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Article

S.K. Goyal, A. Gunasekaran, T. Martikainen and P. Yli‐Olli

Presents a mathematical model for determining Economic ProductionQuantity (EPQ) in a multistage flow‐shop production system for the casewhere the demand for items per unit…

Abstract

Presents a mathematical model for determining Economic Production Quantity (EPQ) in a multistage flow‐shop production system for the case where the demand for items per unit time is deterministic and the planning horizon is finite. Solves an example problem to illustrate the model.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 13 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Richard Cooney

This paper sets out to test the claim made in the lean production literature that the lean production system is universally applicable. The proponents of the lean…

Abstract

This paper sets out to test the claim made in the lean production literature that the lean production system is universally applicable. The proponents of the lean production model insist that it will supersede both mass production and specialised batch production; but this paper argues that, whilst lean production practices have been adopted and adapted by many producers, batch production has an enduring value from both a work design and a manufacturing process design perspective. The paper reviews the evidence for the persistence of batch production and of craft work methods in both luxury vehicle manufacture and specialty component manufacture and highlights the conditions under which batch production remains viable.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 22 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Lin Wang, Zhiqiang Lu and Xiaole Han

This paper integrates condition-based maintenance (CBM) with production planning in a single-stage production system that deteriorates with usage during a specified finite…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper integrates condition-based maintenance (CBM) with production planning in a single-stage production system that deteriorates with usage during a specified finite planning horizon. The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated production and maintenance model to minimize the expected total cost over the horizon.

Design/methodology/approach

A joint production planning and CBM model is proposed. In the model, a set of products must be produced in lots. The system degradation is a stationary gamma process and the degradation level is detected by inspection between production lots. Maintenance actions including imperfect preventive maintenance (PM) should be taken when the failure risk exceeds the maintenance threshold. A fix-iterative heuristic algorithm is proposed to address the joint model.

Findings

The proactive policy expressed as a prognosis maintenance threshold is introduced to integrate CBM with batch production perfectly. Experiments are carried out to conduct sensitivity analysis, which provides some insights to facilitate industrial manufacturing. The superiority of the proposed joint model compared with a separate decision method is demonstrated. The results show an advantage in cost saving.

Originality/value

Few studies have been made to integrate production planning and CBM decisions, especially for a multi-product system. Their maintenance decisions are usually based on a periodic review policy, which is not appropriate for batch production system. A prognosis maintenance threshold based on system condition and production quantity is suitable for the integrated decisions. Moreover, the imperfect PM is taken into consideration in this paper. A fix-iterative algorithm is developed to solve the joint model. This work forms a proactive maintenance for batch production.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article

D.R. Towill

The learning effect is well established in the repetitive performance of industrial tasks and it is essential that production management be aware of the potential for…

Abstract

The learning effect is well established in the repetitive performance of industrial tasks and it is essential that production management be aware of the potential for improved performance (measured by dynamic gain) and the rate at which this may be achieved/measured by the time constraint. Performance and contingency logging and trend modelling should be part of the management information system so that the appropriate learning curve can be established and stored in the databank for future planning purposes. The application of the learning curve to batch production shows that performance slippage caused by elapsed time between batch completions is a significant factor in manufacturing time increase, and, hence, labour costs. This should be allowed for when optimising batch production policy, forecasting deliveries, and

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Erne Houghton and Victor Portougal

Addresses the problem of implementing just‐in‐time (JIT) principlesin a processing shop organized in a batch manufacturing environment. Thefocus is on a processing shop…

Abstract

Addresses the problem of implementing just‐in‐time (JIT) principles in a processing shop organized in a batch manufacturing environment. The focus is on a processing shop separated from an assembly shop by a parts store. Presents a multi‐criteria variant of the capacitated lot‐sizing model. The approach involves a pre‐emptive priority for JIT processing schedules, and a secondary priority for desirable load profiles. Solution properties are derived and used to facilitate the solution process for both the primary and secondary criterion models. Load profiles are assessed in the context of capacity requirements planning as well as from the alternative viewpoint of providing feedback to capacity planning through a consideration of capacity cushions. At both planning levels the approach is shown to allow optimum resource utilization without violating JIT principles. Presents optimization procedures, including a heuristic with an analytic performance bound.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 15 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Samuel Wathen

The Profit Impact of Marketing Strategy (PIMS) database was used totest the relationship between production process type (small batch,large batch/assembly, and continuous…

Abstract

The Profit Impact of Marketing Strategy (PIMS) database was used to test the relationship between production process type (small batch, large batch/assembly, and continuous) and eight organizational policy decisions (new products, new plant and equipment, finished goods inventory, raw materials/work‐in‐process inventory, capacity utilization, fixed capital assets, manufacturing costs, gross margin). In addition, the effect of six broad industry types on the proposed relationships was also investigated. Overall industries, raw materials/work‐in‐progress, capacity utilization, manufacturing costs, fixed assets, and gross margin varied with production process type while new products, new plant and equipment, and finished goods inventory did not vary. Within each industry, the findings showed less support for the relationships between production process type and the eight organizational policy decisions. Further analysis showed that most of the industries are dominated by a production process type. Suggests a movement away from the traditional differentiation of production process technologies and a shift of research emphasis to the differing uses of a particular production process technology within an industry.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Matloub Hussain and Paul R. Drake

The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of batching on bullwhip effect in a model of multi‐echelon supply chain with information sharing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of batching on bullwhip effect in a model of multi‐echelon supply chain with information sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

The model uses the system dynamics and control theoretic concepts of variables, flows and feedback processes and is implemented using iThink® software.

Findings

It has been seen that the relationship between batch size and demand amplification is non‐monotonic. Large batch sizes, that when combined in integer multiples can produce order rates that are close to the actual demand, produce little demand amplification, i.e. it is the size of the remainder of the quotient that is the determinant. It is further noted that the value of information sharing is greatest for smaller batch sizes, for which there is a much greater improvement in the amplification ratio.

Research limitations/implications

Batching is associated with the inventory holding and backlog cost. Therefore, future work should investigate the cost implications of order batching in multi‐echelon supply chains.

Practical implications

This is a contribution to the continuing research into the bullwhip effect, giving supply chain operations managers and designers a practical way into controlling the bullwhip produced by batching across multi‐echelon supply chains.

Originality/value

Previous similar studies have used control theoretic techniques and it has been pointed out that control theorists are unable to solve the lot sizing problem. Therefore, system dynamic simulation has been applied to investigate the impact of various batch sizes on bullwhip effect.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 41 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article

Matloub Hussain and Paul R. Drake

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of batching on bullwhip effect in a model of multi‐echelon supply chain with information sharing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of batching on bullwhip effect in a model of multi‐echelon supply chain with information sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

The model uses the system dynamics and control theoretic concepts of variables, flows, and feedback processes and is implemented using iThink® software.

Findings

It has been seen that the relationship between batch size and demand amplification is non‐monotonic. Large batch sizes, when combined in integer multiples, can produce order rates that are close to the actual demand and produce little demand amplification, i.e. it is the size of the remainder of the quotient that is the determinant. It is further noted that the value of information sharing is greatest for smaller batch sizes, for which there is a much greater improvement in the amplification ratio.

Research limitations/implications

Batching is associated with the inventory holding and backlog cost. Therefore, future work should investigate the cost implications of order batching in multi‐echelon supply chains.

Practical implications

This is a contribution to the continuing research into the bullwhip effect, giving supply chain operations managers and designers a practical way into controlling the bullwhip produced by batching across multi‐echelon supply chains. Economies of scale processes usually favor large batch sizes. Reducing batch size in order to reduce the demand amplification is not a good solution.

Originality/value

Previous similar studies have used control theoretic techniques and it has been pointed out that control theorists are unable to solve the lot sizing problem. Therefore, system dynamic simulation is then applied to investigate the impact of various batch sizes on bullwhip effect.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article

Lalith Goonatilake

Production planning and control is a complex task in multiple batchproduction situations. Work orders arrive in a random manner and,considering the diverse product array…

Abstract

Production planning and control is a complex task in multiple batch production situations. Work orders arrive in a random manner and, considering the diverse product array, work centre capacities loaded and available also change in a random manner. A particular product mix may suit a particular load pattern generated and, to be realistic, the optimum product mix must be considered a dynamic parameter rather than a static one. Considering the multitude of parameters associated, it is difficult to determine the optimum product mix in a manual system. The use of a computer simulation model to determine the optimum product mix and also the criteria to be used in arriving at the pricing strategy under multiple batch production situations are discussed.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 89 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article

Kurt Rosander

Companies using production of small batches, with a large number ofproducts made in a number of variants, often have a high level of workin progress. Much has been…

Abstract

Companies using production of small batches, with a large number of products made in a number of variants, often have a high level of work in progress. Much has been published recently about production flow groups and balancing of flow to solve the problems experienced in these companies and production flow groups seem to be regarded as a panacea. This means that the cost of fixed assets for this type of industry will increase, but less capital will be tied up in products and work in progress. Assesses whether production flow groups are in reality the optimal way of organizing batch production and gives some assistance in the design of systems for batch production in order to achieve shorter lead times and decreased costs. The results of case studies show that there is not a single solution to the problems, although a large number of advantages are realized. Compared to the traditional way of organizing production this way of operating breaks down the organization into small units, adapts the production organization to prevailing conditions and unites the different parts into a functioning whole, together with the planning function.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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