The project's approach and focus as well as some results of phase I (1986) and II (1987) are reported in Part 1. Each phase of the project combined different tasks:
The impact assessment on electronic publishing (EP) is a project conducted jointly by the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre and the Society for Mathematics and Data…
The impact assessment on electronic publishing (EP) is a project conducted jointly by the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre and the Society for Mathematics and Data Processing (GMD), Darmstadt. The project is partly subsidised by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology which has installed a project board, in that respect following the model of OTA. It can be seen in the broader context of the two German EP projects (in the publishing and patent fields), which were part of the DOCDEL programme of the EEC and were cofunded by the Ministry for Research and Technology. The publishers' project experimented with a markup language for the establishment of full text databases, thus having some resemblance with the standard generalised markup language (SGML) project of the Association of American Publishers.
This paper addresses the potential need for European public policy actions in the area of mobile communications, in particular of developments towards 4th generation networks (4G). The paper is based on work conducted for the EC/JRC/IPTS/ESTO project “The Future of Mobile Technologies in EU: Assessing 4G Developments”. The paper first reviews developments of 3G and 4G technologies in Japan, Korea, China and the USA. It briefly addresses potential costs and benefits of competition in infrastructures. The paper states that initiatives in Europe for technologies beyond 3G tend to address research issues, while players in Asia and the USA are aiming at sales of 4G‐equipment supposed to start as soon as possible. In conclusion, nine options for policy makers are presented, such as to stimulate 2.5G and 3G data markets, to analyse actual spectrum use, to continue analysing approaches competing with UMTS, to estimate costs and benefits of new approaches to spectrum regulation, and to evaluate steps towards frequency allocation.