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Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Yang Zhang

Institutional actors are critical allies for grassroots movements, but few studies have examined their effects and variations within the non-democratic context. This…

Abstract

Institutional actors are critical allies for grassroots movements, but few studies have examined their effects and variations within the non-democratic context. This chapter argues that while institutional allies are heavily constrained and unlikely to give open endorsement to grassroot activists, some institutional activists indirectly facilitate movement mobilization and favorable outcomes in the process of advancing their own political agendas. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2008 and 2012, I illustrate this argument by examining the Anti-PX Movement – a landmark grassroots environmental movement against a chemical plant – in Xiamen, China. I find that the environmental institutional actors were constrained and divided, yet some still fostered opportunities for movement mobilization and in turn exploited the opportunity created by the protesters to pursue their policy interests, thus facilitating positive movement outcomes. As long as the claims are not politically subversive to the authoritarian rule, this type of tacit and tactical interaction between institutional activists within the state and grassroot activists on the street is conducive to promoting progressive policy changes.

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Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-895-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Taehoon Kim, Jee‐Soo Mok, Chang‐Kyu Song, Jun‐Heyoung Park, Kyung‐O Kim, Ben Sun and Byung‐Youl Min

To review a newly developed PCB fabrication process based on a parallel lamination technique.

Abstract

Purpose

To review a newly developed PCB fabrication process based on a parallel lamination technique.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper has been written to introduce the SAVIA process, a new parallel lamination technique for PCB fabrication. The basic concept of the SAVIA process has been described along with the individual process steps and the reliability issues. The advantages of SAVIA process have been also discussed in both economical and technological aspects.

Findings

It was found that the parallel lamination technique, a key process for SAVIA, was not only highly flexible and reliable but also a cost‐effective fabrication method for high performance PCB. With the SAVIA process, manufacturing lead‐times can be substantially reduced due to the nature of the parallel processing. It was also confirmed that a highly reliable metal alloy interconnection was created between the core and the adhesive layers during the lamination process. The formed metal alloy contacts showed excellent electrical and physical characteristics. The between layers was precise.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is to introduce a novel PCB fabrication process based on a parallel lamination technique that is superior to conventional build‐up processes from both technological and economical viewpoints. By applying a parallel lamination technique, it is expected that fabrication costs can be lowered due to reductions in manufacturing lead‐time.

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Circuit World, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Sudhakar Raman, Jae Hun Jeong, Sang Jin Kim, Ben Sun and Keon‐Yang Park

In the past three years, microvia drilling using laser technology has become the dominant method of producing blind vias smaller than 150μm. The ablation characteristics…

Abstract

In the past three years, microvia drilling using laser technology has become the dominant method of producing blind vias smaller than 150μm. The ablation characteristics of the materials used in the manufacture of PWBs can be divided into three categories: organics, glass, and metals. Organics are composed of resins and epoxies commercially available from a variety of vendors. Two types of resins that are typically used for microvia formation in the telecommunication applications are resin coated copper foil® (RCC or RCF) for subtractive PCB process, and thermal‐curing resin (TCR) for additive PCB process respectively. This paper details the basics of UV YAG laser capabilities, alignment techniques, plating tests, reliability tests, manufacturable microvia design rules, and production experiences.

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Circuit World, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2021

Lili Zheng and Nathalie Montargot

The use of information technology (IT) in the hospitality industry is driven by the need to improve and refine customer service. However, it is unlikely that new IT will…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of information technology (IT) in the hospitality industry is driven by the need to improve and refine customer service. However, it is unlikely that new IT will be successfully implemented if employees' roles and emotions are overlooked. The purpose of this study is to examine the interplay of negative emotions (anger and fear), coping strategies (venting anger and psychological distancing), perceptions of an IT innovation and intention toward adopting it.

Design/methodology/approach

A research model is developed based on the cognitive appraisal theory of emotion, coping theory and innovation diffusion theory. An online survey was conducted among employees working for hotels that had deployed a new reservation system, and 234 responses were collected.

Findings

The results indicate that employees' negative emotions (anger and fear) have negative and significant effects on their perceptions of adopting a new reservation system through coping strategies (i.e. venting anger and psychological distancing). Furthermore, employees' perceptions of adopting an innovative reservation system have a positive effect on their adoption intention toward the system.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research to address the impact of distinct emotions on IT innovation adoption, as well as explaining the relation between affective and cognitive effects. The findings demonstrate the importance of examining negative emotions in IT innovation adoption. In addition, the model developed in this study confirms that an appraisal tendency approach better specifies the conditions under which different emotions are triggered to predict and explain how emotions relate to IT use through adaptation behaviors when compared with a valence-based approach.

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International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Caroline Auty and David Nicholas

The General Election of 1997 was marked by much political activity on the web. An analysis of 20 party web sites a year later on shows that most parties have kept a web…

Abstract

The General Election of 1997 was marked by much political activity on the web. An analysis of 20 party web sites a year later on shows that most parties have kept a web presence although few are really capitalising upon the web technologies. Sites are too often stale, out of date and predictable. In no way can cyberdemocracy be seen to have arrived; the web is too often just a publishing vehicle and communication is largely one way. The smaller parties are proving to be the most innovative.

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Aslib Proceedings, vol. 50 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2009

Alexandros Kouris

The chapter introduces a model of destination branding and reports a project that applied the model to examine the current image of Greece. The project was undertaken on…

Abstract

The chapter introduces a model of destination branding and reports a project that applied the model to examine the current image of Greece. The project was undertaken on behalf of the Greek national tourism organization by a binational consortium. Through conducting primary and secondary research on the public perception and self-portrayal of Greece, the project team found the current brand image and identity not to be in accordance with the country's reality. Indeed, although the brand image elements currently expressed are relevant, they represent only a small portion of a much larger existing offering. To that end, the team proposed new branding strategies based on the model, offering a series of recommendations on how to implement the strategies.

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Tourism Branding: Communities in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-720-2

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2019

Ameni Tarchouna, Bilel Jarraya and Abdelfettah Bouri

This paper aims to determine the opportunity cost borne by US commercial banks to reduce non-performing loans (NPLs) by one unit within the global financial crisis framework.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the opportunity cost borne by US commercial banks to reduce non-performing loans (NPLs) by one unit within the global financial crisis framework.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this aim, the authors use the directional output distance function to estimate the technical efficiency while considering NPLs as undesirable output. Then, they estimate the shadow prices of NPLs by using the envelope theorem and solving the revenue function.

Findings

The results indicate that medium-sized banks are the most efficient, while small banks are the most inefficient ones. Moreover, the shadow prices of NPLs of large banks are higher than those of small and medium-sized banks. This implies a more elevated cost when lessening bad loans in large banks. This is more prominent during the crisis given that the shadow prices of NPLs of large banks have risen sharply over that period.

Practical implications

Shadow prices have important managerial implications given that they display the amounts of required reduced revenues to lessen NPLs. Accordingly, banks’ managers are called to reduce these loans by paying more attention when choosing their customers.

Originality/value

With the absence of an observable market price for bad loans in financial literature, the shadow price notion offers an adequate measure to evaluate them. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that provides an estimation of the shadow price of NPLs in the US banking sector.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Abstract

Purpose

Because dietary fibre has been recognized as a major ally to the maintenance of a healthy body as well as to help against the development of some chronic diseases, this paper aims to study the level of knowledge of a relatively wide range of people about the health effects related to the ingestion of dietary fibre in appropriate dosages.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken on a non-probabilistic sample of 6,010 participants. The data were collected from 10 countries in three different continents (Europe, Africa and America) and measured the level of knowledge regarding different health benefits from dietary fibre. The questionnaires were applied by direct interview after verbal informed consent.

Findings

The results obtained considering the general level of knowledge revealed a considerable degree of information about the benefits of fibre (average score of 3.54 ± 0.5, on a scale from 1 to 5). There were significant differences between genders (p < 0.001), with higher average score for women, and also for level of education (p < 0.001), with higher score for university level. The living environment also showed significant differences (p < 0.001), with people living in urban areas showing a higher degree of knowledge. Also for countries the differences were significant (p < 0.001), with the highest score obtained for Portugal (3.7), and the lowest for Croatia, Italy, Latvia, Macedonia and Romania (3.5). However, despite these differences, the results showed that for all the countries the degree of knowledge was good (above 3.5), corresponding to a minimum level of knowledge of 70 per cent.

Originality/value

This work is considered important due to the wide coverage, including so many countries inclusive with different social and cultural settings. The study allowed concluding that, in general, the participants in the study were quite well informed about the benefits of dietary fibre for the improvement of human health, regardless of gender, level of education, living environment or country. This finding is very relevant considering the diversity of people that composed the sample and reinforces the necessity of continuing with educational policies aimed at providing the general population with the knowledge that might help them make appropriate food choices.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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