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Commercial areas and bedestens (covered bazaars) are important public areas in Turkish cities and towns. These areas and buildings are essential in that they contribute…
Commercial areas and bedestens (covered bazaars) are important public areas in Turkish cities and towns. These areas and buildings are essential in that they contribute vital economic and social characteristics to Turkish cities and towns. In the Ottoman period, these commercial areas, alongside inns, baths, mosques, and stores, were engaged in trading and manufacturing and formed a central part of life for the residents. The number of bedestens in a given city was dependent on the size of the city or town. All social, administrative, and economic activities were organized within these bedestens. Commercial structures, in which the bedestens are located, with different functions, such as arasta, inns, markets, covered markets, and stores, are the main components of the commercial districts. These structures were built by the order of the Sultan for the purpose of reviving and providing direction to the economic life of the city or town. One of the key components of these commercial structures was the bedestens. In terms of Turkish culture, a bedesten can be defined as the heart of the commercial district. Although these structures were built to sell textiles, they later functioned as places where antiques and/or valuable goods were also sold. Bedestens were usually a unique type of structure, with masonry masses between wooden stores located in the middle of the trade center of the city or town. The top of the bedesten, which was usually built as one storey and rectangular in shape, had a domed roof covered with lead. In this study, spatial analyses of these important architectural elements were conducted in terms of city planning, folk culture and commercial life. The bedestens selected for the study were those in historical cities located at major commercial road axes from the Ottoman period. The bedestens in these historical cities were examined, within the context of their planning, and assessments were made. The relations that these structures have with each other in general, and their common and different features, were also investigated.
The articles which take place within this issue cover various subjects of architecture. There are articles about different type of houses, urban issues, climatic issues, a historical building type and sustainable construction.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the principal factors affecting walkability from the viewpoint of the inhabitants of Bursa. It is intended to discover whether…
The purpose of this paper is to identify the principal factors affecting walkability from the viewpoint of the inhabitants of Bursa. It is intended to discover whether inhabitants’ conception of factors affecting walkability complies with the factors identified by the authors in regard to literature review.
Based on several studies about influencing parameters of walkability, three main factors – spatial, social, economic – can be specified affecting the desire to walk by the user. In the content of this study, a conceptual model is developed for the assessment of factors influencing walkability. In this study, two different analysis methods are applied: qualitative approach: observation survey; and quantitative approach: questionnaire survey. By utilizing the conceptual model, a questionnaire is prepared and applied to 200 pedestrians in three streets. Moreover, the questionnaire items were factor analyzed to explore the principal factors affecting walkability from the viewpoint of the inhabitants of Bursa.
In the literature review part, the factors affecting walkability are defined as accessibility, comfort and use, environmental aesthetics, safety and security and connectivity. However, as a result of the survey applied to pedestrians in Bursa, it has been revealed that the most important factors are “Accessibility,” “Comfort and Use,” “Traffic Safety,” “Crime Security” and “Connectivity,” excluding the factor “Environmental Aesthetics.”
There is a need for studies which assess the factors influencing the walkability in tourism cities in depth. Tourism potential in Bursa, Turkey, has raised since it has been inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2014. Therefore, walkability became one of the important issues in urban planning decisions for the streets in the historic city center in policies of the local government. The studies that assess the factors influencing walkability and the satisfaction of the pedestrians will open up new visions for urban decision makers. Within the scope of this study, existing historic city center in Bursa has been analyzed in terms of walkability.
The purpose of this paper is to present a framework of introducing a proper method to document and to analyze conservation process of cultural heritage in Bursa, known as…
The purpose of this paper is to present a framework of introducing a proper method to document and to analyze conservation process of cultural heritage in Bursa, known as one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Turkey and to discuss challenges in use of geographical information systems (GIS) for assessment of a complex data collected and analyzed during different phases of the historic researches.
A systematic approach is used to understand relations between theoretical and practical processes of heritage conservation in Bursa. Due to the complicated structure of input data, GIS was used as the major tool in illustration of cultural heritage in various spatial scales, while providing connection between different timelines of its urban history. Within this concept, at first, conservation history of cultural heritage in Bursa is briefly described. Second, four stages of the method, used to make reliable and convenient assessment, are given. Finally, facilities and challenges in using this system are discussed in relation with the results achieved.
As a result of this study, both chronological and spatial distribution of all types of conservation practices are described in related with theoretical and legal aspects. There appear both advantages and limitations in use of GIS, during assessment of input data to understand conservation history of Bursa.
Therefore, it would be possible to see if it is adequate to understand the complicated structure of such kind of overlapped sources in a systematic way of information management system.