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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2019

Muhammad Shahrul Ifwat Ishak

This paper aims to investigate the extent to which maṣlaḥah (public interest) is taken into consideration in Islamic banking operations in Malaysia, particularly in bayʿ

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the extent to which maṣlaḥah (public interest) is taken into consideration in Islamic banking operations in Malaysia, particularly in bayʿ al-ʿīnah (sale and buyback), taʿwiḍ (compensation) and ibrāʾ (rebate).

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies deductive and inductive methods to analyze the application of maṣlaḥah in Islamic financial transactions. Three issues in Malaysia are selected as a case study, allowing bayʿ al-ʿīnah, standardizing the rate of taʿwiḍ and stipulating the ibrāʾ clause in financial agreements. As this study is qualitative in nature, all data are analyzed based on the content analysis method.

Findings

Both the maṣlaḥah of Islamic banks and their customers were found to be considered by the Central Bank of Malaysia in the implementation of contracts and principles of Islamic banking. The first maṣlaḥah represents the viability of Islamic banks, while the second maṣlaḥah promotes fairness and transparency between Islamic banks and their customers.

Research limitations/implications

This study only focuses on the contracts and principles of Islamic banking operations in Malaysia with regard to three selected issues.

Practical implications

This paper clarifies the practical application of maṣlaḥah in the Islamic banking industry, particularly with regard to implementing its contracts and principles.

Originality/value

This paper analyzes the argument of maṣlaḥah on the issues of bayʿ al-ʿīnah , taʿwiḍ and ibrāʾ in Malaysia, which are considered among scholars to be debatable issues. While many discussions focus on the legal aspect of Sharīʿah on those issues, this study emphasizes how the application of maṣlaḥah aims to solve the current problems and harmonize between Sharīʿah and reality.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 June 2018

Abd Hakim Abd Razak

The purpose of this paper is to supply basic insights into the principle of shūrā (consultation) in Islamic banking, the idea of a centralised approach to the corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to supply basic insights into the principle of shūrā (consultation) in Islamic banking, the idea of a centralised approach to the corporate governance of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs), the roles of a centralised Sharīʿah board as the highest authority on Sharīʿah issues and its distinguishing features from a de-centralised system and the advantages and disadvantages of the two governance systems.

Design/methodology/approach

In analyzing these, the paper adopts the critical legal studies approach and refers to the provisions of the Qurʾan and Sunnah, ijmāʿ (consensus) of Sharīʿah scholars and recent Islamic banking reports.

Findings

Despite the fact that the double-digit growth of the current US$2tn Islamic banking industry is a promising sign for its further expansion – expecting to cross the US$6.5tn mark by 2020 – there remains concern over the lack of standardization or rather the diversified approaches to the corporate governance of IFIs across key Islamic banking regions.

Practical implications

There has been much debate surrounding the issue of whether the Islamic banking industry requires a centralised Sharīʿah board at the state level to complement the Sharīʿah boards at the IFIs’ individual level in providing better supervision of the Sharīʿah-compliance of IFIs. The fact that the industry is already equipped with two prominent standard-setting agencies in the form of the AAOIFI, the IFSB does little to suggest that best governance practices – which centre around the themes of consistency, harmony and uniformity – are on the horizon, at least not whilst their issued standards and guidelines remain voluntary for IFIs.

Originality/value

All in all, it is aspired that this paper may assist the reader in evaluating the pros and cons of the whole concept of Sharīʿah board centralisation.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 31 July 2020

Mohammad Mahbubi Ali and Rusni Hassan

Tawarruq (Islamic commodity financing) has evolved as the most ubiquitous concept in Malaysia’s Islamic banking industry. Nevertheless, the extensive use of tawarruq has…

Abstract

Purpose

Tawarruq (Islamic commodity financing) has evolved as the most ubiquitous concept in Malaysia’s Islamic banking industry. Nevertheless, the extensive use of tawarruq has invoked a number of Sharīʿah (Islamic law) concerns in its practice. This study aims to investigate the Sharīʿah non-compliant (SNC) phenomena in the practice of tawarruq financing in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts qualitative research methodology, combining both descriptive and content analysis. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 16 Malaysian Islamic commercial banks to unveil the Sharīʿah non-compliance issues in the application of tawarruq in Islamic banks (IBs) in Malaysia.

Findings

The study found that some practices of tawarruq in Malaysia might not comply with the Sharīʿah, mainly due to the improper sequencing of contracts. The study also discovered that IBs adopt different approaches in dealing with SNC events and the income derived therefrom. Finally, the study noted the influence of board of director/management on certain Sharīʿah decisions particularly on the treatment of non-ḥalāl (impermissible) income.

Practical implications

The findings of the study serve as a reference to industry players and regulators in formulating a Sharīʿah non-compliance risk management framework for tawarruq practices.

Originality/value

The survey on SNC issues in tawarruq practice constitutes the first of its kind in the existing literature.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Lutfi Abdul Razak and Muhammad Nabil Saupi

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the concept of ḍamān al-milkiyyah (ownership risk) and to assess its application in contemporary Islamic financial products and services.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the concept of ḍamān al-milkiyyah (ownership risk) and to assess its application in contemporary Islamic financial products and services.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology adopted is that of descriptive research.

Findings

From an Islamic law of contract perspective, the concept of ḍamān al-milkiyyah is central to legitimate profit-making transactions and hence must be adhered to in practical applications of Islamic finance.

Research limitations/implications

This study should help motivate further investigation into the position of ḍamān al-milkiyyah among different parties in existing Islamic financial products and services.

Practical implications

Policymakers and regulators should ensure that Islamic financial products and services are structured in a way that does not allow parties to profit without adequately bearing the liability for potential loss.

Social implications

The condition of ḍamān al-milkiyyah as a source of legitimate profit reflects the idea that the role of finance in Islam is to promote and ensure social benefits.

Originality/value

This paper emphasizes the importance of ḍamān al-milkiyyah as a fundamental condition for profit in Islamic financial transactions.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Mohamed Hamour, Mohammad Hassan Shakil, Ishaq Mustapha Akinlaso and Mashiyat Tasnia

This paper aims to analyse the concept of form over substance and introduces the term substance gap to the literature. The substance gap is defined as the difference…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the concept of form over substance and introduces the term substance gap to the literature. The substance gap is defined as the difference between the way a concept is expressed and its intended result. Besides, the study investigates the issue from both classical and contemporary viewpoints.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology adopted in this paper is descriptive research.

Findings

This paper has depicted the substance gap in contemporary contracts and found that form is equally important as substance in Islamic finance contracts. This paper offers a fresh outlook on form and substance to highlight the importance of the issue and its significance. The findings of the study will help researchers address the issue at its roots and help them to bridge the gap between the form and substance of Islamic finance contracts.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the substance gap in contemporary contracts that exists between the fiqh rules and conditions of an Islamic contract, and their development and construction. Further, the gap could also be attributed to the pressure to cope with a complicated modern finance environment.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Muhammad Shahrul Ifwat Ishak and Fathullah Asni

This paper aims to explore the practical role of maqasid al-Shari’ah in applying fiqh muamalat to the reality of modern banking practices. As the modern financial…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the practical role of maqasid al-Shari’ah in applying fiqh muamalat to the reality of modern banking practices. As the modern financial environment is complicated and not too conducive for Islamic banking operations, a special approach based on maqasid al-Shari’ah is needed to harmonize between revelation and reality.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of this study are obtained through literature and empirical data. As for the empirical, the exploratory qualitative approach is applied in which three members of the Shari’ah Advisory Council (SAC) of Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) as well as three Shari’ah committees (SC) of Islamic Finance Institutions are selected as interviewees. As a result, several themes are defined from the interview data before they are analyzed based on the concept of maqasid al-Shari’ah.

Findings

The findings reveal that several practices are prevalent in developing Islamic banking products, including replicating conventional products to be Islamic ones, imposing wa’ad (unilateral promise) to strengthen the combination of different contracts into one product, and adopting floating rate with ibra’ (rebate) for financing price, which are needed to sustain this industry in modern financial system. In this regard, maqasid al-Shari’ah is applied to reconcile between rulings in fiqh muamalat and banking environments, so that these rulings can be adopted pragmatically without compromising Shari’ah principles.

Research limitations/implications

This study has its limitations, as it focuses on the extent of the role of the maqasid al-Shari’ah in Islamic banking operations, excluding other segments of Islamic finance such as Islamic capital markets and Islamic insurance. Moreover, as data are collected from only six interviewees from SAC and SC of Malaysia, the results cannot be represented for the whole Islamic banking practices of this country.

Practical implications

This study provides several policy recommendations regarding the practice of the maqasid al-Shari’ah in Islamic banking. These may be useful for all Islamic finance players, including regulators and bankers in introducing policies and products in this area.

Social implications

This study has the potential to enhance the confidence of the Muslim community, particularly in Islamic banking to support its existence and practices. The impact of such optimism will lead to an increase in demand for Islamic banking products, hence encouraging Islamic banking to sustain and update its activities in line with maqasid al-Shari’ah.

Originality/value

This paper offers a practical approach as regards to how the maqasid al-Shari’ah can play a significant role in sustaining the Islamic banking industry, particularly in circumstances that are not favorable to its progress. It is indispensable to prevent the Islamic rulings from being diverted in the name of human well-being and to avoid basing them on a literal textual approach. Moreover, as it provides empirical studies on the issue of replication, wa’ad, floating rate and ibra’, the discussion on this subject becomes more practical.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Suheyib Eldersevi and Razali Haron

This study aims to examine the resolutions issued by the Sharīʿah Advisory Council of Bank Negara Malaysia (SAC-BNM), which have recognized maṣlaḥah (public interest) as…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the resolutions issued by the Sharīʿah Advisory Council of Bank Negara Malaysia (SAC-BNM), which have recognized maṣlaḥah (public interest) as the basis of ruling to see the extent of its usefulness to the public and the extent of its adherence to the maṣlaḥah parameters. The study will also look into the opposing opinion to identify the basis of rejection and overall implication on Islamic finance based on opposing opinions of SAC-BNM and other bodies of collective ijtihād (juristic interpretation).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a qualitative approach by analyzing the SAC-BNM resolutions, which have been resolved based on maṣlaḥah. The study also applies the comparative approach by comparing the fatwa (Sharīʿah pronouncement) issuing bodies of Malaysia and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Furthermore, the secondary data is obtained from sources such as uṣūl al-fiqh (theory of Islamic jurisprudence) books, papers and relevant internet sources.

Findings

The study found that SAC-BNM’s resolutions are in line with some of the major maṣlaḥah parameters mentioned in the uṣūl al-fiqh sources i.e. must not contradict with the Qurʾān and the Sunnah. While looking at the other two criteria of being in line with ijmāʿ (consensus) and having a general impact, such resolutions might not fulfill the criteria of valid maṣlaḥah considering, respectively, the stand of collective ijtihād or the impact on the group of customers and institutions.

Originality/value

Most available shari’ah (Islamic law) research considers the perspective of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) while analyzing the issue of maṣlaḥah. This study aims to conduct analysis based on uṣūl al-fiqh. Moreover, maṣlaḥah itself is a broad concept, which can be abused. Hence, this study discusses the parameters of maṣlaḥah to understand the validity of an important juristic tool in Sharīʿah.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2019

Muhammad Shahrul Ifwat Ishak

This paper aims to investigate the current regulation of ibrā’ (rebate) set by the Central Bank for the Islamic banks in Malaysia and how far its original concept has been…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the current regulation of ibrā’ (rebate) set by the Central Bank for the Islamic banks in Malaysia and how far its original concept has been compromised to make it adaptable to the modern financial system.

Design/methodology/approach

This study, with regard to practising ibrā’ in Islamic banking in Malaysia, is qualitative in nature, using semi-structured interviews carried out with two types of informant: members of either the National Sharīʿah Advisory Council (NSAC) or the Internal Sharīʿah Committee (SC). All data are analysed based on the content analysis method.

Findings

The findings reveal that while stipulating an ibrā’ clause makes practising ibrā’ stray from its original concept, it has successfully tackled the current problem. However, the long-term consequences should be a concern, particularly Islamic banking products, which have been significantly influenced by the conventional system, including interest rates and the debt structure, neither of which should be identified with Islamic banking.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited because it focusses on the practice of ibrā’ in Malaysian Islamic banking. Moreover, data are collected from nine interviewees from NSAC and SC from different Islamic banks. Thus, the results cannot be generalised to other countries.

Originality/value

This paper provides a fresh discussion of ibrā’ from the perspective of regulators and the experience of practitioners in Malaysia, particularly in respect of aspects of Sharīʿah and current actual practice.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Beebee Salma Sairally

Abstract

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Mabid Ali Al-Jarhi

This paper aims to provide an economic rationale for Islamic finance.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an economic rationale for Islamic finance.

Design/methodology/approach

Its methodology is simple. It starts with listing the contributions to economic analysis relevant to the required rationale in the theories of banking, finance, price, money and macroeconomics, to identify the main rationale for Islamic finance. A concise description of the author’s model for an Islamic economic system, within which Islamic finance can be operational, is provided.

Findings

The paper finds distinct advantages of Islamic finance, when properly applied within the author’s model. Islamic finance can therefore be a candidate as a reform agenda for conventional finance. It opens the door for significant monetary reform in currently prevalent economic systems.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation of the paper is that the distinct benefits of Islamic finance are all of macroeconomic types which are external to Islamic banking and finance institutions. They are therefore not expected to motivate such institutions to apply Islamic finance to the letter, without regulators interference to ensure strict application. The second limitation is the necessity to set up enabling institutional and regulatory arrangements for Islamic finance.

Originality/value

The results are unique as they challenge the received doctrine and provide non-religious rationale for Islamic finance.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

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