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School-wide positive behavior support (PBS) is a systems approach to prevention and intervention involving multiple levels of support. At the universal level (all…
School-wide positive behavior support (PBS) is a systems approach to prevention and intervention involving multiple levels of support. At the universal level (all students), prevention of behavior problems involves four very basic steps that are repeated with smaller numbers of students and greater intensity as directed by data. The first step is the prediction of problems or failures. To the extent to which we can predict a problem by time, location, student, and other contexts, we have the information to prevent. Prediction leads directly into the second step, which involves the development of effective prevention practices. The key to effective prevention is to approach all problems from an instructional perspective by considering what needs to be taught and how the environment can be arranged to increase the probability of success. The third step involves creating consistency with prevention efforts. Instructional efforts that are inconsistent are not effective in teaching new behavior. The last step involves development of the simplest way of monitoring performance so that those students who are not responding (i.e., are falling through the screen) may be quickly identified. This chapter describes the key features of effective universal systems as they are specifically related to the prevention of behavior problems and provides an overview of how such systems are developed, implemented, and sustained.
Research on behavioral functioning among Mexican-origin children primarily uses an individual-centered approach that ignores the residential context. In addition, most…
Research on behavioral functioning among Mexican-origin children primarily uses an individual-centered approach that ignores the residential context. In addition, most studies have been unable to consider an important measure of inequality for this population, legal status; and mental health of children with undocumented parents is underexplored. We address these gaps by investigating the influence of parental legal status and neighborhood characteristics on Mexican-origin children’s behavioral functioning using a multilevel approach.
We use data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study and 2000 decennial census. Our primary focus is variation in internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among Mexican-origin youth (N = 2,535) with mothers who are undocumented, documented or naturalized citizens, or US-born using multilevel models.
The multilevel results show the importance of considering parental legal status. Mexican children of unauthorized mothers are more likely to exhibit internalizing and externalizing problems than all other groups of Mexican children. Furthermore, neighborhood-concentrated disadvantage is significantly associated with internalizing behavior problems, and neighborhood-concentrated affluence is significantly associated with externalizing behavior problems. In short, the results demonstrate the importance of considering both parental legal status and neighborhood contexts for understanding behavior problems of Mexican-origin children.
Our findings suggest that Mexican children’s mental health outcomes – measured by internalizing and externalizing behavior problems – vary significantly by parental legal status and neighborhood contexts. This study provides important nuances for public policy for health care prevention and interventions.
Although we have improved identification of and access to evidence-based interventions for addressing student problem behavior, teacher use of these practices remains low…
Although we have improved identification of and access to evidence-based interventions for addressing student problem behavior, teacher use of these practices remains low. In this chapter, we examine teachers’ causal attributions for student problem behavior and their implications for use of effective school-based behavioral interventions and supports. Attribution theory and research suggest that causal attributions strongly influence how individuals (e.g., teachers) perceive and respond to the problem behavior of others (e.g., students). Teacher perception regarding problem behavior and appropriate responses to it can be a significant barrier to the adoption and sustained implementation of empirically supported practices. In light of these factors, causal attribution theory and research can be used as a framework for better understanding and even changing teacher beliefs related to acceptance, implementation, and sustained use of effective behavior management practices. In this chapter, we make the case for cultivating an understanding of teachers’ causal attributions of student problem behavior and considering implications of causal attributions in future research. We explore how such research endeavors can potentially positively impact teacher implementation of effective school-based behavioral interventions and supports.
Behavior problems are common in toddlers and preschoolers. Richman, Stevenson, and Graham (1975) identified difficulties with eating, sleeping, toileting, temper, fears…
Behavior problems are common in toddlers and preschoolers. Richman, Stevenson, and Graham (1975) identified difficulties with eating, sleeping, toileting, temper, fears, peer relations, and activity as typical in this young population. While all young children should be expected to experience behavior problems as part of their normal development, an ongoing challenge in the field has been to determine when these “normal” developmental problems rise to the level of being considered “clinical” behavior problems (Keenan & Wakschlag, 2000). For example, when does a two-year-old child's tantrum behavior, a three-year-old's urinary accidents, and a four-year-old's defiance become clinically significant? To answer these questions, clinicians must examine the frequency, intensity, and durability of these difficulties, their potential to cause injury to the child or others, the extent to which they interfere with the child development, and the degree to which they disrupt the lives of their siblings, caregivers, peers, teachers, and others.
Psychotropic medications are often used to treat problem behaviours in people with intellectual disability which not only occur frequently but also tend to persist over…
Psychotropic medications are often used to treat problem behaviours in people with intellectual disability which not only occur frequently but also tend to persist over time. This study examined the pattern of prescription of such medications to manage problem behaviours for adults with intellectual disabilities in a specialist psychiatric unit in Hong Kong. Individuals aged 18 or above with problem behaviours and receiving psychotropic medication for treatment in hospital, outpatient and community settings were studied. Their demographic and clinical information was collected. The type and dosage of medications were retrieved from the computer database and analysed. Those with psychotic disorder and mood (affective disorder) were excluded. After screening, 236 patients met the inclusion criteria. People with moderate intellectual disability accounted for most of the cohort (46%). Autism spectrum disorder was the commonest psychiatric diagnosis (35%) and aggression the commonest problem behaviour (52%). Antipsychotics, mood stabilisers and antidepressants were prescribed to 96%, 20% and 13% of the subjects respectively. The profile of problem behaviour in the Chinese population with intellectual disability is consistent with the findings reported in the world literature. Antipsychotic drugs are the most commonly prescribed class of psychotropic medication used to treat such behaviours. Although the current evidence is not strong enough to support a clear‐cut recommendation on the use of medications, the dichotomous notion of ‘prescription’ or ‘no prescription’ for problem behaviours may be simplistic.
The aim of this study is to investigate whether police problem behaviors decline over time as officers gain experience, or whether they rise again as officers approach or…
The aim of this study is to investigate whether police problem behaviors decline over time as officers gain experience, or whether they rise again as officers approach or pass the typical year of retirement.
Research hypotheses were tested examining mean citizen complaint rates by years of experience, for a cohort of officers for a 14‐year period at the aggregate level, and a semi‐parametric, group‐based approach at the individual level, to estimate developmental trajectories of officers who follow similar pathways over time.
While at the aggregate level rates of citizen complaints steadily decline between years 4 and 23, there were three trajectories underlying this aggregate pattern. These trajectories differed in terms of their magnitude, but all exhibit a general decline over time, except for the most problematic group. For this group, problem behaviors began to rise between years 16 and 23.
This study relies on citizen complaints as the primary indicator, which can over‐ and under‐represent problem behavior, was done in a large agency, which may not be representative, and does not include information on geographic assignment or arrest productivity over time.
Research findings suggest that for the most problematic officers, problem behaviors may exhibit an increase near retirement.
This study employs a longitudinal data set, which can examine within‐officer change in problem behaviors over time.
Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While…
Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment measures. Assessment practice across school settings is greatly influenced by clinical guidelines such as the DSM-IV, which more specifically defines emotional and behavioral disorders and highlights the issue of co-morbidity. Before a student is assessed for special education eligibility under the IDEIA category of emotional disturbance, screening techniques and pre-referral interventions are needed. Positive Behavioral Supports and Response to Intervention models provide empirically supported frameworks for establishing the need for formal psychological assessment. Collaboration among members of the multidisciplinary team, including parents, helps to ensure that identification and intervention efforts have ecological validity. Tests and techniques vary considerably, but developmental histories, interviews, observations across settings, and behavioral checklists and rating scales are recommended, along with cognitive and achievement testing. While problems exist in the reliability and validity of projective techniques, they continue to be used in school-based assessment for EBD. Multitrait, multisetting, and multimethod approaches are essential for culturally fair assessment and reduction of bias in identification and placement.
The prevalence, correlates (child behaviour problems and negative parenting) and determinants (risk and protective factors) of parental need for support were examined in a…
The prevalence, correlates (child behaviour problems and negative parenting) and determinants (risk and protective factors) of parental need for support were examined in a community sample of 177 mothers with a child aged 1.5‐3.5 years, in order to draw a profile of families that need parenting support. A substantial number of the mothers reported needing support (40% reported need for information, 10% reported family and social support needs). This need was related to child behaviour problems and to negative parenting. Maternal depression, difficult temperament of the child and negative life events, as well as total number of risk factors, significantly predicted the need for support. Satisfaction with support (but not number of support sources) acted as a protective factor.
Adolescent problem behaviours (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policy…
Adolescent problem behaviours (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policy makers and practitioners that are interested in preventing these problem behaviours are faced with many programming options. The purpose of this review is to discuss two criteria for selecting relevant parenting programmes, and provide five examples of such programmes.
The first criterion for programme selection is theory based. Well-supported theories, such as the social development model, have laid out key family-based risk and protective factors for problem behaviour. Programmes that target these risk and protective factors are more likely to be effective. Second, programmes should have demonstrated efficacy; these interventions have been called “evidence-based programmes” (EBP). This review highlights the importance of evidence from rigorous research designs, such as randomised clinical trials, in order to establish programme efficacy.
Nurse-Family Partnership, The Incredible Years, the Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), Strengthening Families 10-14, and Staying Connected with Your Teen are examined. The unique features of each programme are briefly presented. Evidence showing impact on family risk and protective factors, as well as long-term problem behaviours, is reviewed. Finally, a measure of cost effectiveness of each programme is provided.
The paper proposes that not all programmes are of equal value, and suggests two simple criteria for selecting a parenting programme with a high likelihood for positive outcomes. Furthermore, although this review is not exhaustive, the five examples of EBPs offer a good start for policy makers and practitioners seeking to implement effective programmes in their communities. Thus, this paper offers practical suggestions for those grappling with investments in child and adolescent programmes on the ground.
A high proportion of people with learning disabilities receive psychotropic medications such as antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety drugs including…
A high proportion of people with learning disabilities receive psychotropic medications such as antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety drugs including benzodiazepines, buspirone and beta blockers, mood stabilisers such as lithium and some antiepileptic medications, psychostimulants, opioid antagonists and also vitamins and diets. Many receive these for behaviour problems for which these medications have not been indicated. Apart from a few exceptions of recent good quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of risperidone on the management of behaviour problems among children and adults with learning disabilities with and without autism, most of the evidence for the effectiveness of medication for the management of behaviour problems comes from non‐controlled or non‐randomised observational studies. The lack of evidence does not automatically mean that there is evidence that these medications are not effective. Current guidelines suggest that a thorough assessment of the cause and effect of the behaviour problems should be carried out before prescribing medications. A formulation should document the assessment and rationale for use of medications. Non‐medication based interventions should always be considered along with medication and where appropriate behavioural and psychological interventions should be employed either instead of or along with the medication. People with learning disabilities and their carers should be involved in the decision‐making process all along. Where necessary other relevant professionals should also be involved. At the outset the time, method and people involved with the follow‐up assessment should be determined. Follow up should involve an objective assessment of target behaviours but, more importantly, an assessment of the quality of life of the person and their carers. At each follow up a reformulation should be carried out along with consideration of non‐medication based management and the possibility of withdrawing medication. Important issues such as capacity, consent and legal issues should always be borne in mind. Medications should be used with some caution because of their adverse effects.