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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Serena Davidson and Wayne Petherick

Case linkage theory and practice have received growing empirical support; however, they have yet to be examined fully within Australia. For sexual assault case linkage to…

Abstract

Purpose

Case linkage theory and practice have received growing empirical support; however, they have yet to be examined fully within Australia. For sexual assault case linkage to be successful, it is assumed that a serial rapist will behave relatively consistently across offences yet distinctively compared to other offenders. The purpose of this paper is to test the underlying principles of case linkage, behavioural consistency and distinctiveness, as well as distinguishing accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 250 solved stranger rapes by 171 offenders (46 serial rapists, 125 one-off rapists) were taken from Queensland Police Service (QPS) crime records. All possible crime pairings were created and cross-crime similarity was assessed using Jaccard’s coefficient. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to examine the ability to distinguish between linked and unlinked offence pairs.

Findings

Serial linked pairs had the highest Jaccard’s coefficient (0.456), followed by non-serial unlinked (0.253) and finally, serial unlinked pairs (0.247). Within the ROC analysis, an area under the curve value was found of 0.913, indicating excellent distinguishing accuracy. Both the underlying principles of behavioural consistency and distinctiveness were supported through theoretical and practical methods. This paper provides the first analysis of serial rape case linkage in Australia, adding validity to this practice.

Research limitations/implications

The authors wish to acknowledge the support and assistance from the QPS in undertaking this research. The views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the QPS and any errors of omission or commission are the responsibility of the authors.

Practical implications

This paper provides validity to the practice of case linkage using a database within Australia. The results of this paper can be used to inform investigators of serial offender behaviours. The theories of offender consistency and distinctiveness are supported, highlighting the importance of behavioural evidence for practitioners. This paper provided a practical increase of the quantity and quality of offences uploaded on the Australian violent and sexual crimes database, which will assist further linkage efforts.

Originality/value

This paper is the first in Australia to examine consistency, distinctiveness and case linkage of serial stranger rape. Thus is contributes significantly not only to an increased understanding of serial rape and case linkage in Australia but also brings Australia closer to modern research practices in this field.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

Matt Tonkin and Martin Joseph Weeks

The purpose of this paper is to understand (i) how crime linkage is currently performed with residential burglaries in New Zealand, (ii) the factors that promote/hinder…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand (i) how crime linkage is currently performed with residential burglaries in New Zealand, (ii) the factors that promote/hinder accurate crime linkage and (iii)whether computerised decision-support tools might assist crime linkage practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 39 New Zealand Police staff completed a questionnaire/interview/focus group relating to the process, challenges, products and uses of crime linkage with residential burglary in New Zealand. These data (alongside four redacted crime linkage reports) were subjected to thematic analysis.

Findings

The data clearly indicated wide variation in crime linkage process, methods and products (Theme 1). Furthermore, a number of factors were identified that impacted on crime linkage practice (Theme 2).

Research limitations/implications

Future research should develop computerised crime linkage decision-support tools and evaluate their ability to enhance crime linkage practice. Also, researchers should explore the use of crime linkage in court proceedings.

Practical implications

To overcome the barriers identified in the current study, greater training in and understanding of crime linkage is needed. Moreover, efforts to enhance the quality of crime data recorded by the police will only serve to enhance crime linkage practice.

Social implications

By enhancing crime linkage practice, opportunities to reduce crime, protect the public and deliver justice for victims will be maximised.

Originality/value

The practice of crime linkage is under-researched, which makes it difficult to determine if/how existing empirical research can be used to support ongoing police investigations. The current project fills that gap by providing a national overview of crime linkage practice in New Zealand, a country where crime linkage is regularly conducted by the police, but no published linkage research exists.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Shumpei Haginoya, Aiko Hanayama and Tamae Koike

The purpose of this paper was to compare the accuracy of linking crimes using geographical proximity between three distance measures: Euclidean (distance measured by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to compare the accuracy of linking crimes using geographical proximity between three distance measures: Euclidean (distance measured by the length of a straight line between two locations), Manhattan (distance obtained by summing north-south distance and east-west distance) and the shortest route distances.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 194 cases committed by 97 serial residential burglars in Aomori Prefecture in Japan between 2004 and 2015 were used in the present study. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare linked (two offenses committed by the same offender) and unlinked (two offenses committed by different offenders) pairs for each distance measure. Discrimination accuracy between linked and unlinked crime pairs was evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Findings

The Mann–Whitney U test showed that the distances of the linked pairs were significantly shorter than those of the unlinked pairs for all distance measures. Comparison of the AUCs showed that the shortest route distance achieved significantly higher accuracy compared with the Euclidean distance, whereas there was no significant difference between the Euclidean and the Manhattan distance or between the Manhattan and the shortest route distance. These findings give partial support to the idea that distance measures taking the impact of environmental factors into consideration might be able to identify a crime series more accurately than Euclidean distances.

Research limitations/implications

Although the results suggested a difference between the Euclidean and the shortest route distance, it was small, and all distance measures resulted in outstanding AUC values, probably because of the ceiling effects. Further investigation that makes the same comparison in a narrower area is needed to avoid this potential inflation of discrimination accuracy.

Practical implications

The shortest route distance might contribute to improving the accuracy of crime linkage based on geographical proximity. However, further investigation is needed to recommend using the shortest route distance in practice. Given that the targeted area in the present study was relatively large, the findings may contribute especially to improve the accuracy of proactive comparative case analysis for estimating the whole picture of the distribution of serial crimes in the region by selecting more effective distance measure.

Social implications

Implications to improve the accuracy in linking crimes may contribute to assisting crime investigations and the earlier arrest of offenders.

Originality/value

The results of the present study provide an initial indication of the efficacy of using distance measures taking environmental factors into account.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2020

Jan-Martin Winter and Gina Rossi

Traditional crime linkage studies on serial sexual assaults have relied predominantly on a binary crime linkage approach that has yielded successful results in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditional crime linkage studies on serial sexual assaults have relied predominantly on a binary crime linkage approach that has yielded successful results in terms of linkage accuracy. Such an approach is a coarse reflection of reality by focussing mainly on the outcome of an offence, neglecting the forceful differences due to the intricate offender-victim interaction. Only few researchers have examined sexual assaults through the lens of a sequence analysis framework. This paper aims to present the first empirical test of offence sequence-based crime linkage, moving beyond exploratory analyses.

Design/methodology/approach

Offence accounts from 90 serial sexual assault and rape victims from the UK were analysed and sequentially coded. Sequence analysis allowed to compare all offences combinations regarding their underlying sequence of events. The resulting comparison was transformed and plotted in two-dimensional space by multidimensional scaling analysis for a visual inspection of linkage potential. The transformed proximities of all offences were used as predictors in a receiver operating characteristic analysis to actually test their discriminatory accuracy for crime linkage purpose.

Findings

Sequence analysis shows significant discriminatory accuracy for crime linkage purpose. However, the method does perform less well than previous binary crime linkage studies.

Research limitations/implications

Several limitations due to the nature of the data will be discussed.

Practical implications

The practical limitations are as follows: the study is a potential practical value for crime analysts; it is a complimentary methodology for statistical crime linkage packages; it requires automated coding to be useful; and it is very dependent on crime recoding standards.

Originality/value

The exploratory part of this study has been published in a book chapter in 2015. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the succinct test of crime linkage accuracy is the first of its kind.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Kari Davies, Hanne Imre and Jessica Woodhams

The Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System (ViCLAS) is a computerised database which is used by law enforcement in several countries to find potential links between serial…

Abstract

Purpose

The Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System (ViCLAS) is a computerised database which is used by law enforcement in several countries to find potential links between serial violent crimes. In 2012, Bennell, Snook, MacDonald, House and Taylor identified a number of assumptions that must be valid for these computerised systems to be effective.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper revisits and expands on these assumptions with specific reference to the use of ViCLAS, looking at research that has been conducted since this 2012 review and outlining where research is still outstanding.

Findings

The importance of evaluating ViCLAS is highlighted in this paper.

Practical implications

Particularly, the research agenda highlights how the practice of comparative case analysis when using ViCLAS could be improved.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first review of the research dedicated specifically to the evaluation of ViCLAS.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Eric Rugraff

The literature identifies different sources of competitive advantages. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that an efficient articulation of a Voice behavioral model…

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3090

Abstract

Purpose

The literature identifies different sources of competitive advantages. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that an efficient articulation of a Voice behavioral model and an Exit behavioral model can result in a sustained competitive advantage for automobile manufacturers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds on the analytical framework of the global value chain literature to analyze how the combination of hierarchy, relational linkages and market linkages creates additional assets. The case of Volkswagen‐Skoda in the Czech Republic is used to illustrate the combination of Voice and Exit relationships.

Findings

The paper suggests that the competitive advantage of automobile manufacturers crucially depends today on the combination, on the one hand, of the “relational rent” provided by the cooperation with global suppliers, and on the other hand, of the “switching rent” provided by the absence of implication in the relationship with lower‐tier suppliers.

Originality/value

The paper represents an original research initiative that considers the combination of three types of linkages as the source of competitive advantage. The paper uses a case study to exemplify the declination and articulation of the three types of linkages.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2020

Tom Pakkanen, Jukka Sirén, Angelo Zappalà, Patrick Jern, Dario Bosco, Andrea Berti and Pekka Santtila

Crime linkage analysis (CLA) can be applied in the police investigation-phase to sift through a database to find behaviorally similar cases to the one under investigation…

Abstract

Purpose

Crime linkage analysis (CLA) can be applied in the police investigation-phase to sift through a database to find behaviorally similar cases to the one under investigation and in the trial-phase to try to prove that the perpetrator of two or more offences is the same, by showing similarity and distinctiveness in the offences. Lately, research has moved toward more naturalistic settings, analyzing data sets that are as similar to actual crime databases as possible. One such step has been to include one-off offences in the data sets, but this has not yet been done with homicide. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how linking accuracy of serial homicide is affected as a function of added hard-to-solve one-off offences.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample (N = 117–1160) of Italian serial homicides (n = 116) and hard-to-solve one-off homicides (n = 1–1044, simulated from 45 cases) was analyzed using a Bayesian approach to identify series membership, and a case by case comparison of similarity using Jaccard’s coefficient. Linking accuracy was evaluated using receiver operating characteristics and by examining the sensitivity and specificity of the model.

Findings

After an initial dip in linking accuracy (as measured by the AUC), the accuracy increased as more one-offs were added to the data. While adding one-offs made it easier to identify correct series (increased sensitivity), there was an increase in false positives (decreased specificity) in the linkage decisions. When rank ordering cases according to similarity, linkage accuracy was affected negatively as a function of added non-serial cases.

Practical implications

While using a more natural data set, in terms of adding a significant portion of non-serial homicides into the mix, does introduce error into the linkage decision, the authors conclude that taken overall, the findings still support the validity of CLA in practice.

Originality/value

This is the first crime linkage study on homicide to investigate how linking accuracy is affected as a function of non-serial cases being introduced into the data.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Manimay Ghosh

The study aimed to examine the antecedents to self-service technology (SST) adoption behavior and the relationships between the constructs using empirical research.

Abstract

Purpose

The study aimed to examine the antecedents to self-service technology (SST) adoption behavior and the relationships between the constructs using empirical research.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on synthesis of the extant literature, a model was hypothesized, hypotheses were framed. Field data collected were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

Few interesting findings were noted in this research. First, SST service quality had a direct positive linkage with perceived value, but no linkage with e-satisfaction. Second, strong positive linkage existed between perceived value and e-satisfaction. Therefore, the connection between SST service quality and satisfaction was completely mediated by perceived value. Third, no relationship existed between perceived value and behavioral intentions, but a direct positive relationship existed between e-satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Thus, the relationship of perceived value with behavioral intentions was fully mediated by e-satisfaction. Fourth, no direct connection was found between SST service quality and behavioral intentions. Rather, the connection was fully mediated by perceived value and e-satisfaction. Fifth, direct positive association was found between behavioral intentions and actual adoption of SST.

Research limitations/implications

This empirical research was conducted primarily on the young population.

Practical implications

The study will benefit managers in making better decisions on how to make SST work successfully for their organizations.

Originality/value

First, this research further refined the SST adoption process of a customer, thus making a meaningful contribution to the literature on SST. Second, the research validated SSTQUAL scale in a different geographical setting.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2012

Eyun‐Jung Ki and Linda C. Hon

This study was designed to test two models linking relationship perception, attitude, and behavior‐based involvement in a membership organization. This study helps fill a…

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2141

Abstract

Purpose

This study was designed to test two models linking relationship perception, attitude, and behavior‐based involvement in a membership organization. This study helps fill a gap in the relationship management literature by exploring the hierarchy of effects among a strategic public some of whom could be characterized as having low involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

After a couple of pilot tests, a state‐wide mail survey was conducted. As recommended by several studies, the mail survey for this study was included in a packet with a cover letter and a pre‐addressed, pre‐stamped return envelope mailed to 2,100 randomly selected current members of the organization. Of the 2,100 members who received questionnaires, 493 usable responses were collected, resulting in a 23.4 per cent response rate.

Findings

For the four relationship quality dimensions used in this study – i.e. control mutuality, satisfaction, trust, and commitment – current members' perceptions of relationship trust and commitment positively influenced their attitudes toward the organization. More importantly, this study demonstrates that the public's perception of commitment can also directly engender supportive behavior toward the organization among members of a key public.

Originality/value

This study was designed to empirically test two models that link relationship quality perceptions, attitude, and behavioral intentions with members in a membership organization based on their levels of involvement. By testing a model of standard sequential order (relationship perceptions → attitude → behavioral intentions), this study found that the originally tested model met the criteria. However, the model was revised based on the modification index and theoretical justification. A new path directly connecting commitment of the relationship quality outcomes to behavioral intentions was added.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Dekar Urumsah

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally…

Abstract

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is especially relevant in the context of Indonesian Airline companies. Therefore, many airline customers in Indonesia are still in doubt about it, or even do not use it. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for e-services adoption and empirically examines the factors influencing the airlines customers in Indonesia in using e-services offered by the Indonesian airline companies. Taking six Indonesian airline companies as a case example, the study investigated the antecedents of e-services usage of Indonesian airlines. This study further examined the impacts of motivation on customers in using e-services in the Indonesian context. Another important aim of this study was to investigate how ages, experiences and geographical areas moderate effects of e-services usage.

The study adopts a positivist research paradigm with a two-phase sequential mixed method design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. An initial research model was first developed based on an extensive literature review, by combining acceptance and use of information technology theories, expectancy theory and the inter-organizational system motivation models. A qualitative field study via semi-structured interviews was then conducted to explore the present state among 15 respondents. The results of the interviews were analysed using content analysis yielding the final model of e-services usage. Eighteen antecedent factors hypotheses and three moderating factors hypotheses and 52-item questionnaire were developed. A focus group discussion of five respondents and a pilot study of 59 respondents resulted in final version of the questionnaire.

In the second phase, the main survey was conducted nationally to collect the research data among Indonesian airline customers who had already used Indonesian airline e-services. A total of 819 valid questionnaires were obtained. The data was then analysed using a partial least square (PLS) based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to produce the contributions of links in the e-services model (22% of all the variances in e-services usage, 37.8% in intention to use, 46.6% in motivation, 39.2% in outcome expectancy, and 37.7% in effort expectancy). Meanwhile, path coefficients and t-values demonstrated various different influences of antecedent factors towards e-services usage. Additionally, a multi-group analysis based on PLS is employed with mixed results. In the final findings, 14 hypotheses were supported and 7 hypotheses were not supported.

The major findings of this study have confirmed that motivation has the strongest contribution in e-services usage. In addition, motivation affects e-services usage both directly and indirectly through intention-to-use. This study provides contributions to the existing knowledge of e-services models, and practical applications of IT usage. Most importantly, an understanding of antecedents of e-services adoption will provide guidelines for stakeholders in developing better e-services and strategies in order to promote and encourage more customers to use e-services. Finally, the accomplishment of this study can be expanded through possible adaptations in other industries and other geographical contexts.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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