Search results

1 – 10 of 802
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 1995

Gordon R. Foxall

Methodological pluralism in consumer research is usually confinedto post‐positivist interpretive approaches. Argues, however, that apositivistic stance, radical…

Abstract

Methodological pluralism in consumer research is usually confined to post‐positivist interpretive approaches. Argues, however, that a positivistic stance, radical behaviourism, can enrich epistemological debate among researchers with the recognition of radical behaviourism′s ultimate reliance on interpretation as well as science. Although radical behaviourist explanation was initially founded on Machian positivism, its account of complex social behaviours such as purchase and consumption is necessarily interpretive, inviting comparison with the hermeneutical approaches currently emerging in consumer research. Radical behaviourist interpretation attributes meaning to behaviour by identifying its environmental determinants, especially the learning history of the individual in relation to the consequences similar prior behaviour has effected. The nature of such interpretation is demonstrated for purchase and consumption responses by means of a critique of radical behaviourism as applied to complex human activity. In the process, develops and applies a framework for radical behaviourist interpretation of purchase and consumption to four operant equifinality classes of consumer behaviour: accomplishment, pleasure, accumulation and maintenance. Some epistemological implications of this framework, the behavioural perspective model (BPM) of purchase and consumption, are discussed in the context of the relativity and incommensurability of research paradigms. Finally, evaluates the interpretive approach, particularly in terms of its relevance to the nature and understanding of managerial marketing.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

Gordon Foxall

Consumer theory and research are generally founded on the assumption that observed behaviour is mediated by intrapersonal events. This pervasive view now threatens to…

Abstract

Consumer theory and research are generally founded on the assumption that observed behaviour is mediated by intrapersonal events. This pervasive view now threatens to impede theoretical development by precluding the establishment of models based on alternative assumptions. Following Feyerabend's advocacy of the active interplay of tenaciously held, incommensurable theories as an essential component of scientific progress, this article examines the relevance to consumer theory of radical behaviourism, which accords explanatory power exclusively to the environmental consequences of behaviour, denying causative significance to intrapersonal processes and events.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 20 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 February 2021

Philipp Henrizi, Dario Himmelsbach and Stefan Hunziker

The purpose of this study is to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects on audit decision-making of certain judgmental heuristics, which can lead to systematic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects on audit decision-making of certain judgmental heuristics, which can lead to systematic judgmental biases. This paper provides background on the heuristics and biases approaches to decision-making to increase auditors' awareness of the anchoring and adjustment effects affecting audit judgments adversely.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reports the results of an experimental research design analyzing the audit judgment of 85 auditors in Switzerland.

Findings

Based on the results of the experiment, the results indicate evidence on the existence of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic in Swiss audit judgments. The authors could identify an influence of the audit company size, the auditors' experience and the auditors' knowledge about behaviorism and anchor heuristic with regard to the anchoring and adjustment effect on audit judgment.

Research limitations/implications

The experimental tasks were relatively simple abstractions from the more complex analytical review situations faced by practicing auditors. Due to the small sample size, the authors cannot ensure representativeness of the results.

Practical implications

Professional judgment is a skill that auditor acquires overtime, combined with experience and knowledge, that allows him to achieve reasonable judgments, being independent of other opinions and free from material biases in a given circumstance. Our results show that auditors who are aware of biases and heuristics are less prone to judgment biases.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to analyze the impact of auditors' explicit experience and knowledge about behaviorism and anchor heuristic on the anchoring and adjustment effect on audit judgment. Through a stronger awareness of cognitive biases, a professional skepticism can be enhanced.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 9 May 2011

Gary A. Cook

This chapter seeks to evaluate the charges made by a number of Herbert Blumer's critics who claim that he has in various ways misconstrued or misapplied the social…

Abstract

This chapter seeks to evaluate the charges made by a number of Herbert Blumer's critics who claim that he has in various ways misconstrued or misapplied the social psychological ideas of George Herbert Mead. My examination of these charges leads me to conclude that numerous passages in which Blumer discusses Mead's thought are in fact open to several legitimate objections: Blumer seldom documents or supports his discussions of Mead's ideas by means of specific references to relevant passages in Mead's lectures or writings; he fails to note that his own theoretical project typically begins where Mead's project ends; he often uses the concepts of meaning, interpretation, and “taking the role of the other” in ways that differ somewhat from the uses Mead makes of these notions in his theorizing. Nevertheless, these shortcomings and differences by no means support the arguments of those critics who exaggerate the significance of Mead's so-called behaviorism or of Blumer's alleged subjectivism; nor do they justify the claims of those who fail to see how Blumer's theory of experiential objects, despite its inadequate formulation and development, is a legitimate attempt to extend the account of such objects one finds in Mead's later writings. Blumer, in short, may not always have been a completely accurate interpreter of Mead, but he was in most important respects a faithful, creative, and effective champion of Mead’s social psychological ideas.

Details

Blue Ribbon Papers: Interactionism: The Emerging Landscape
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-796-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

F.H. George

Introduces the theory of signs and sees it as being rooted in behaviourism. Outlines classical conditioning as developed by Pavlov. Considers the theory of signs in a…

Abstract

Introduces the theory of signs and sees it as being rooted in behaviourism. Outlines classical conditioning as developed by Pavlov. Considers the theory of signs in a Peircean manner where it has great generality, and provides illustrations of this approach. Then discusses the Quine approach and his thinking in relation to behaviourism. Introduces the mind‐body problem as one of the traditional problems of philosophy. Reviews the question as to the nature of the mind as a system with consciousness. Presents a series of questions set by Levinson, based on Feigl’s definition, and considers their relevance and contribution to the theory.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 25 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Antonis C. Simintiras and John W. Cadogan

Despite the acknowledged importance of an understanding of the determinants of and processes affecting the salesperson‐customer interaction, this issue still remains an…

Abstract

Despite the acknowledged importance of an understanding of the determinants of and processes affecting the salesperson‐customer interaction, this issue still remains an enigma. Posits that, of the two main philosophical stances available in the study of human behaviour (i.e. mediationism and behaviourism), the prevailing approaches adopted in the study of the salesperson‐customer interaction are mediationistic in nature and are, for the most part, uncritically accepted. States that in order to improve current understanding of the salesperson‐customer interaction, alternative sources for explaining this dyad should be introduced into the field of study. Argues that the competing philosophical stance offered by radical behaviourism may be suitable for this purpose, providing an examination of how this approach can be utilized to explain buying behaviour within the sales interaction context.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Yixin Zhong

Research of artificial intelligence (AI), has aimed at making machines intelligent via the simulation of natural intelligence, particularly human intelligence. During the…

Abstract

Purpose

Research of artificial intelligence (AI), has aimed at making machines intelligent via the simulation of natural intelligence, particularly human intelligence. During the past decades, there have been three major approaches aimed at achieving this goal, namely structuralism, functionalism and behaviorism. Unfortunately, they work separately and contradictorily to a large extent. The purpose of this paper is to present a better and more unified approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses each of the three major approaches to AI, describing their advantages and disadvantages. There then follows an attempt to explore a new and more reasonable approach to AI. The new approach should be able to solve all the problems that the existing approaches can solve on one hand and can solve the problems that the existing approaches cannot solve on the other hand.

Findings

It was found that the more reasonable and more powerful approach is the one that directly touches the common and core mechanism of intelligence formation. This is due to the fact that the mechanism of intelligence formation is much more essential than other windows of an intelligent system, such as structure, function, or behavior. It was also found that the common and core mechanism of intelligence formation can be implemented through the information‐knowledge‐intelligence transformation. The third finding is that the three existing approaches are special cases of the mechanism approach under different conditions and can thus be harmoniously unified within the frame of the mechanism approach.

Originality/value

The three findings in the paper: the mechanism approach, the implementation of the mechanism approach, and the unification of the existed three major approaches, are important laws never found before in the literature. The breakthrough of the mechanism approach to AI will be of great significance to both theoretical and practical research in AI in the years to come.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Rawad Hammad, Zaheer Khan, Fadi Safieddine and Allam Ahmed

Various technology-enhanced learning software and tools exist where technology becomes the main driver for these developments at the expense of pedagogy. The literature…

Abstract

Purpose

Various technology-enhanced learning software and tools exist where technology becomes the main driver for these developments at the expense of pedagogy. The literature reveals the missing balance between technology and pedagogy in the continuously evolving technology-enhanced learning domain. Consequently, e-learners struggle to realise the pedagogical value of such e-learning artefacts. This paper aims to understand the different pedagogical theories, models and frameworks underpinning current technology-enhanced learning artefacts to pave the way for designing more effective e-learning artefacts.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this goal, a review is conducted to survey the most influential pedagogical theories, models and frameworks. To carry out this review, five major bibliographic databases have been searched, which has led to identifying a large number of articles. The authors selected 34 of them for further analysis based on their relevance to our research scope. The authors critically analysed the selected sources qualitatively to identify the most dominant learning theories, classify them and map them onto the key characteristics, criticism, approaches, models and e-learning artefacts.

Findings

The authors highlighted the significance of pedagogies underpinning e-learning artefacts. Furthermore, the authors presented the common and special aspects of each theory to support our claim, which is developing a hybrid pedagogical approach. Such a hybrid approach remains a necessity to effectively guide learners and allow them to achieve their learning outcomes using e-learning artefacts.

Originality/value

The authors found that different pedagogical approaches complement rather than compete with each other. This affirms our recommended approach to adopt a hybrid approach for learning to meet learners' requirements. The authors also found that a substantive consideration for context is inevitable to test our evolving understanding of pedagogy.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2017

Matt Bower

This chapter critically examines the implications of different pedagogical perspectives, approaches, and strategies for the design and implementation of…

Abstract

This chapter critically examines the implications of different pedagogical perspectives, approaches, and strategies for the design and implementation of technology-enhanced learning. The key tenets of different pedagogical perspectives are unpacked, including behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, socio-constructivism, and connectivism, with reference to how technology can be used to instantiate them. A range of different pedagogical approaches, including collaborative learning, problem-based learning, inquiry-based learning, constructionist learning, design-based learning, and games-based learning are discussed in relation to the use of technology and the previously identified pedagogical perspectives. Pedagogical strategies at a more instantaneous level are also considered, as are the goals of technology-enhanced learning in terms of promoting authentic and meaningful learning. The critical role of the teacher when applying pedagogies using technology, as well as associated issues, are discussed throughout.

Details

Design of Technology-Enhanced Learning
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-183-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 1993

Gordon R. Foxall

Critically examines the status and plausibility of aninterpretative account of consumer behaviour derived from operantpsychology (behaviour analysis). It is argued that a…

Abstract

Critically examines the status and plausibility of an interpretative account of consumer behaviour derived from operant psychology (behaviour analysis). It is argued that a model of purchase and consumption cannot be founded on an unreconstructed operant behaviourism. However, if modifications are incorporated based on both a logical critique of radical behaviourism as a philosophy of psychology and the empirical investigation of human operant performance, a tenable Behavioural Perspective Model can be built which elucidates the nature of the influence of the environment on consumer choice.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

1 – 10 of 802