Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While…
Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment measures. Assessment practice across school settings is greatly influenced by clinical guidelines such as the DSM-IV, which more specifically defines emotional and behavioral disorders and highlights the issue of co-morbidity. Before a student is assessed for special education eligibility under the IDEIA category of emotional disturbance, screening techniques and pre-referral interventions are needed. Positive Behavioral Supports and Response to Intervention models provide empirically supported frameworks for establishing the need for formal psychological assessment. Collaboration among members of the multidisciplinary team, including parents, helps to ensure that identification and intervention efforts have ecological validity. Tests and techniques vary considerably, but developmental histories, interviews, observations across settings, and behavioral checklists and rating scales are recommended, along with cognitive and achievement testing. While problems exist in the reliability and validity of projective techniques, they continue to be used in school-based assessment for EBD. Multitrait, multisetting, and multimethod approaches are essential for culturally fair assessment and reduction of bias in identification and placement.
Students with and at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) or behavioral difficulties have unique and heterogeneous needs that affect their academic, behavioral…
Students with and at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) or behavioral difficulties have unique and heterogeneous needs that affect their academic, behavioral, and social skills. As such, many of these students are served in more restrictive settings (e.g., residential facilities) than their peers with other disabilities. However, there is little research to document the characteristics of students who are served outside of their neighborhood school. In this chapter, we describe a study of students with and at-risk for EBD served in a residential facility in the southeastern United States. Descriptive analyses of the behavioral, academic, and social characteristics of 18 students enrolled at the facility suggest that, on average, students scored above average for problem behaviors, below average on academic measures, and below average for social skills. Linear regression analyses suggest that age did not predict performance and that certain behavioral indices predicted student achievement on both academic and social skills measures. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
Recently, a national priority has been set to improve mental health services for children and families. It has been identified in epidemiological literature that in the…
Recently, a national priority has been set to improve mental health services for children and families. It has been identified in epidemiological literature that in the United States, an approximate 15% of youth meet diagnostic criteria for emotional or behavioral problems. Furthermore, less than one in every five children that present with such needs receive mental health services. Individual, family, and system barriers such as transportation, competing demands, and long waiting lists have negatively impacted access to mental health services. Therefore, the school system has become the “de facto” mental health system for children and adolescents, in part because of the significant time students spend at school. However, meeting the needs of students with behavioral or emotional problems within the school system poses its own challenges. Schools have reported being limited in their ability to deliver basic mental wellness to students due to the lack of available resources. Specifically, there is a shortage of school-employed mental health personnel and the ratio of student to mental health professional is two to three times larger than recommended. Expanded school mental health programs are partnered systems that utilize existing services and collaborate with community mental health (CMH) professionals at each level of the three-tiered system. This partnership enables CMH staff gain access to youth with emotional and behavioral problems, resulting in increased prevention and intervention services for students. Additionally, a coordinated effort such as student-transition services has an integral role of facilitating the process from the school system to postsecondary employment, training, and or additional education.
Clinically significant childhood acquired brain injury (ABI) is associated with increased risk of emotional and behavioural dysfunction and peer relationship problems. The…
Clinically significant childhood acquired brain injury (ABI) is associated with increased risk of emotional and behavioural dysfunction and peer relationship problems. The purpose of this paper is to determine how emotional and peer related problems for children with ABI compare with those of children referred to mental health services, and to identify clinical predictors of peer relationship problems in a heterogeneous sample typical of a specialist community rehabilitation setting.
Participants were 51 children with clinically significant ABI (32 traumatic brain injury; 29 male) referred for outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation. Emotional, behavioural and social outcomes were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and executive functioning was measured with the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions. Correlational analyses were used to explore variables associated with peer relationships. A subgroup (n=27) of children with ABI were compared to an age and sex matched mental health group to determine differences on SDQ subscales.
The SDQ profiles of children with clinically significant ABI did not significantly differ from matched children referred to mental health services. Time since injury, peer relationship problems, metacognitive, and behavioural problems correlated with age at injury. These variables and SDQ emotional problems correlated with peer relationship problems. Linear multiple regression analysis indicated that only metacognitive skills remained a significant predictor of peer relationship problems, and metacognitive skills were found to significantly mediate between age at injury and peer relationship problems.
The study confirms the significant effect of childhood ABI on relationships with peers and mental health, those injured at a younger age faring worst. Within the methodological constraints of this study, the results tentatively suggest that age of injury influences later peer relationships via the mediating role of poor metacognitive skills within a heterogeneous clinical sample.
This is the first study to examine the roles of emotional, behavioural and executive variables on the effect of age at injury on peer relationship problems in a sample with a wide range of ages and ages of injury.
A cross‐sectional representative population survey was used to identify adolescents with mild to moderate mental health problems and to identify areas for possible…
A cross‐sectional representative population survey was used to identify adolescents with mild to moderate mental health problems and to identify areas for possible intervention. Outcome variables were depression, stress, behavioural problems and study problems. An analysis was carried out examining associations between mental health problems and socio‐demographic and behavioural variables. A sizeable proportion reported one or more mental health problems. Among those reporting extreme levels of these problems, few had sought help or talked to someone. The paper concludes that population health data provide useful information that could be addressed through school programmes to enhance resilience and promote adolescent mental health.
The 1990 reauthorization of PL 94-142, the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), emphasized the need for applied research in schools to prevent the development of…
The 1990 reauthorization of PL 94-142, the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), emphasized the need for applied research in schools to prevent the development of emotional disturbance. Prevention research then led to mandates in IDEA 1997 that schools must develop positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) for children and youth whose behavior impeded their educational performance. This chapter describes how the ensuing research and implementation regarding each of the three-tiers of PBIS have influenced the educational outcomes of students with EBD. Recommendations for school staff using the three-tiered PBUS model are provided so that students with EBD can benefit from implementation of PBIS structures and supports.
Many parts of the world are developing specialist mental health services for people with a learning disability. Government policy in England appears to favour a move in…
Many parts of the world are developing specialist mental health services for people with a learning disability. Government policy in England appears to favour a move in the opposite direction. The general aims of mental health services for people with a learning disability are indeed similar to those of the rest of the population, but distinctive clinical skills are required to assess, treat and support effectively people with a learning disability who have mental health and/or behavioural problems. There is therefore a need for specialist services to meet the needs of this population, which should include acute admission facilities, outreach services in the community and long‐term support.
The paper reports on a review of assessment scales commonly used for assessment of psychiatric illnesses or behaviour problems in adults with learning disabilities…
The paper reports on a review of assessment scales commonly used for assessment of psychiatric illnesses or behaviour problems in adults with learning disabilities. Initially, a literature search was conducted to identify relevant peer‐reviewed journal publications pertaining to relevant scales. Those scales with more publications were reviewed with reference to the scale composition and psychometric properties. In total, eight behaviour scales, one psychiatric illness scale and three combined behaviour and psychiatric illness scales are reviewed.
Purpose – This chapter examines the role of child health for the intergenerational transmission of human capital.Methodology/approach – The chapter uses unique…
Purpose – This chapter examines the role of child health for the intergenerational transmission of human capital.
Methodology/approach – The chapter uses unique administrative data from German elementary school entrance examinations. The chapter considers child health conditions such as obesity, low birth weight, ear problems, eye problems, behavioral problems, asthma, and allergies. We control for socio-economic and demographic characteristics of children and their parents as well as for institutional factors such as duration of pre-school attendance.
Findings – We find that health conditions are more common among children of less-educated parents. We also find that health conditions have a substantially negative impact on school readiness, and the negative impact is considerably stronger for children of less-educated parents. In total, 55% of the school readiness gap can be attributed to health factors. Specifically, 19% of the gap can be attributed to differences in the prevalence of health conditions, and 36% of the gap can be attributed to differences in the severity of the impact. Thus, policies aimed at reducing disparities in child achievement should also focus on improving the health of disadvantaged children.
Originality – First, our study quantifies the extent to which the school readiness gap between parental education groups can be attributed to child health. Second, our data are of extraordinary quality, since they consist of a full sample of all children in one city and since they are collected during detailed examinations that were administered by government pediatricians.
Given the complex and chronic nature of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the search for and use of evidence-based practices may be hindered by the way we frame…
Given the complex and chronic nature of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the search for and use of evidence-based practices may be hindered by the way we frame questions of what works. Instead of asking “what works in EBD?” – a question that is framed around an eligibility category and not specific behavioral and academic needs – we argue that the question should be contextualized around the targets of intervention. With the right question in mind – “what works for addressing this problem?” professionals in the field must reach consensus on ways to evaluate the current knowledge base and provide guidelines for future research to answer the question. Interventions that address specific behavioral and academic needs, are simple to implement, explicit in their execution, and predictable in their outcomes are most likely to be useful to teachers and to contribute to an evidence base for EBD.