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The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:
There has been much debate about people’s perceptions of entitlement. We trace the history of the different uses of entitlement perceptions across fields in order to…
There has been much debate about people’s perceptions of entitlement. We trace the history of the different uses of entitlement perceptions across fields in order to develop a typology that identifies two dimensions: level of entitlement and degree of reciprocity. We conclude that a historical, cross‐disciplinary examination of the construct of employee entitlement will improve our understanding of the role of entitlement perceptions in the workplace. Specifically, we suggest that each of the four combinations of the entitlement and reciprocity dimensions points to a different employee‐organization relationship and, thus, requires a different motivational tool.
Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examine behavioral responses to a new generation of retirement policies that on average are actuarially neutral…
Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examine behavioral responses to a new generation of retirement policies that on average are actuarially neutral. Although many conventional models predict that actuarially neutral policies will not affect retirement behavior, our model allows those with high-time preference rates to find that the promise of an actuarially fair increase in future rewards does not balance the loss from foregone current benefits. Thus together with liquidity constraints facing those with high-time preference, we find that actuarially neutral policies do affect retirement behavior. One such policy follows on the elimination of the Social Security earnings test for those over normal retirement age, and would eliminate the earnings test between early and normal retirement age. Another of these policies would increase the ages of benefit entitlement. Still another such policy emerges from a central focus of the past few years on the adoption of personal accounts. Although Social Security benefits are currently paid in the form of an annuity, benefits from either defined benefit plans or from personal accounts may be made available as an annuity or as a lump sum of equivalent actuarial value. A related policy choice between actuarially equivalent benefits emerges on the pension side. There has been discussion of relaxing the current IRS prohibition against paying a pension benefit when a person remains at work, instead allowing partial pension benefits to be paid to those who partially retire on a job.
The challenge of poverty and low income is a key issue for organisations concerned with groups of the population at risk of social exclusion. In particular, poorer older…
The challenge of poverty and low income is a key issue for organisations concerned with groups of the population at risk of social exclusion. In particular, poorer older people who qualify for benefits remain the largest group most likely not to claim those benefits. Many millions of pounds are languishing in government coffers belonging to those who most need it. Recent reports such as All Our Tomorrows (ADSS/LGA, 2003) highlight the importance of a decent income to a good quality of life for older people.Housing 21, which provides housing, care and support services for older people in England, encourages its residents to claim their full entitlement of benefits by offering advice and support from its two welfare benefit managers. This article highlights how their work has really made a difference to the lives of older people and suggests what more needs to be done.
During the course of European integration social policy has become an increasingly important policy area of the European Union. The paper analyses whether the EU’s social‐policy measures improve the living conditions of the socially weaker groups. All three areas of European social policy are analysed: the co‐ordination of the member states’ social security systems, the harmonisation of the working conditions and the promotion of equal opportunities, social integration and vocational training. This paper shows that the EU’s social‐policy measures have numerous disadvantages. In particular, they often are detrimental to the very people who the EU intends to protect and promote.
The Welfare Reform and Pensions Bill is passing through Parliament at the time of writing. Some minor amendments are anticipated before the Bill becomes law. This article attempts to summarise 9 of the 86 Clauses in the Bill ‐ those which are most relevant to people claiming benefits because of their incapacity to work and those who try to work when they can.
In this regular column, we aim to promote constructive debate about our curious Benefits system which deters and prevents people earning a living. Experts will cast light…
In this regular column, we aim to promote constructive debate about our curious Benefits system which deters and prevents people earning a living. Experts will cast light on the Kafka‐esque intricacies which baffle mental health service users and providers alike.This first article plunges in at the deep end with a proposal for a new benefit — ‘Rehabilitation Allowance’ — which could, if introduced, make it possible to become a wageearner with earnings of £60 per week plus. The proposed allowance and retained entitlement to other benefits would ensure that the wage earner is a bit better off as a result of working — the basic minimum incentive to getting a job. The Rehabilitation Allowance would also serve as a passport back into full benefit entitlement if the job should end — thus minimising the current risks of becoming employed.Elizabeth Bray devised this idea as part of a report on the work of the All‐Party Parliamentary Mental Health Group which this year chose as its focus the need for more and better employment opportunities. Elizabeth's background is in curriculum development and, as parliamentary assistant to her husband, Jeremy Bray MP — who has chaired the Group since 1995 — she brings a fresh approach to problems in which it is all to easy to get bogged down if you work with them every day.The Report itself takes a wide‐ranging view of disparate and sometimes contradictory policies and recommends a national framework bringing together health, social security benefits, employment training and education. A copy of the full report can be obtained by sending an s.a.e. to: Ms D. Hart, Royal College of Psychiatrists, 17 Belgrave Square, London SW1X 8PG.We hope that this brief version of the proposal will inspire readers to read the Report and make comments and suggestions of their own about this, the thorniest of problems for people wanting to join the labour market.
As unemployment rises across the European Union (EU), it is important to understand the extent to which the incomes of the new unemployed are protected by tax–benefit…
As unemployment rises across the European Union (EU), it is important to understand the extent to which the incomes of the new unemployed are protected by tax–benefit systems and to assess the cost pressures on the social protection systems of this increase in unemployment. This chapter uses the EU tax–benefit model EUROMOD to explore these issues, comparing effects in five EU countries. It provides evidence on the differing degrees of resilience of the household incomes of the newly unemployed due to the variations in the protection offered by the tax–benefit systems, according to whether unemployment benefit is payable, the household situation of the unemployed person and across countries.
The National Pensioners’ Convention aims to challenge the case for current government policies to raise the age of retirement from paid work and to diversify routes to and amounts of pensions entitlement. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
This policy-oriented commentary draws on evidence and arguments presented in the National Pensioners’ Convention Manifesto about the relative affluence of socio-economic class groups and their length of life after 65.
In contrast to government claims of simplifying pensions by introducing single-tier state pensions, three different pension schemes will coexist for many years and in many cases these will provide less than current entitlements. Other universal pensioner benefits such as concessionary travel and winter fuel payments are now also the target of financial cost savings. Access to home care and residential care is increasingly restricted by service cuts and wider means testing.
National Pensioners’ Convention Manifesto argues that the standard of care and support for older people needs to be guaranteed to be set above current poverty levels, to be linked to price and consumer indices and earnings, for universal pensioner benefits to be maintained, for a National Health and Care Service to be free at the point of use, funded through taxation and for standards to be improved through a legally binding Dignity code.
This commentary expresses the views of a non-party campaigning organisation run by pensioners themselves to highlight their case for ways in which they may gain increased rather than decreased support for maintaining active living in later life.
This “Rapport” proposes to examine the function and effect of British social law in the context of the employment/unemployment debate. This debate is a most significant…
This “Rapport” proposes to examine the function and effect of British social law in the context of the employment/unemployment debate. This debate is a most significant one for it has not only British, but also European and International dimensions.