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Book part
Publication date: 27 March 2006

Pamela Brandes and Diya Das

In this article, we situate organizational cynicism at the nexus of the related constructs of burnout, stress, and antisocial behavior. We expand Dean, Brandes, and…

Abstract

In this article, we situate organizational cynicism at the nexus of the related constructs of burnout, stress, and antisocial behavior. We expand Dean, Brandes, and Dharwadkar's (1998) notion of behavioral cynicism to include cynical humor and cynical criticism. We also propose that cynical behavior has important, non-linear effects on employee work performance. Finally, we suggest that cynical behavior may act as a coping mechanism for employees and that such behavior moderates the stress–performance relationship.

Details

Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Muhammad Arslan

Organizational cynicism is a growing trend in contemporary organizations. However, its impact on employee performance remains understudied. The purpose of this study is to…

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1527

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational cynicism is a growing trend in contemporary organizations. However, its impact on employee performance remains understudied. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by investigating the effect of three dimensions of organizational cynicism (cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicisms) on employee performance. The study also investigates the moderating effect of employee engagement on the relationship between three types of organizational cynicism and employee performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data are collected through questionnaire from employees (N = 200) of various health organizations in Pakistan by using a convenient sampling technique. Hierarchal multiple regression models are used by using SPSS.

Findings

The findings reveal that all three types of organizational cynicism (i.e. cognitive cynicism, affective cynicism and behavioral cynicism) have a significant negative relationship with employee performance, while employee engagement moderates this relationship. Moreover, the findings indicate that the majority of respondents are not happy with their organizations. They have the feeling that their organizations are not fulfilling their promises, in fact, are betraying them in different ways. This breach of contract becomes the reason for organizational cynicism among employees and negatively affects their performance at work.

Research limitations/implications

The study has a large population size and it is quite difficult to address the whole population and collect data from a large sample because of time and limited budget.

Practical/implications

The organizational culture can mitigate the negative effect of organizational cynicism and enhance performance by promoting employee engagement. The study helps psychologists to understand employees’ attitudes and improve personnel selection to ensure they recruit the right people. Openness, honesty and early communication can increase predictability and controllability of future events.

Social implications

The job insecurity and lack of adequate compensation are assertive factors towards low productivity and negative attitude toward organization.

Originality/value

According to the researchers’ best knowledge, only few studies tried to investigate the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee performance by using the moderating effect of employee engagement. Therefore, it will be a good contribution in existing literature to understand consequences of cynicisms.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Mohamed Mousa

This paper aims to discover the effect of cultural diversity challenges (organizational communication, work- related discrimination and training) on physicians’ cognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discover the effect of cultural diversity challenges (organizational communication, work- related discrimination and training) on physicians’ cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicism in the context of public hospitals, Menoufia (Egypt).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 360 physicians at public hospitals in Menoufia (Egypt) were contacted and all of them received a set of questionnaires. After five follow ups, a total of 240 responses were collected with a response rate of 66.67 per cent.

Findings

The findings suggest that only communication is considered the main and significant predictor for cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicism. Accordingly, when physicians perceive well-coordinated and balanced communication, they feel that their hospital has an adequate level of integrity and consequently will have a positive attitude toward it.

Practical implications

Through well-formulated organizational communication, the hospital administration can decrease the organizational cynicism among physicians and subsequently their unwanted behavior. It is needless to say that when physicians experience an open-door communication climate, they experience a sense of psychological safety and give their very best.

Originality/value

This paper contributes by filling a gap in management and organization literature, in which empirical studies on cultural diversity and organizational cynicism were limited until now.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Ali Acaray and Seda Yildirim

Today’s organizations try to keep their employees loyalty but employees may still feel unsatisfied and adopt negative attitudes. Cynicism, as a negative attitude of…

Abstract

Purpose

Today’s organizations try to keep their employees loyalty but employees may still feel unsatisfied and adopt negative attitudes. Cynicism, as a negative attitude of employees toward their organization, leads to unwanted outputs such as lower performance or lower loyalties that can appear in every kind of sector. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of personality traits on organizational cynicism in the education sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the survey method to collect data and survey forms were distributed to teachers from various private schools in Istanbul, Turkey. With the e-mail survey method, the authors received 254 healthy survey forms from teachers. For personality traits, the five-factor model of personality traits that was developed by McCrae and Costa (1987) was preferred and the organizational cynicism model was evaluated with three basic dimensions as based on Brandes’s (1997) model.

Findings

Based on data from 254 teachers of various private schools in Istanbul, interrelationships amongst personality traits and organizational cynicism were tested. On the basis of the partial least-squares method, the authors found that agreeableness had a negative effect on cognitive cynicism and affective cynicism, conscientiousness had a negative effect on cognitive cynicism and affective cynicism, neuroticism had a negative effect on cognitive cynicism and behavior cynicism, and openness to experience had a positive effect on cognitive cynicism and affective cynicism. Thus, it can be said that personality traits of teachers had a significant effect on organizational cynicism as a result of this study.

Research limitations/implications

This study used two main scales: the scale of McCrae and Costa (1987) for personality traits and the scale of Brandes (1997) for organizational cynicism. The authors adapted both the scales for Turkish culture and the education sector that the results can be considered valid for only this study.

Originality/value

This study shows a significant effect of personality traits on cynicism in the education sector and thus can be considered to be useful for future studies.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 25 December 2020

Myeong Chul Ko and Jesse W. Campbell

The informal dimension of organizational experience can shape performance-relevant employee behavior, including voluntary turnover. The authors develop a multi-stage model…

Abstract

Purpose

The informal dimension of organizational experience can shape performance-relevant employee behavior, including voluntary turnover. The authors develop a multi-stage model of turnover intention relevant to public organizations based on the quality of informal intra-organizational employee ties. Specifically, the authors argue that organizational social capital reduces turnover intention both directly and indirectly via its influence on person-organization fit, organizational cynicism and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data from a survey of 946 Korean public sector employees and partial least squares structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. A number of checks are performed to evaluate the integrity of the data and probe the robustness of the results.

Findings

The authors find that there is a significant link between organizational social capital and turnover intention, but that this relationship is fully mediated by the specified intervening processes. Social capital is associated with increased P-O fit, increased job satisfaction and reduced cynicism. In turn, P-O fit reduces turnover intention both directly and indirectly via increased job satisfaction and reduced cynicism.

Originality/value

While a number of studies demonstrate the value of organizational social capital, the current study works through the theoretical mechanisms by which social capital is transformed into valued organizational outputs. Some of these are specifically relevant to public organizations. The authors describe the model's practical relevance and suggest research questions that can build upon our findings. The authors also note the study's limitations.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Mohammed Aboramadan, Mehmet Ali Turkmenoglu, Khalid Abed Dahleez and Berat Cicek

Building on leader-member exchange and social cognitive theories, this paper aims to propose a model of the influence of narcissistic leadership on hotel employees…

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1404

Abstract

Purpose

Building on leader-member exchange and social cognitive theories, this paper aims to propose a model of the influence of narcissistic leadership on hotel employees’ behavioral cynicism through the mediating roles of employee silence and negative work-related gossiping on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was examined using covariance-based structural equation modeling using data collected from 468 employees working in several different departments in Italian hotels.

Findings

The findings illustrate that narcissistic leadership positively affects behavioral cynicism. Furthermore, employee silence and negative work-related gossiping are shown to have a significant mediating effect on this relationship.

Practical implications

The study may be of use for hotel managers as it demonstrates how narcissism can be very damaging to their organizations and employees.

Originality/value

To date, this study is the first to examine negative work-related gossiping and employee silence as mediator variables in the relationship between narcissistic leadership and behavioral cynicism in the hotel industry. Further, this research makes a significant contribution to the hospitality literature as the topic of narcissistic leadership has not, to date, been adequately investigated in the sector.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Matthew Chylinski and Anna Chu

By examining the behaviours of cynical consumers and the factors that give rise to them, the paper's aim is to highlight the potential impact of consumer cynicism on firms…

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5257

Abstract

Purpose

By examining the behaviours of cynical consumers and the factors that give rise to them, the paper's aim is to highlight the potential impact of consumer cynicism on firms and to investigate the possibility of influencing the evolution of those behaviours over time.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi‐method approach uses five focus groups, a survey, and a longitudinal experiment to explore the behaviour of cynical consumers experiencing different patterns of goal/value (in)congruence with the actions of a firm.

Findings

Progressive development in the frequency and severity of cynical behaviours results from repeated incongruence between consumers' goals or values and firm actions. Value incongruence has a greater effect on the severity of cynical behaviours. Recency effects remove cynical behaviours when the underlying drivers of cynicism are reversed.

Research limitations/implications

The results are based on consumers' behavioural intentions, requiring a degree of subjective interpretation to quantify the severity of consumer behaviours.

Practical implications

Because of the potentially severe nature of cynical consumer behaviours, the study helps managers to gain a better understanding of these behaviours, their source, and how to monitor their frequency, severity, and development over time.

Originality/value

Several facets of consumer cynicism are examined that have not been explored together previously, including drivers, cognitive/affective mechanisms, and the pattern of resulting behaviours. This approach provides managers with a tool to predict how consumers will react to a given situation and suggests actions to mitigate these reactions.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Özgür Kökalan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating roles of organizational spiritual values in the relationship between organizational cycinism and job satisfaction.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating roles of organizational spiritual values in the relationship between organizational cycinism and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was selected by using a convenience sampling method. The sample included in 472 employees from different sectors such as higher education, banking, energy and manufacturing industry. Participants filled in organizational cycinism scale, job satisfaction scale and organizational spirituality scale. Comfirmatory factor analysis and structural equation method were used to detect the direction and level of the relationships between parameters.

Findings

According to the mediating analysis findings, organizational spirituality is the partial reason for the association between behavioral cycinism and job satisfaction. Organizational spirituality is also the full reason for the association between affective cycinism and job satisfaction and the relationship between cognitive cycinism and job satisfaction. This means that organizational spirituality decreases the negative effects of organizational cycinism on job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

This research is not free from limitations just like others. First, the sampling was limited with only four sectors. In future studies, it can be favorable to take data from all other sectors. The second limitation was that organizational spirituality was the only factor that was used to determine the relationships among the three dimensions of organizational cynicism and job satisfaction. The last limitation was regarding the sample size. Although, sample size that was used in this research was enough to conduct all statistical analyses, extended sample size could be used in future studies.

Practical implications

The results of this research may benefit various stakeholders. While determining organizational spirituality elements in an organization, all the stakeholders’ voices should be included, and their values should be taken into consideration. In addition to this, all institutional employees should be trained about spirituality that exists in the organization, so that all employees will develop a strong bond with other employees and the organization. Moreover, organizational spirituality is closely related to organizational justice. If manager wants organizational spirituality to take root in the institution and eliminate the negativities, it is absolutely necessary to apply organizational justice in each and every matter within the organization.

Originality/value

There have been no studies exploring the mediating effects of organizational spirituality on the organizational cynicism and job satisfaction relationship. Therefore, this paper could be accepted as original.

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Usman Aslam, Muhammad Arfeen, Wahbeeah Mohti and Ubaid ur Rahman

The aim of this study is to explore the impact of cynicism on the relationship among personality traits, organizational contextual factors and job outcomes. This study set…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to explore the impact of cynicism on the relationship among personality traits, organizational contextual factors and job outcomes. This study set up and examined the overarching model on resistance to change. Moreover, there were two models theoretically presented and investigated, i.e. direct and indirect models. This study was an attempt to explore and capture the causes of organizational cynicism against the change initiative.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study research design was used in this study, and data were collected from 335 employees by using purposive sampling technique and structured questionnaire. While linear regression and Baron and Kenny’s (1986) tests were used to evaluate the direct and indirect models.

Findings

Results highlighted the considerable positive relationship between dispositional resistance and employee’s turnover intention. Additionally, significant connection was also examined among organizational contextual factors and job outcomes, whereas interactive impact of behavioral resistance was found in the relation among dispositional resistance, organizational contextual factors and employee’s intent to quit. However, another dimension of organizational cynicism, i.e. cognitive resistance, could not influence the direct linear relationship between organizational context and continuance commitment.

Research limitations/implications

Major limitations of this research were non-probability sampling technique, cross-sectional design, single organization and traditional data collection tool.

Practical implications

Management can eradicate cynicism by providing social support and positive information, i.e. job security, wage award, medical benefits and promotion criteria, after implementing change. The management can clarify the objectives of that change by including employees in decision-making, reducing employee’s turnover intention. Organizational cynicism is a faith, which means that the change leaders have lack of integrity; when organizational cynicism mixes with negative cognitive process, it leads to a more destructive behavior against that change.

Originality/value

This study contributed to the extensive knowledge of organizational cynicism. A conceptual model of resistance to change the model was unique in nature. There were rare studies conducted to check the impact of organizational cynicism on privatization, especially in the sub-continent. Therefore, it will add a good contribution in quality literature to understand the cynicism and its consequences for privatization.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2018

Muhammad Arslan and Jamal Roudaki

Organisational cynicism (OC) is a growing trend in contemporary organisations. However, its impact on employee performance (EP) remains understudied. The purpose of this…

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2553

Abstract

Purpose

Organisational cynicism (OC) is a growing trend in contemporary organisations. However, its impact on employee performance (EP) remains understudied. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by investigating its effect on EP. The study also investigates the moderating effect of employee engagement (EE) on the relationship between OC and EP.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data are collected through questionnaire from employees (N=200) of various health organisations in Pakistan by employing a convenient sampling technique. Hierarchical multiple regression is employed by using SPSS.

Findings

The findings of correlation and regression analyses reveal that OC has significant negative relationship with EP. Hence, the patient care is compromised in sampled organisations due to poorer performance of employees. Moreover, findings also reveal that EE has a moderating effect on relationship between OC and EP. Therefore, hospital management needs to increase EE to reduce the cynicism and improve performance. In addition, organisations and managers need to consider their role and actions creating the conditions that lead to cynicism among employees and should take trustworthy steps to increase employee retention and engagement and, ultimately, their performance. Moreover, the findings of the study indicate that the majority of respondents are not happy with their organisations. They also feel that the organisation is not fulfilling its promises and betraying them in several ways. This breach of contract becomes the reason for OC among employees and badly affects their performance. Most of respondents give importance to their career development and the findings reveal that organisations are not focussing on career development of their employees.

Research limitations/implications

The study has some limitations and implications. The organisational culture can mitigate the negative effect of OC and enhance performance by promoting EE. It is recommended that employee cynicism can be reduced by providing a supportive environment, EE and fairness. Nevertheless, the findings of this study still help supervisors to inhibit this harmful effect by reducing the level of psychological contract violation and organisational politics that will reduce the level of cynicism among employees and improve their performance.

Practical implications

It is found that OC has a major impact on the behaviour and attitude of employees, supervisors and representatives on the one hand and, ultimately, the organisation, on the other hand. These effects have specific susceptibilities due to the vicinity of the employees. It is recommended that employee cynicism can be reduced by providing a supportive environment.

Social implications

The study also helps psychologists to understand employees’ attitudes and improve personnel selection to ensure they recruit the right people. Leaders need to communicate honestly, effectively and frequently to address cynicism in order to ensure ample staffing and resource levels that result in good patient care and positive work attitudes at hospitals.

Originality/value

According to the researchers’ best knowledge, only few studies tried to investigate the relationship between organisational cynicism and EP by employing the moderating effect of EE. Therefore, it will be a good contribution in existing literature to understand consequences of cynicisms.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 39 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000