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Start‐up companies in particular can benefit from cloud computing services, since frequently they do not operate an internal IT infrastructure. The purpose of this paper…
Start‐up companies in particular can benefit from cloud computing services, since frequently they do not operate an internal IT infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to present a total cost of ownership (TCO) approach for cloud computing services.
The authors applied a multi‐method approach (systematic literature review, analysis of real cloud computing services, expert interviews, case study) for the development and evaluation of a formal mathematical TCO model.
It was found that decision processes in cloud computing are conducted ad hoc and lack systematic methods. The presented method raises the awareness of indirect and hidden costs in cloud computing.
Some restrictive assumptions were made. For instance, cost types that focus on an existing internal IT infrastructure were hidden. Future research can combine risk and security aspects by means of a TCO approach. Additionally, benefits management in cloud computing is another new research field that can, for instance, be explored by means of cost‐benefit analyses.
The analysis of relevant cost types and factors of cloud computing services is an important pillar of decision making in cloud computing. The software tool allows for an easy application of the TCO model with reasonable effort.
The paper provides an evaluated mathematical model for the calculation of the TCO of cloud computing services. With this tool, decision makers are able to decide whether outsourcing into the cloud is monetarily attractive; to be more specific, whether the costs associated with cloud computing services are lower than with a pre‐existing infrastructure.
The persistence of difficulties related to communication of the stakeholders in the architectural and urban design process is mainly due to the diversity of interests…
The persistence of difficulties related to communication of the stakeholders in the architectural and urban design process is mainly due to the diversity of interests, different perspectives, representation problems and the abilities of visual communication. The paper delves extensively into communication abilities and divides between experts and non-experts, exploring their epistemological origins and possible solutions. One of them, education about spatial issues for general public, is argued for and supported by in the form of a digital education tool. It builds on the idea that non-expert public should be approached with both: adaptation to its abilities and with additional teaching to improve these abilities. The experiment puts the prototypical architectural educational interface to the test in primary schools and observes the effect the level of interactivity has on learning outcomes. The results show possible ways of enhancing the efficiency of such tools and help developers and designers evaluate and fine-tune them for the process of non-professional architectural learning. The communication and attitude-changing topics are discussed from the specific architectural and from broader social science point of view.
The purpose of this paper is to identify potential measures for corporate real estate (CRE) aspects to correlate them with organizational performance. These measures must…
The purpose of this paper is to identify potential measures for corporate real estate (CRE) aspects to correlate them with organizational performance. These measures must simplify discussion between corporate real estate management (CREM), architects and users, and help CREM to claim its place at the strategic decision‐making table.
An analysis is made of literature in relevant fields (e.g. CREM, architecture, ergonomics and installation technology) to identify aspects that influence performance. For the ones that lacked clear measures, a solution was deducted from other fields of study (environmental psychology, geography, urban design). These new measures are applied to two existing office buildings to show their relevance and usability, followed by a discussion on how to use them as a CRE manager.
In total, 51 CRE aspects affect organizational performance. Particularly, the structural aspects are not quantified or measured in consistent ways, like “open layout” and “visibility”. Methods from the field of spatial network analysis show very promising possibilities for quantifying these configuration related aspects. Also, it does not appear to be very difficult for CREM to start using these methods.
The spatial network analysis methods that are described and applied in this paper, have not been subject of an article in any (corporate) real estate‐related journal yet. Up till now, this field of research appears to take place in a totally different community of academics and practitioners. Hopefully, this paper will make CREM aware of these methods and encourage them to use them.