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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2020

Rowena Hill, Eva Sundin and Belinda Winder

Traditionally, research exploring the work–family interface has focussed on two perspectives: the organisation and the employee. The third perspective of the family has…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditionally, research exploring the work–family interface has focussed on two perspectives: the organisation and the employee. The third perspective of the family has been largely neglected. This has also been the case with emergency responders. Arguably, the social support that emergency responders receive from their families maintains the health and well-being of the emergency responders. There has been more literature focussing on family members of police and ambulance staff, but less is known about the experiences of the families of firefighters. This study, therefore, aims to explore the occupation-related consequences for families of firefighters to establish what could be done to preserve this important source of social support.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was needed to understand the perspective of relatives of firefighters. Grounded theory was used to analyse interviews of family members of firefighters.

Findings

Important concepts to families of firefighters include the management of emotional contagion from their firefighter, their sophisticated perceptions of physical and emotional risk, their ability to make things work around a satellite family member, detail of the sacrifices they make and the social support from other firefighters' families.

Research limitations/implications

The findings highlight the rich understanding and benefits offered when fire and rescue services and researchers consider the family perspective of the work–family interface within this context to develop a rich supportive dynamic between the organisation, the employee and their family.

Practical implications

Findings from this study are considered to inform the development of a positive resource ecology within fire and rescue services. Where work-family enrichment positively informs the interventions and practical approaches organisations can use to enhance the wellbeing of their employees, by acknowledging other life domains.

Originality/value

The contribution to theoretical perspectives on the work–family interface, as well as the informed understanding of occupational consequences of the firefighting occupation on relatives, offers a unique contribution to the literature.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2020

Rachael Wheatley, Belinda Winder and Daria J. Kuss

This paper aims to provide instructions on how to implement an adapted version of the standard repertory grid technique (VARGT). The purpose of which is to provide…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide instructions on how to implement an adapted version of the standard repertory grid technique (VARGT). The purpose of which is to provide practitioners with a tool, which enables active engagement by participants in research and clinical practice. This tool has been used effectively with people convicted of stalking offences.

Design/methodology/approach

Repertory grids, developed from Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory (1955), had never been used with those who stalk, either clinically or in a research context. Visual and kinaesthetic adaptations were made to standard RGT procedures (Grice, 2002; Tan and Hunter, 2002), for use in a mixed methods research study (Wheatley, 2019, p. 77) due to expected challenges in engaging with this group. This manuscript presents theoretical underpinnings and step-by-step instructions for practical application.

Findings

The VARGT is easy to administer and produces rich data, in both qualitative and quantitative formats. This adapted approach encourages active participation and an interpreted therapeutic collaboration (Wheatley et al., 2020).

Practical implications

This novel technique has engaged men convicted of stalking offences collaboratively in research activities and showed potential for its use as a clinical tool. This instructional technical paper allows the technique to be replicated.

Originality/value

This novel technique has engaged men convicted of stalking offences collaboratively in research activities and showed potential for its use as a clinical tool. This instructional technical paper allows the technique to be replicated.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2018

Helen Elliott, Belinda Winder, Ellie Manby, Helen Edwards and Rebecca Lievesley

The purpose of this paper is to explore the views and experiences of probation staff working with individuals convicted of a sexual offence who have been prescribed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the views and experiences of probation staff working with individuals convicted of a sexual offence who have been prescribed medication to manage sexual arousal (MMSA).

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were utilised with a sample of probation staff (offender supervisors and managers, n=12), who supervise individuals convicted of a sexual offence, either in prison, or post-release in the community. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.

Findings

Two main themes emerged: barriers for probation staff and suspicious but hopeful. Theme 1 encapsulates factors that prevent probation staff from engaging with MMSA; theme 2 highlighted the samples’ uncertainty and mistrust of the use of medication as a potential tool for risk management and scepticism about individuals’ motivations, particularly in the community.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study was the differing levels of knowledge the sample had about MMSA and their subsequent ability to discuss MMSA other than in a theoretical sense.

Practical implications

Practical implications include the need for further training for probation staff, improved collaboration between departments and ongoing support for staff to support the success of the MMSA intervention.

Originality/value

This study offers a novel perspective on MMSA – that of the probation staff supervising prisoners taking MMSA. This has not been explored before, and the findings and associated implications are of importance for the treatment and care of those convicted of sexual offences.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Karin A. Spenser, Ray Bull, Lucy Betts and Belinda Winder

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to…

Abstract

Purpose

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to enable self-control and reduce the risk of offending behaviours. Previous research has made associations between these skills and executive functioning; however, research into a link between them, in an offending population, is limited. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

To further understand the practicalities of this, the present study considered the predictive abilities of the constructs believed to underpin executive functioning: working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control, in relation to theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning. In total, 200 male and female offenders completed measures in all six constructs.

Findings

Using path analysis working memory was demonstrated to be predictive of theory of mind and empathic understanding, cognitive flexibility was found to be predictive of theory of mind, and inhibitory control was found to be predictive of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning.

Research limitations/implications

The study focussed on offenders serving a custodial sentence of six months or less and did not differentiate between crime categories or take into consideration the socio-environmental backgrounds or ethnicity. Therefore, considering these things could further establish the generalisability of the current findings. It is noted that the more focussed the intervention is to the specific needs of an offender, the greater the impact will be. Therefore, pre-screening tests for the constructs discussed may be able to more accurately assess an offenders’ suitability for a programme, or indeed tailor it to meet the specific needs of that person.

Practical implications

These findings may enable practitioners to more accurately assess offenders’ suitability for interventions aimed at reducing offending behaviours by improving levels of prosociality and develop more focussed programmes to meet the specific needs of individual offenders to reduce re-offending.

Social implications

As recommended in the study, a more tailored approach to offender rehabilitation may be a potential aid to reducing levels of recidivism.

Originality/value

The present study adds to the literature as it is the first to consider whether the constructs of executive functioning can predict levels of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning and so provide a more accurate method in assessing the cognitive abilities of offenders prior to participation in rehabilitative interventions.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Joanne E. Nulty, Belinda Winder and Sally Lopresti

The treatment and placement of transgender individuals within the UK prison system has garnered considerable political and media attention. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The treatment and placement of transgender individuals within the UK prison system has garnered considerable political and media attention. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the experiences of three transgender women located within a male, category C prison in England.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were interviewed and their accounts analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Findings

Three overarching themes emerged from the data set: participants’ experiences of transition; their identity within custody and the challenges associated with presenting as female within a male establishment; and what they perceived as their fight against the prison system which encompassed a fight for their rights alongside a daily struggle against harassment, victimisation and discrimination.

Research limitations/implications

Three participants were interviewed which impacts the generalisability of the findings. Implications link to the care and management of transgender prisoners.

Practical implications

The care and management of transgender prisoners is a complex issue. This paper contributes to the discussion on how best to support and care for this group of service users who are arguably amongst the most vulnerable within the prison system.

Social implications

Findings are discussed in relation to policy, management and safeguarding of transgender prisoners within the UK prison system. Recommendations are made regarding their placement and management in prison.

Originality/value

There are limited accounts from transgender prisoners regarding their experiences in prison. This paper aims to address that gap.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Katie Marlow, Belinda Winder and Helen Jane Elliott

– The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the experiences of staff working with transgendered sex offenders in a prison setting.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the experiences of staff working with transgendered sex offenders in a prison setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilised a qualitative approach, with semi-structured interviews used to explore the experiences of staff working with transgendered sexual offenders (n=6). Data were analysed using thematic analysis.

Findings

Three themes were identified in the data. The first relates to how staff become educated on transgender issues and the content of this information. The second describes situations in which boundaries are overstepped by both transgender offenders and others in the prison. The third relates to the ways in which staff manage change, such as tailoring treatment to specific needs and being mindful of what adaptations may be required.

Research limitations/implications

The main drawback of this research was the limited sample; female prison staff. Future research should expand this sample to encompass male staff and staff working in alternate category prisons.

Practical implications

The research illustrates the utility of staff collaboration with transgendered sex offenders on transgender issues but also suggests some additional guidance is required when it comes to determining the boundaries. Staff may also benefit from more education on the possible ways in which a transgendered identity can impact on criminogenic needs.

Originality/value

The present research offers insight into the current state of care and management of transgendered offenders in custody and the nature of interactions between staff and this minority group. At present, there is limited research in this area.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Nicholas Blagden, Belinda Winder, Mick Gregson and Karen Thorne

The aim of this paper is to highlight the practical utility of using repertory grids with sexual offenders in denial and to demonstrate through a case study how they can…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to highlight the practical utility of using repertory grids with sexual offenders in denial and to demonstrate through a case study how they can be used to bolster both initial assessment and psychological formulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a single case study design and applies a repertory grid methodology, which is underpinned by personal construct psychology, to make sense of the case study. The analysis predominately focuses on the structure of the repertory grid.

Findings

The case study appeared to elicit factors that were of clinical utility and which could be used as tentative hypotheses for problem formulation and also seemed to point to an adequate starting point for intervention.

Research limitations/implications

The use of the case study makes generalisation difficult and future research may benefit from more large‐scale research.

Practical implications

Rather than subscribing to fatalist notions of deniers as untreatable, the paper argues that constructive work can be done with this population and that repertory grids can be one way to initially facilitate this process.

Originality/value

Currently “total deniers” are excluded from treatment and are seen as untreatable. It is argued here that this need not be the case and it is demonstrated how repertory grids can inform initial formulation with such offenders. Repertory grids have not been used with deniers before and this is an original feature of this research.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2013

Lyn Shelton, Julia Stone and Belinda Winder

The study explored the factor structure and reliability of the Community Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders (CATSO) scale. The study also included an impression management scale.

Abstract

Purpose

The study explored the factor structure and reliability of the Community Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders (CATSO) scale. The study also included an impression management scale.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 441 adults (134 male, 280 female, 27 ns) participated in this study from three populations: staff at a category B prison (n=62), staff at a category C sex offender prison (n=102) and staff at a UK university (n=248). Questionnaire packs included information/consent, demographics, the CATSO and the Paulhus impression management scale.

Findings

Data were excluded where the Paulhus score was <1 or >12 (faking good/bad present). Confirmatory factor analysis with alternative models indicated the scale did not meet any of the requirements for an acceptable fit. Cronbach's α confirmed that two of the four sub‐scales were not internally consistent. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted following the removal of items with poor item‐total correlation and/or low/high facility index and, following parallel analysis, a revised two factor solution was examined. The CATSO needs revision; it is unclear whether it is sufficiently reliable and valid for use in the UK. The need for a valid/reliable tool to assess attitudes toward sexual offenders remains an important goal for researchers.

Originality/value

Church et al. (2008) developed a scale (CATSO) to measure attitudes toward sex offenders; the scale is being increasingly widely used across a range of populations, including the general public and correctional staff. This research identifies significant problems with the scale in terms of factor structure and reliability of the sub‐scales. This paper advises a rethink of the CATSO by the scale authors and suggest the scale is not currently useable.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2013

Kerensa Hocken, Belinda Winder and Andy Grayson

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the Structured Assessment of Risk and Need (SARN) for sexual offenders with intellectual disability (ID).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the Structured Assessment of Risk and Need (SARN) for sexual offenders with intellectual disability (ID).

Design/methodology/approach

A thematic analysis was conducted on the transcript of a discussion group of experts who work with sex offenders with ID in custody.

Findings

The principal concern of the researchers at the outset of the paper was that the risk factors within the SARN might not be relevant to sexual offenders with an intellectual disability. However, what emerged from the analysis was that, from the perspective of expert practitioners, the limitations of the SARN with respect to working with sex offenders with ID is as much to do with the way in which it is administered, as it is to do with its “content”.

Practical implications

The process of risk assessment is critical when assessing risk with sex offenders with ID, highlighting the importance of incorporating responsivity principles into the risk assessment process.

Originality/value

The paper encourages risk assessors to rethink their assumptions about indicators of risk and progress and provides guidance about how practitioners can assess risk more effectively with sex offenders with ID.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 4 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Neil Gredecki and Carol Ireland

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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