of Technical Information. 4th ed., edited by Ann Pernet. Guernsey, Eng., F. Hodgson, 1976. 415p. ISBN 0–85280–161–0. $52.00.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Ibrahim, an ex-offender who has embraced Islam. Ibrahim professes Islam to be the influential element to his…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Ibrahim, an ex-offender who has embraced Islam. Ibrahim professes Islam to be the influential element to his desistance process. This study explores Ibrahim’s journey, emphasising and reflecting upon youth; criminality and religiosity. Much of the current research relating to Black men and offending is limited to masculinity, father absence, gangs and criminality. The role of religiosity in the lives of offenders and/or ex-offenders is often overlooked. The authors suggest that identity, religiosity and desistance can raise a host of complexities while highlighting the unique challenges and benefits experienced by Ibrahim, following the practice of religion.
This paper took a qualitative, ethnographic approach, in the form of analysing and exploring Ibrahim’s personal lived experience. The analysis of semi-structured interviews, and reflective diaries, utilising grounded theory allowed the formation of the following three core themes: desistance, religion and identity.
The findings within this paper identify an interlink between desistance, religion and identity. The role of religiosity is becoming increasingly more important in academic social science research. This paper highlights the complexities of all three above intersections.
This paper explores the complexities of religiosity in the desistance process of Ibrahim. Research in relation to former gang members in the UK and the role of religiosity in their lives is fairly under-researched. This paper seeks to build on existing research surrounding gang, further exploring religiosity from a UK context.
Time spent with Ibrahim had to be tightly scheduled, due to the work commitments of both Ibrahim and the researcher. Therefore, planning had to be done ahead in an efficient manner.
Researching the way individuals experience the world is a “growing phenomenon”. This paper aimed to explore the lived experience of religiosity from the perspective of Ibrahim. However, it was important to not stereotype and label all Black males who have embraced Islam and desisted from crime. Therefore, this paper’s intention is not to stereotype Black men, but to raise awareness and encourage further discussion surrounding the role of religiosity in the lives of ex-offenders’.
To the authors’ knowledge, studies specifically focusing on the role of Islam in the life of an ex-offender are few and far between. Therefore, findings from this study are important to develop further understanding surrounding religiosity, offending and desistance. This study explores the lived experiences of Ibrahim, an former gang member and ex-offender who professes Islam to be a fundamental source to his desistance process.
Food handlers are often a major source of norovirus transmission in the UK. Considering key behaviours of food handlers that lead to norovirus transmission would help…
Food handlers are often a major source of norovirus transmission in the UK. Considering key behaviours of food handlers that lead to norovirus transmission would help prevent the spread. The purpose of this paper is to examine the key risk behaviours of food handlers that lead to norovirus transmission, and to recognise important prevention strategies.
A narrative review of the literature summarising the main risk behaviours of food handlers that lead to norovirus transmission.
Suboptimal personal hygiene such as poor hand washing compliance, working while ill or returning to work too early and not adhering to cleaning and disinfecting protocols were the main risk behaviours of food handlers identified. To prevent the transmission of norovirus within UK food establishments, environmental barriers such as limited access to cleaning products and facilities, workload and pay concerns should be resolved, and a theory-based approach should be used when developing training programmes to improve food handlers’ knowledge and behaviour. Systematic monitoring adhered to ensure food safety protocols should be regularly carried out.
A limited number of qualitative studies assessing food handlers’ attitudes and beliefs concerning norovirus transmission are available. Gaining more detailed and in-depth information on what food handlers perceive are the main barriers when it comes to adhering to food safety guidelines, would aid in the development of effective norovirus mitigation strategies.
This review discusses the main risk behaviours of food handlers associated with norovirus transmission. It highlights the need for more qualitative research on exploring the attitudes and beliefs of food handlers with regard to norovirus transmission.