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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Arabella Kyprianides, Julia A. Yesberg, Jenna Milani, Ben Bradford, Paul Quinton and Oliver Clark–Darby

The range of tactical force options available to police is increasing, while public debate about police use of force is never far from the headlines. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The range of tactical force options available to police is increasing, while public debate about police use of force is never far from the headlines. This paper aims to examine what factors shape how people accept police use of force.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use two online experiments to test whether different force options affected judgments about the acceptability of police action and to explore the role of trust and legitimacy in people's judgments.

Findings

The authors found across both studies that respondents judged scenarios involving a weapon (baton, CS spray, Taser) as less acceptable compared to scenarios that did not (talking down, handcuffs), but they did not draw much distinction between the specific weapon used. In study 1, exposure to different police tactics had no effect on trust and legitimacy. In study 2, prior perceptions of trust were strong predictors of acceptability judgments.

Originality/value

There is a comparative paucity of British-based empirical research examining public attitudes toward different use of force resolutions by police. In this paper, the authors explore how use of force affects people's views of police at a time in which the nature and scope of force applications, how these are understood and indeed the basic enterprise of policing itself is being reconsidered and renegotiated.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Ben Bradford, Jenna Milani and Jonathan Jackson

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which police legitimacy and social identity explain variation in public acceptance of police use of force. The…

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2473

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which police legitimacy and social identity explain variation in public acceptance of police use of force. The authors assess whether there is an association between legitimacy and public acceptance of apparently illegal or unethical police action; and the extent to which identification with a particular social group predicts judgments of police behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws upon cross-sectional data from a 2015 survey of a representative sample of adults in England and Wales. Structural equation modeling is used to model conditional correlations between latent constructs.

Findings

There are two main findings. First, identifying more strongly with a social group that the police may be seen to represent was consistently associated with greater acceptance of police use of force, whether or not that force seemed to be justified. Second, beliefs about the legitimacy of the police were also associated with acceptance, but primarily only in relation to the use of force in situations where it appeared prima facie justifiable.

Social implications

Results suggest one possible set of reasons why police retain public support in the face of scandals concerning excessive use of force.

Originality/value

This is one of only very few studies that have used survey data to explore lay justifications for police use of force.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2011

Shona Bettany and Ben Kerrane

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential of material‐semiotic ontology to the field of anti‐consumption research.

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1458

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential of material‐semiotic ontology to the field of anti‐consumption research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper's approach is multi‐site ethnography, following a consumer object, the Omlet Eglu, to trace a field of study within the practices and processes of urban stock‐keeping.

Findings

It was found that the Omlet Eglu was produced as an ambivalent actor within the practices of urban stock‐keeping, allowing an analysis of multiple aspects of consumption/anti‐consumption and consumer resistance/domination that challenges those dualisms as organizing constructs.

Practical implications

The paper fdds to knowledge about the complex constructions of the meaning of egg consumption by consumers. This has the potential to inform retailers and farm producers, as well as organizations that provide goods and services to home food producers.

Originality/value

The paper provides a novel ontological approach to anti‐consumption that addresses current concerns in this field over its underpinning categorizations and over‐reliance upon neo‐liberal models of consumer agency.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 45 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Ben Kerrane and Margaret K. Hogg

The purpose of this paper is to examine children's consumption experiences within families in order to investigate the role that different family environments play in the…

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3770

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine children's consumption experiences within families in order to investigate the role that different family environments play in the consumer socialisation of children.

Design/methodology/approach

Key consumer socialisation literature is reviewed and family communication patterns and parental socialisation style studies are introduced. Such studies argue for the homogenous and shared nature of the family environment for children. A three‐stage qualitative study of six families is reported, incorporating existential phenomenological interviews. The voices of children and their parents are captured, and the transcribed interview texts are analyzed on two levels (within and across family cases) using a hermeneutical process.

Findings

The findings of the study point towards the differential treatment of children within the family environment by both parents and siblings. It is proposed that children inhabit a unique position, or micro‐environment, within their family setting. Consumer micro‐environments are introduced; these have important implications in terms of children's consumption behaviour and, more importantly, their consumer socialisation process within the family setting.

Research limitations/implications

Consumer micro‐environments have potentially important implications in any re‐evaluation of the literature on consumer socialisation, and it is suggested that children may not have equal access to socialisation advice and support offered by family members. A limited number of families and family types are recruited in this exploratory study, and scope exists to explore family micro‐environments across a greater variety of family forms.

Originality/value

A series of micro‐environments, which have implications for the consumer socialisation of children, will be developed on a theoretical level. Existing consumer research views the family environment in homogenous terms, with suggestions that children are socialised by their parents in a similar manner (inhabiting a shared family environment). These findings problematise such a view and also offer insights into the role played by siblings in the consumer socialisation process.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Andy Myhill and Ben Bradford

The purpose of this paper is to test theories of organizational justice in the context of a police agency.

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6973

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test theories of organizational justice in the context of a police agency.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyze data from a survey of officers in a police force in England.

Findings

The SEM showed that organizational justice was associated with positive attitudes towards serving members of the public. This relationship was mediated by commitment to elements of community policing and, for community police officers, by general satisfaction with the organization.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that police managers committed to implementing process‐based policing policies may need to ensure their organizations also implement internal policies and practices that are procedurally fair.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to apply the well established literature on organizational justice to the context of policing, and the first to examine the impact of organizational justice on alignment with community policing and the service model.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Jannie Noppe, Antoinette Verhage and Anjuli Van Damme

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9712

Abstract

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Sebastian Roché and Guillaume Roux

Procedural justice (PJ) during police-citizen interactions has often been portrayed as a “silver bullet” to good policing, as it could function as a means to gain trust…

Abstract

Purpose

Procedural justice (PJ) during police-citizen interactions has often been portrayed as a “silver bullet” to good policing, as it could function as a means to gain trust, voluntary obedience and public cooperation. PJ research is based on the assumption that there exists “true fairness.” However, it is still unclear what people actually mean when they evaluate the police as “fair” in surveys. By focusing the analysis to underexplored aspects of PJ, namely, the identity and political antecedents of the attribution of procedural fairness, the authors highlight the social and ideological reasons that influence people’s perceptions of police fairness. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to explain the attribution of fairness of police, the study comprises a range of independent variables organized into five overarching domains: prior experience with police, victimization, socioeconomic status and (disadvantaged) context of residence, ethnicity and political attitudes and punitive values. The analysis is based on a representative sample of France, as well as a booster sample of a deprived, urban province (Seine-Saint-Denis) in order to better incorporate ethnic effects into the model (March 2011; n=1.498, 18+).

Findings

The present study finds support for the notion that aggressive policing policies (police-initiated contacts, e.g. identification checks, road stops) negatively impacts attributions of fairness to police. In addition, the findings show that attributions of fairness are not only interactional (i.e. related to what police do in any given situation) or related to individual cognitive phenomena, but for the most part pertain to broader social and political explanations. Political and ethnic cleavages are the key to understanding how police are judged by the public. The findings therefore question the nature of what is actually measured when fairness is attributed to police, finding that more punitive and conservative respondents tend to assess the police as fair. The authors find that the attribution of fairness seems to correspond to upholding the existing social order.

Research limitations/implications

This study has limitations inherent to any cross-sectional survey and the findings pertain only to a single country (France). Furthermore, the authors did not analyze all possible confounding variables to perceived fairness.

Social implications

The findings pose a practical problem for police and government to implement, as the authors ultimately find that there is no single recipe, or “silver bullet,” for being deemed fair across all social, ethnic and political groups – and, of course, the expectations of one group might conflict with those of another.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates that existing theory needs to better incorporate those explanations of fairness which extend beyond interactional processes with police, and refer instead to the social and political cleavages in society.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Jennifer Patrice Sims and Chinelo L. Njaka

Abstract

Details

Mixed-Race in the US and UK: Comparing the Past, Present, and Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-554-2

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Book part
Publication date: 6 November 2015

David Norman Smith

Max Weber called the maxim “Time is Money” the surest, simplest expression of the spirit of capitalism. Coined in 1748 by Benjamin Franklin, this modern proverb now has a…

Abstract

Purpose

Max Weber called the maxim “Time is Money” the surest, simplest expression of the spirit of capitalism. Coined in 1748 by Benjamin Franklin, this modern proverb now has a life of its own. In this paper, I examine the worldwide diffusion and sociocultural history of this paradigmatic expression. The intent is to explore the ways in which ideas of time and money appear in sedimented form in popular sayings.

Methodology/approach

My approach is sociological in orientation and multidisciplinary in method. Drawing upon the works of Max Weber, Antonio Gramsci, Wolfgang Mieder, and Dean Wolfe Manders, I explore the global spread of Ben Franklin’s famed adage in three ways: (1) via evidence from the field of “paremiology” – that is, the study of proverbs; (2) via online searches for the phrase “Time is Money” in 30-plus languages; and (3) via evidence from sociological and historical research.

Findings

The conviction that “Time is Money” has won global assent on an ever-expanding basis for more than 250 years now. In recent years, this phrase has reverberated to the far corners of the world in literally dozens of languages – above all, in the languages of Eastern Europe and East Asia.

Originality/value

Methodologically, this study unites several different ways of exploring the globalization of the capitalist spirit. The main substantive implication is that, as capitalism goes global, so too does the capitalist spirit. Evidence from popular sayings gives us a new foothold for insight into questions of this kind.

Details

Globalization, Critique and Social Theory: Diagnoses and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-247-4

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Md. Bokhtiar Hasan, Abu N. M. Wahid, Md. Ruhul Amin and Md. Delowar Hossain

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of ownership structure such as family, government, institutional, foreign and public on dividend payouts as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of ownership structure such as family, government, institutional, foreign and public on dividend payouts as a representative of dividend policy of nonfinancial firms in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a dynamic panel data model, namely, differenced generalized method of moments (GMM), which follows a two-step process. The study uses annual data of a sample of 159 nonfinancial firms of Dhaka Stock Exchange for the period 2008–2017, which constitutes a panel data of 1,590 firm-year observations.

Findings

This study’s findings reveal that family and public ownerships have a significant and positive effect on dividend payouts, while government and institutional ownerships have a significant but negative effect. This study additionally incorporates some very important controlled variables and finds that except for size, all the selected controlled variables, i.e. lagged-one of dividend payout, returns on assets, debts to assets, price-earnings (PE) ratio, age and financial crisis have a significant effect on the dividend payouts. However, the findings support several dividend-related theories or hypotheses, i.e. agency cost theory, dividend stability theory and reputation hypothesis.

Research limitations/implications

This study could consider some other aspects of corporate governance, as well as other emerging markets and financial institutions to perceive whether the results differ. Also, investigation could be carried out on conventional and Islamic firms individually to observe if the findings are different. However, the researchers are suggested to incorporate these issues in their future studies.

Practical implications

This study offers an important insight into the relationship dynamics between dividend payouts and ownership structure in the context of an emerging market like Bangladesh. Moreover, it enhances the understanding of the ties of dividend payouts with the firm-specific factors as well as the financial crisis. The findings of the present study have also important implications for managers, policymakers and researchers, who are in quest of directions on the dividend policy of publicly listed nonfinancial firms.

Originality/value

Most of the previous studies consider one or two types of ownership to examine the impacts on dividend payouts, while this study uses five types of ownership accompanied by a different data set. Moreover, to the authors’ knowledge, no study in Bangladesh has yet addressed this issue in such a comprehensive manner as theirs.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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