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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Chunyu Wilson and Bernard Scott

The purpose of this paper is to review the use of adaptive systems in education. It is intended to be a useful introduction for the non-specialist reader.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the use of adaptive systems in education. It is intended to be a useful introduction for the non-specialist reader.

Design/methodology/approach

A distinction is made between intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) and adaptive hypermedia systems (AHSs). The two kinds of system are defined, compared and contrasted. Examples of the implementation of the two kinds of system are included.

Findings

Similarities and differences between the two kinds of system are highlighted. A conceptual unification is proposed based on the architecture of Course Assembly System and Tutorial Environment, a seminal prototype learning environment developed by Pask and Scott in the 1970s as an application of Pask’s conversation theory.

Originality/value

The architecture shows how the key aspects of ITSs and AHSs can be combined to complement each other. It is intended to be an original contribution that is of particular interest for the specialist reader.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Bernard Scott and Simon Shurville

In order to develop transdisciplinary working across the disciplines, clear epistemological foundations are required. The purpose of this paper is to show that…

742

Abstract

Purpose

In order to develop transdisciplinary working across the disciplines, clear epistemological foundations are required. The purpose of this paper is to show that sociocybernetics to provides the required unifying metadisciplinary epistemological foundations and transdisciplinary frameworks.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors note that second‐order cybernetics provides a metadisciplinary framework for discerning the causes and cures for the schisms within the natural and cognitive sciences. The particular contributions of sociocybernetics are to extend the second‐order understandings to unify the social sciences and, by incorporating extant sociological theory back into the transdisciplinary pursuits of cybernetics and systems theory, to enlighten and enrich those pursuits.

Findings

In order to highlight the power and fruitfulness of these contributions from sociocybernetics, the authors problematise, deconstruct and reconstruct key concepts concerned with human communication. To do this, they take as central the question, “What is a symbol?” and present a sociocybernetic, transdisciplinary solution. In doing so they make clear the epistemological poverty of approaches in cognitive science that are based on the thesis that brains and computers are both “physical‐symbol systems”.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the metadisciplinary and transdisciplinary aims of cybernetics and, in particular, uses a sociocybernetic analysis to enlighten foundational issues in cognitive science.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 June 2007

Simon Shurville and Ken Fernstrom

332

Abstract

Details

Campus-Wide Information Systems, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-0741

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

591

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 35 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

116

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Bernard Scott and Ranulph Glanville

39

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 30 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2011

Martin Smith and Bernard Scott

811

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Bernard Scott

To present sociocybernetic models of observers in interaction with the aim of encouraging reflection on what is good practice in human communication.

Abstract

Purpose

To present sociocybernetic models of observers in interaction with the aim of encouraging reflection on what is good practice in human communication.

Design/methodology/approach

Foundational cybernetic concepts of “process and product” are drawn upon to develop models of “belief”, “meaning”, “truth” and “power”.

Findings

“Belief”, following Pask and Rescher, is modelled as a coherent, self‐reproducing system of concepts. “Meaning”, following Peirce, is modelled in terms of the pragmatic consequences of holding certain beliefs to be true. The concept of “truth” is modelled as “justified true belief”, the classic ideal of the “objective sciences”. “Power” is modelled as the pragmatic consequences of social interaction.

Originality/value

The paper invites the members of the sociocybernetics community to reflect on the reflexive nature of these models and to critically monitor and evaluate the quality of the communication within that community.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 35 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

Bernard Scott and Abhinav Bansal

The purpose of this paper is to explain some phenomena observed in the acquisition of motor skills: the loss of conscious access to knowledge of the structure of a skill…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain some phenomena observed in the acquisition of motor skills: the loss of conscious access to knowledge of the structure of a skill and the awareness that an error has been made prior to the receipt of knowledge of results. Although there are rich descriptive accounts of skill acquisition in the literature, there are no satisfactory explanatory models of the cognitive processes involved. The paper provides such a model.

Design/methodology/approach

In the 1970s, the first author implemented a computer program model of the cognitive processes involved in learning and skill acquisition, based on a series of empirical investigations. Recently, with assistance from the second author, the model has been reviewed, updated and re-implemented. The paper sets this work in the broader context of a theory of learning and teaching, conversation theory.

Findings

The model provides a constructivist account of skill acquisition and associated phenomena. The model provides theoretical foundations for conversation theory.

Practical implications

The model adds to the understanding of motor skill acquisition and to the understanding of processes of learning and teaching in general.

Originality/value

The model and its interpretation are an original contribution to the skills acquisition literature.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 43 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2007

Bernard Scott and Chunyu Cong

Today's technology supports the design of more and more sophisticated interactive learning environments. This paper aims to argue that such design should develop from…

2269

Abstract

Purpose

Today's technology supports the design of more and more sophisticated interactive learning environments. This paper aims to argue that such design should develop from first principles.

Design/methodology/approach

In the paper by first principles is meant: learning theory and principles of course design. These principles are briefly outlined, key features of which include: the use of knowledge and task analysis methodology; the use of topic maps; and learning design that supports adaptive teaching. The paper goes on to describe how this approach to course design has been applied at the UK Defence Academy.

Findings

The paper shows how conversation theory serves as a source of first principles for the design of interactive learning environments, as exemplified in the Course Assembly System and Tutorial Environment (CASTE).

Originality/value

A principled approach to the design of interactive learning environments is of value in bringing order to a conceptually and methodologically confused domain of practice.

Details

Campus-Wide Information Systems, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-0741

Keywords

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