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This chapter discusses the positioning of Belarus in the international context of socioeconomic development based on an assessment of the country's dynamics in world…
This chapter discusses the positioning of Belarus in the international context of socioeconomic development based on an assessment of the country's dynamics in world rankings. The country's presence in the recognized world rankings and its holding high positions in them is an obvious advantage for achieving a favorable investment image. Ratings characterize the country's comparative position at the international level in a number of areas: from credit capacity to human capital development.
There has been analyzed the position of the Republic of Belarus in several recognized international comparisons, such as Human Development Index, Doing Business, ICT Development Index, Global Innovation Index, Sustainable Development Goals Index, Corruption Perceptions Index, Rule of Law Index, Worldwide Governance Indicators, and others.
However, Belarus is not yet participating in the international competitiveness assessment through such popular international ratings as Global Competitiveness Index and Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The research findings show that the strongest aspects of the socioeconomic development of Belarus are in place due to the high educational level of the human capital development, gender equality, and the implementation of the UN sustainable development goals. The analysis also shows that the weaknesses of institutional environment and public administration do not enable the full implementation of the planned goals of socioeconomic development.
This chapter examines the peculiarities of the Belarusian socio-political model and its internal contradictions, which are becoming increasingly significant enhanced in…
This chapter examines the peculiarities of the Belarusian socio-political model and its internal contradictions, which are becoming increasingly significant enhanced in the context of the new information and communication reality. The authors describe the information environment and the current political situation in Belarus. This chapter examines the factors behind the intensification of socio-political communications. The authors note the increased role of authorities in the online information domain. Particular focus is placed on the new role of social media, opinion leaders, activists, and bloggers. This chapter includes case studies detailing how exactly information technologies and online communication contribute to the formation of a new socio-political agenda in the country. Key examples relate to situations where, owing to extensive public engagement and support for online appeals, it became possible to use mechanisms of legitimate influence on government decision-making and bring to account officials responsible for concealing information. The authors emphasize the importance of information and communication technologies when it comes to external political challenges.
The purpose of this chapter is to describe and analyze the economic advantage of the geographical location of the Republic of Belarus. The current state of the Belarusian…
The purpose of this chapter is to describe and analyze the economic advantage of the geographical location of the Republic of Belarus. The current state of the Belarusian logistics system is analyzed in detail in the chapter. Thus effects of each direction of transportations are analyzed and also approaches to assessment of their cost efficiency are formulated. The factors influencing the export of transport services as well as the development of trends in the transport sector of Belarus are defined. The main directions and ways of improvement of logistics in the Republic of Belarus are described.
In this chapter, characteristic of the fuel and energy sector of Republic of Belarus; its organizational structure; the current state of development of power, gas, peat…
In this chapter, characteristic of the fuel and energy sector of Republic of Belarus; its organizational structure; the current state of development of power, gas, peat, and oil industries are given. The energy balance of the country and the main power streams is analyzed. Characteristic of key indicators of energy security is presented. The main threats connected with ensuring energy security of Republic of Belarus are allocated. In particular, the characteristic of the directions of reducing the energy dependence of the Republic of Belarus on the supply of natural gas from the Russian Federation is presented. Dynamics of power consumption of GDP is analyzed. Potential of use of renewable and local energy resources, complexity and prospect of their further integration into the Belarusian power system are considered. The prospects of development of nuclear power of Republic of Belarus are described. The advantages and disadvantages connected with input of the Belarusian nuclear power plant in operation are designated. The perspective directions of sustainable power development of Republic of Belarus till 2035 are revealed.
The current state and development of education system in Belarus are considered. It includes preschool, general secondary, vocational, secondary special and higher…
The current state and development of education system in Belarus are considered. It includes preschool, general secondary, vocational, secondary special and higher education, as well as supplementary education for children and further education for adults, including nonformal education. The gross enrollment rate in secondary education (ISCED Level 2 and 3) as a share to the population at the corresponding age was 102.9% in 2015, and the enrollment rate in tertiary education (ISCED Levels 5–8) showed 93.8%. The role of universities in creating the Belarus National Innovation System is shown. The main direction of improving the activities of higher education institutions based on the “University 3.0” model is considered. The Belarussian universities actively develop their innovation infrastructure (they form their own training and research centers, research and production laboratories, centers of cooperation with enterprises, career development centers for students and startup schools). During last years 14 sectoral laboratories and 6 science technological parks were established on the basis of Belarusian universities. Belarusian universities, while determining their own development trajectory, are guided by their main mission – to promote innovation and human capital formation – for the sustainable social and economic development of the country.
The administrative structure of the Republic of Belarus; the main demographic, social, and economic problems currently encountered in regions, districts, cities, and other…
The administrative structure of the Republic of Belarus; the main demographic, social, and economic problems currently encountered in regions, districts, cities, and other administrative divisions of the country; as well as trends and changes in regional development according to the statistics of spatial development of Belarus over the last quarter of a century have been considered. The legal and institutional framework established in Belarus for the formation, implementation, and improvement of the regional policy, as well as the related forms of state intervention in regional development (policies to minimize the effects of radioactive contamination in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident, environmental protection, town-planning and land-use policies) have been analyzed. The goals and objectives, subjects and objects, as well as the tools used by the Belarusian public authorities in the regional policy formation and implementation nationwide have been identified. The promising trends for its improvement pursued in Belarus have been formulated taking into account the foreign experience and the paradigm shift of regional development policy observed in the OECD member countries.
This chapter is devoted to the issue of ensuring financial stability in the state. The main goal of the research is to determine the role and policy of the National…
This chapter is devoted to the issue of ensuring financial stability in the state. The main goal of the research is to determine the role and policy of the National (Central) Bank, which was called up, together with the Government, to ensure financial stability in the Republic of Belarus. The actions of the National Bank for the implementation of monetary policy, macroprudential regulation, and supervision are reviewed. It is noted that the regulation and supervision of banks, nonbank credit and financial organizations, the payment system, the sector of other financial intermediaries (leasing activities, microfinance activities, activities of forex companies) is carried out by the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus. The main practical actions of the Government and the National Bank aimed at maintaining and ensuring financial stability is highlighted: monitoring of financial stability (goals, tasks, objects, monitoring directions are defined); creation of the Financial Stability Board (goals, objectives, representation, personal responsibility); disclosure of information on financial stability is carried out on an ongoing basis – the publication of the analytical review “Financial Stability in the Republic of Belarus.” The research provided a summary of the state of the country's financial sector and presented the achievements of the National Bank and state institutions for ensuring financial stability. The main problems affecting financial stability are highlighted: insufficient efficiency of the activities of large enterprises of the real sector of the economy; high levels of credit risk in banks; high dollarization of bank balance sheets. The directions of development of the financial market of the Republic of Belarus, contributing to ensuring financial stability are presented.
The agro-industrial complex (AIC) of Belarus is one of the priority sectors of the national economy, which performs economic, social, environmental and cultural functions…
The agro-industrial complex (AIC) of Belarus is one of the priority sectors of the national economy, which performs economic, social, environmental and cultural functions. The main trends in the development of the industry on modern business conditions are presented in the section. The goals, objectives, and mechanisms for the implementation of the state programs of development of the AIC are analyzed. The directions and measures of state support for agriculture are reasonable, the actual structure of the “green box” and “yellow box” measures is presented. Approaches and mechanisms to ensure national food security are highlighted in the light of new conditions, goals, and objectives. The results of the foreign trade in agricultural products of Belarus and rural development and social infrastructure of the village are presented. Scenarios for the development of agriculture in Belarus, taking into account national priorities in the field of agricultural production, the domestic consumer market, foreign trade, have been developed.
The purpose of the chapter is to provide insight into public–private partnership (PPP) specifics and the role of PPPs within the social innovation framework in the…
The purpose of the chapter is to provide insight into public–private partnership (PPP) specifics and the role of PPPs within the social innovation framework in the Republic of Belarus. It is necessary to justify the implementation of new approaches toward the development and evaluation of PPPs considering the importance of PPPs in developing economies.
Methods: A systematic approach to the observation, analysis and synthesis, comparisons, methods of investment analysis, statistical and economic techniques, and optimization methods. These methods allow to observe the most significant features of the PPPs which have been developed in the Republic of Belarus.
Approach: The theme of the research was carried out within the framework of the legislation “The priority areas of scientific research in 2016–2020” approved by the resolution No 190 of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus of 03.12.2015.
The study examines the trends on PPP development in the Republic of Belarus and determines the role of PPPs in social innovations. The analysis of the current state of PPPs has been carried out. A set of problems related to the introduction of specific PPP instruments has been identified in the chapter.
Findings: The scientific novelty and significance of the results lies in the methodological justification for the formation of an effective organizational and economic mechanism in order to implement PPPs in the Republic of Belarus. The essence and novelty of the proposal lies in the adjustment of financial instruments relevant to the evaluation of PPP proposals, which make it possible to provide the necessary information to be successful. The scientific novelty includes the reintroduction of social innovation factors as the important evaluation merit in the implementation process in order to increase PPP impact on the economy.
This chapter identifies features of foreign economic policy of the Republic of Belarus determined by its multidirectional external economic relations and participation in…
This chapter identifies features of foreign economic policy of the Republic of Belarus determined by its multidirectional external economic relations and participation in the processes of international economic integration.
It is noted that in the last decade there has been an active search for opportunities to shift the focus in foreign economic policy, including geographic redirection of trade and investment flows, intensification of the search for a “niche” and new ways of incorporating into the world economic relations system, progress toward the liberalization of trade relations by means of multilateral and bilateral interaction formats.
This section assesses the motivation for the boost of the foreign economic policy of the Republic of Belarus in the context of aggravated geopolitical situation and the growth of protectionist tendencies and identifies obstacles to its implementation.