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There is widespread non‐understanding of the nature, possibilities and limitations of behavioural science among managements and trade unions. There is also considerable…
There is widespread non‐understanding of the nature, possibilities and limitations of behavioural science among managements and trade unions. There is also considerable misunderstanding — indeed suspicion — between the three parties to behavioural‐science‐in‐industry contracts — the behavioural scientist, the manager and the trade unionist — about the motives for conducting studies and the methods of managing both scientific work in progress and the implementation of results. This lack of clarity among industrialists, incidentally, is by no means only their fault; their confidence has been known to be tricked by behavioural scientists who, for instance, make excessive claims for their product or transgress agreements by failing to provide expected feedback or infringing the principle of confidentiality.
This commentary argues that social marketing and the application of behavioural sciences to policy constitute two converging paths towards better policies. It highlights…
This commentary argues that social marketing and the application of behavioural sciences to policy constitute two converging paths towards better policies. It highlights points of convergence and divergence between both disciplines and the potential benefits of further embedding social marketing principles and methods within the recent trend of applying behavioural sciences to policy.
The commentary relies on a review of the behavioural sciences and social marketing literatures and on an analysis of institutional reports reviewing cases of behaviourally informed policies.
Behavioural sciences are increasingly informing policies to promote societal well-being. Social marketing has seldom been explicitly considered as being part of this phenomenon, although it is de facto. Both disciplines share similar end-goals, inform similar policy applications and are rooted in behavioural analysis. They diverge in their theoretical frameworks, their relative emphasis on behaviour change and the span of interventions they generate. Several benefits of embedding social marketing principles and methods within the current way of applying behavioural sciences to policy are identified.
Scholars applying behavioural sciences to policy are encouraged, when appropriate, to use the insights and methods from social marketing. Social marketing can engage in a dialogue with behavioural sciences to explore how to pilot the convergence of both approaches in practice.
The novelty of this contribution lies in providing the first comparison of the application of behavioural sciences to policy with social marketing, and in using the policy-making cycle framework to map the contributions and complementarities of both disciplines.
This study aims to analyze the basic information of visitors of the Macau Science Center to assess their leisure involvement, satisfaction and behavioral intention, along…
This study aims to analyze the basic information of visitors of the Macau Science Center to assess their leisure involvement, satisfaction and behavioral intention, along with the interaction of these factors. Suggestions are made for museum policy modifications to improve visitor experience quality.
The analysis methods used in this study included reliability, descriptive statistics, independent-samples t test, ANOVA, correlation analysis and regression analysis.
The results showed that there was no significant relationship between gender and satisfaction, involvement of leisure or behavioral intention; age and educational level had significant impacts on satisfaction, leisure involvement and behavioral intention; significant differences were found in terms of visitors’ point of geographic origin, namely, local residents, mainland residents and Hong Kong residents; occupation was found to have no significant impact on satisfaction, leisure involvement or behavioral intention; monthly income was found to have no significant impact on leisure involvement and behavioral intention, but did have a significant impact on satisfaction; number of visits had no significant impact; there was no significant difference in leisure involvement and behavioral intention among different types of visitors, but there was a significant difference in terms of satisfaction; and significant correlations were found between leisure involvement and behavioral intentions.
The value of this study is to identify problems and offer potential solutions for the improvement of the Macau Science Center by studying the leisure involvement, satisfaction and behavioral intention of museum visitors. The proposed measures can improve the visibility and quality of the science museum, attract additional visitors and improve Macau’s branding through promoting science education and tourism.
A behavioural approach to information retrieval system design is outlined based on the derivation of a behavioural model of the information seeking patterns of academic…
A behavioural approach to information retrieval system design is outlined based on the derivation of a behavioural model of the information seeking patterns of academic social scientists. The information seeking patterns of a variety of academic social scientists were broken down into six characteristics: starting, chaining, browsing, differentiating, monitoring, and extracting. These characteristics constitute the principal generic features of the different individual patterns, and together provide a flexible behavioural model for information retrieval system design. The extent to which these characteristics are available on existing systems is considered, and the requirements for implementing the features on an experimental system are set out.
Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).
The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.
This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.
Looks at the problems and advantages of the application of sociological and social psychological concepts to marketing science. Deals with the problem of selecting…
Looks at the problems and advantages of the application of sociological and social psychological concepts to marketing science. Deals with the problem of selecting relevent concepts from the behavioural sciences, and discusses the explicative power of some of these concepts. Suggests guidelines for the selection of behavioural science ideas, which are both practically and educationally appropriate.
This paper reflects on the evolution of implicit and explicit behavioral ideas in the field of strategic management using Herbert Simon’s scholarship as a starting point…
This paper reflects on the evolution of implicit and explicit behavioral ideas in the field of strategic management using Herbert Simon’s scholarship as a starting point, that is, his emphasis on empirically driven; interdisciplinary theorizing allowing and enabling two-way street learning. We argue that historically, there were plenty of behavioral ideas embedded in the field and, together with the recent movement towards explicit “behavioral strategy,” these provide several possible paths for future developments in strategic management research. In the spirit of broadening the tent for behavioral strategy in the future (Hambrick & Crossland, 2018), we suggest some topics and approaches for behavioral strategy in empirically driven, interdisciplinary directions which allows also for two-way street learning between concepts and real-world strategic phenomena.
This chapter describes the Initiative for Maximizing Student Diversity (IMSD), a National Institutes of Health-funded research training program at North Carolina State…
This chapter describes the Initiative for Maximizing Student Diversity (IMSD), a National Institutes of Health-funded research training program at North Carolina State University (NCSU). IMSD is designed to increase the number and success of student Scholars from groups underrepresented in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. The NCSU-IMSD program provides financial support for both undergraduate and graduate students and utilizes a holistic approach that engages students in both academic and nonacademic professional development activities. Undergraduate IMSD Scholars are placed in research labs with faculty and graduate mentors during the entire academic year as well as the summer, and seeks to create a sense of community across cohorts. Unlike similar programs at other research-extensive universities, NCSU-IMSD is housed in the graduate school and serves students across multiple departments and colleges. This location provides greater opportunities for interdisciplinary interaction between student Scholars and is a model that enhances institutional commitments to diversity in the research sciences. This chapter describes these key program dimensions and provides guidelines for doctoral institutions seeking to enhance the experiences of underrepresented undergraduate and graduate students in the biomedical and behavioral sciences.
A dictionary definition of management says that it is the “judicious use of means to accomplish an end” (Webster). An alternative definition which may be found in textbooks is that management means the handling of scarce resources so as to maximise utility. Can there be a science dealing with how to handle scarce resources? Economics is also sometimes defined as the science having to do with the handling of scarce resources. Is there then any difference between economics and management? I think there is. Economics derives its normative statements from value systems incorporating economic equilibria (market equilibria). Management, on the other hand, is somehow tied to purposeful decision‐making and actions and the concept is often though not exclusively used about business decision‐making. Management is then seen as the art or science of maximising profits and ensuring efficiency. Even if this is the main pre‐occupation of management researchers and practitioners as evidenced by textbooks and case studies, it does not by any means cover the whole complex area of management. For one thing there are always constraints on behaviour, some of which are so strict that they actually serve as goals in themselves and maximisation of profit is often replaced by criteria for satisficing. It should be noted that management is also used in the sense of “the collective body of those who manage or direct an enterprise” (Webster). This latter definition may explain why management in the first sense is often conceived as relating to the handling of scarce resources in the business firm.