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Book part
Publication date: 29 June 2016

Mickey Losinski and Robin Parks Ennis

Repetitive and restrictive behaviors are one of the core components of diagnosing a child with an autism spectrum disorder. These behaviors may take the form of repetitive…

Abstract

Repetitive and restrictive behaviors are one of the core components of diagnosing a child with an autism spectrum disorder. These behaviors may take the form of repetitive motor movements or vocalizations, often referred to as stereotypical behaviors. These behaviors can impede the child’s educational and social opportunities, and have thus become a target for intervention. A variety of interventions have been used to reduce stereotypical behaviors with varied success. One of the most oft-used interventions is deep pressure therapy (e.g., weighted vests), a practice that enjoys substantial anecdotal but little empirical support. Conversely, interventions based on functional behavior assessment (FBA) have been shown to reduce these behaviors, but may not be used frequently within schools. Therefore, this chapter will provide a brief overview of stereotypical behaviors and compare these two intervention approaches, with a clear preference for FBA-based interventions due to their stronger empirical support.

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Instructional Practices with and without Empirical Validity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-125-8

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Markus Brauer, Anissa Dumesnil and Mitchell Robert Campbell

Despite more than half a century of academic research, relatively few methods have been shown to reliably improve intergroup relations in the real world. This paper aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite more than half a century of academic research, relatively few methods have been shown to reliably improve intergroup relations in the real world. This paper aims to use a social marketing approach to design a pro-diversity intervention in a university setting.

Design/methodology/approach

We conducted extensive qualitative, quantitative and observational background research to identify elements that would increase the effectiveness of the intervention. Focus groups and surveys allowed us to identify a target audience, target behaviors and the relevant barriers and benefits.

Findings

The background research suggested increasing inclusive behavior would have a greater impact than reducing discriminatory behavior. Based on this research, this paper determined an optimal target audience was students who had relatively positive attitudes toward diversity but engaged in few inclusive behaviors. This paper used relevant theories from the behavioral sciences to design an intervention that promoted a small set of inclusive behaviors and that addressed the relevant barriers and benefits. The intervention took the form of a single page of targeted messages that instructors can add to their course syllabi. The page communicates injunctive and descriptive norms, highlights the benefits of behaving inclusively and provides concrete behavioral advice.

Originality/value

The research applies the social marketing approach to a novel domain. This approach represents a new way to advance diversity, equity and inclusion through promoting inclusive and reducing discriminatory behavior.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2009

Maureen A. Conroy, Peter J. Alter and Terrance M. Scott

The purpose of this chapter is to highlight issues related to the current policy, practice, and research in the area of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for students…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to highlight issues related to the current policy, practice, and research in the area of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for students with (or at risk for) emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). Although a substantial research base exists validating the effectiveness of FBA and function-based interventions for students with developmental disabilities, we believe that these same FBA practices are less valid when employed for students with EBD in classroom settings. Following a review of the current research and a discussion of the practical issues that are encountered when implementing FBA in classroom settings serving students with EB, we outline a more responsive FBA model for students with EBD with an emphasis on future policy, research, and practice applications for the field to consider.

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Policy and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-311-8

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Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2021

Stephen P. Kilgus and David A. Klingbeil

Tier 2 intervention is defined by the application of brief, efficient, and accessible supports for students who are at risk for social-emotional and behavioral concerns…

Abstract

Tier 2 intervention is defined by the application of brief, efficient, and accessible supports for students who are at risk for social-emotional and behavioral concerns. Historically, Tier 2 interventions have been delivered in accordance with a standard protocol, with each student receiving the same general strategy in an undifferentiated manner. Yet, research has suggested the potential value of an adaptive Tier 2 approach, wherein brief assessments are conducted to determine which intervention (or adapted version of one particular intervention) is best suited to a student's individual needs. Within this chapter, we provide an overview of procedures related to adaptive Tier 2 intervention and discuss different approaches one might take to this practice. We conclude with a discussion of directions for future research in this area if adaptive Tier 2 intervention is to be widely adopted, implemented, and sustained within schools.

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The Next Big Thing in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-749-7

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2011

Sandy Toogood, Steven Boyd, Andy Bell and Helen Salisbury

In 1997 Tom was a 32‐year‐old man with a diagnosis of severe intellectual disability and autism who engaged in high‐rate challenging behaviour. Tom's out‐of‐area placement…

Abstract

In 1997 Tom was a 32‐year‐old man with a diagnosis of severe intellectual disability and autism who engaged in high‐rate challenging behaviour. Tom's out‐of‐area placement was about to break down and he needed help urgently. For 16 months specialist challenging behaviour services supported Tom directly in a single‐occupancy service. They conducted functional assessment and delivered multi‐level intervention, including medication withdrawal, environmental enrichment, skills teaching, augmented communication and targeted behavioural intervention. Support was then transferred to mainstream learning disability services. Following intervention, the rate of challenging behaviour shown by Tom fell significantly from more than 200 instances per day to almost none. Community involvement and engagement increased. Tom moved into shared accommodation with support from mainstream learning disability services at no additional cost. Improvement at intervention was still apparent 10 years later. Tom's story adds to a growing number of articles showing how focused intervention can deliver lasting improvement in quality of life. Four aspects of Tom's story are discussed in the light of the Mansell Report.

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2019

Coosje Hammink, Nienke Moor and Masi Mohammadi

This systematic literature review focusses on original research that examines the effect of persuasive architectural interventions on stimulating health behaviour. This…

Abstract

Purpose

This systematic literature review focusses on original research that examines the effect of persuasive architectural interventions on stimulating health behaviour. This paper gives an overview of the empirical evidence and aims to examine the evidence for health behaviour change through architectural interventions and the underlying theoretical pathways and mechanisms using social cognitive theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviewed 40 peer-reviewed articles found through Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, PubMed and a supplementary hand search and examined for effect, type of interventions, type of behaviour and underlying mechanisms using social cognitive theory.

Findings

This review shows that architectural interventions can stimulate healthy behaviour. However, much of the research focusses on specific health behaviours (physical activity), in specific target groups (children or older adults) and with specific types of interventions (supplying provisions). Furthermore, the effect of the physical environment on cognitive factors should be taken into consideration.

Research limitations/implications

Hardly any research on smart architectural interventions for health behaviour change exists, but combining insights from product design and built environment has the potential to impact designing for health behaviour change.

Originality/value

Stimulating certain types of health behaviour can positively contribute to health goals and has been the focus of many health promotion practitioners over the years. The focus of health promotion interventions has primarily been on social and psychological factors. However, current research shows the importance of the physical environment as an influence on health behaviour. Potentially, with the use of smart technology, this effect could be enhanced.

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Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2006

Maureen A. Conroy and Janine P. Stichter

With the national emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices in educational settings, intervention research within the field of special education is being…

Abstract

With the national emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices in educational settings, intervention research within the field of special education is being scrutinized. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has defined evidence-based practices primarily by research that is based on quantitative, experimental designs (i.e., RCT). Although the use of appropriate experimental designs has an important place in educational research, defining evidence-based practices based on research design alone is limiting. One critical aspect of research that has not received much attention is the importance of rigorous and precise measurement and systematic replication of research findings. The purpose of this chapter is to review issues surrounding measurement and its effect on validity in intervention research in the field of behavioral disorders. Specifically, we discuss how more rigorous measurement can positively influence the internal, external, construct, and social validity of research findings. A review of current trends in behavioral disorders intervention research is discussed as well as implications for future research.

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Applications of Research Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-295-5

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Leslie D. MacKay, Kent McIntosh and Jacqueline A. Brown

Many instances of maladaptive behaviors are due at least in part to a lack of social skills. Although there are effective interventions for teaching social skills…

Abstract

Many instances of maladaptive behaviors are due at least in part to a lack of social skills. Although there are effective interventions for teaching social skills, generalization of trained social skills remains a challenge. One promising way to enhance generalization may be to use functional behavior assessments to select social skills to teach that can meet individuals’ specific needs. This chapter describes a process for embedding function-based support into social skills interventions that may generalize to untrained settings. The chapter concludes with a case study demonstrating generalization of positive peer interaction from recess to a classroom setting for a grade two student. Results indicated that the student’s behavior during recess and during classroom instruction both changed upon implementation of the recess intervention, and these behaviors maintained over three months after the intervention was withdrawn.

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Emerging Research and Issues in Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-085-7

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Laura Paulauskaite, Angela Hassiotis and Afia Ali

Fidelity data in clinical trials are not only necessary for appraising the internal and external validity, but also could provide useful insights how to improve the…

Abstract

Purpose

Fidelity data in clinical trials are not only necessary for appraising the internal and external validity, but also could provide useful insights how to improve the application of an intervention in everyday settings. The purpose of this paper is to understand the current literature of fidelity measurements in complex interventions for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and behaviours that challenge.

Design/methodology/approach

The electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus were searched for studies published between 1990 to 2017 that have mentioned fidelity in randomised controlled trials of complex interventions for people with ID and behaviours that challenge based on positive behaviour support or applied behaviour analysis principles. The authors also searched the grey literature and reference lists.

Findings

Five randomised controlled trials were included in the review. The authors found variable and inconsistent fidelity measurements reported in the studies. The most frequently provided fidelity elements found in four out of five studies were adherence of implementation, dose and some aspects of quality of delivery.

Research limitations/implications

Research recommendations for a standardised approach of measuring fidelity in such studies are suggested.

Originality/value

The first review of such type that confirms the paucity of research measuring fidelity in complex interventions in this population.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 13 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Lindsay Blank, Susan Baxter, Elizabeth Goyder, Paul Naylor, Louise Guillaume, Anna Wilkinson, Silvia Hummel and Jim Chilcott

This paper reports on a systematic review of the published literature on the effectiveness of whole‐school behavioural interventions, which aim to promote emotional and…

Abstract

This paper reports on a systematic review of the published literature on the effectiveness of whole‐school behavioural interventions, which aim to promote emotional and social well‐being among young people in secondary education. The findings are based on 27 studies of varying designs with some limitations. The results suggest that the literature is not well developed, and has a substantial skew towards interventions conducted in the United States. However, it does suggest that conflict resolution training is successful in promoting pro‐social behaviours in the short term, and that the use of peer mediators may be effective for longer‐term outcomes. The evidence relating to preventing bullying and disruptive behaviour is more varied, with evidence of mixed effectiveness being identified for the roles of the community, teachers, young people, external agencies and parents.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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