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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Agnė Lagė and Kristina Ancutienė

The purpose of this paper is to investigate basic block pattern modification according to fabric used and the mismatch between 2D and 3D measure lines at bust, waist and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate basic block pattern modification according to fabric used and the mismatch between 2D and 3D measure lines at bust, waist and hip girths when ease allowance is changed uniformly.

Design/methodology/approach

For the investigation, virtual try-on software Modaris 3D Fit (CAD Lectra) was used. The straight shape dress fitting was done using seven cotton and cotton blended plain weave fabrics. After virtual try-on, the mismatch d (dbust, dwaist, dhip) between 2D and 3D measure lines was measured in order to determine base pattern adjustments using different fabrics.

Findings

It was found that the position and length of 3D measure lines at bust, waist and hip girths does not match the position and length of corresponding lines in 2D base patterns after virtual try-on due to fabrics deformation, which is related to mechanical properties. It was proved that derived linear equations presenting a relation between mismatch and ease allowance values could be used for basic block pattern modification that 3D and 2D measure lines would coincide during clothing try-on.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to cotton/cotton blended woven fabrics and straight dress; therefore, other fabric types and other clothing could be investigated in the future to expand data basis.

Practical implications

The main practical point of the proposed method is that in order to obtain particular 3D ease value in a garment, it can be calculated from 2D ease allowance value and the fabric’s tensile properties using linear equations. The basic block patterns could be modified using this method not only for tested fabrics but also for other fabrics with similar composition, structural and mechanical properties. 3D ease values in garment can be easily checked by using virtual try-on technology without production of real prototypes. The method is applicable for making ready-to-wear or individually tailored clothing.

Originality/value

The proposed method in this paper presented opportunity to modify the basic block patterns of the dress according to the fabric’s tensile properties and 2D ease allowance. The basic block patterns could be modified according to presented linear functions for each tested fabric. The application of this method can fully ensure the interaction between the garment 2D patterns to 3D garment so that a desired 3D garment fitting effect to the body can easily be satisfied by the adjustment of particular fabric characteristics. It offers further possibilities, especially with developing virtual try-on technologies.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2008

Jing‐Jing Fang and Yu Ding

This paper aims to present a flattening method for developing 2D basic patterns from 3D designed garments. The method incorporates the techniques of professional pattern

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a flattening method for developing 2D basic patterns from 3D designed garments. The method incorporates the techniques of professional pattern development for the purpose of pattern‐making automation. The aims of the flattening method are to improve the dressing suitability and to produce pleasing figures by reversing design procedures.

Design/methodology/approach

A flattening method is presented in this paper for developing 3D undevelopable NURBS surfaces in 2D. The automatic operation embeds the expertise of pattern makers by reducing total area differences between the designed garments in 3D styles and the two‐dimensional patterns. Basic pattern‐making invokes the boundary constraints which apply mesh alignments techniques.

Findings

The global area difference between the original 3D designs and the 2D‐developed pattern is controlled within 5 percent in order to reach the final outcomes of basic patterns, whose shapes are similar to the drawing patterns currently utilized in the industry.

Research limitations/implications

This study currently handles simple designs, such as basal designs, and can only flatten garments in symmetric styles. The direct flattening method is developed by this study. In addition, this study is supplemented by expert‐based knowledge, and it establishes basic boundary conditions for various garment patterns to increase the feasibility of flattening automation.

Originality/value

This study introduces the fundamental theories and methodologies used in the automatic making of basic patterns from 3D garment designs. It proposes a flattening method with pattern expertise embedded by real‐time approximations of the global area of the 3D undevelopable designs to the 2D patterns.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Hyun-Sook Han, Sungmin Kim and Chang Kyu Park

– The purpose of this paper is to develop an automated custom-pattern-making system using the width-height independent grading method for semi-customized clothing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an automated custom-pattern-making system using the width-height independent grading method for semi-customized clothing.

Design/methodology/approach

The system reads basic patterns and graded large patterns and calculates the grading ratio of independent horizontal and vertical values on all points in a pattern. The custom pattern is automatically generated by calculating the horizontal and vertical grading amount according to individual body measurements. The system does not follow any complicated alteration rules.

Findings

The width-height independent grading method can provide custom-pattern fitted primary body circumference and length and helps to quickly produce semi-customized clothing.

Originality/value

There are few studies on automated custom-pattern-making systems without an alteration rule. This study developed an automatic custom-pattern-making system using the width-height independent grading method.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Jun Zhang, Noriaki Innami, KyoungOk Kim and Masayuki Takatera

The purpose of this paper is to produce an upper garment model for three-dimensional (3D) pattern making. This model will take into account ease allowance and silhouette…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to produce an upper garment model for three-dimensional (3D) pattern making. This model will take into account ease allowance and silhouette, and will be used to propose a size-changing method.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used two real garment bodices with a surface suitable for pattern development. The garments were fitted to a designated dummy body and scanned. Using the scanned data, the authors made those upper garment basic models suitable for 3D pattern making. Using one model, the authors produced two bodice patterns, one with the original seam lines and the other with seam lines that differed from the original ones, and then compared them with the original jacket bodice. To construct garment models that were different in size from the basic model, the authors calculated multiplication factors of cross-sectional dimensions (in the front, back and lateral directions) between the basic garment and the actual garment shape worn on a body for each basic model. Using the multiplication factors, the authors made two different size garment models from two different size dummies for each basic model. The authors used these models to make patterns and garments.

Findings

The reproduced jackets had similar shapes, silhouettes and ease allowances to the original jacket. Two garments of different sizes for each original jacket were made using the multiplication factors, and these garments also had similar silhouettes to the original jacket.

Research limitations/implications

The implications of the work could be the new size-changing method.

Originality/value

Using the modeling method, the authors were able to make complex new garment models that take into account ease allowance and silhouette. The ability to size these models up or down using multiplication factors could be a substitute for the grading method.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Herman Baert and Natalie Govaerts

With the intention of detecting and describing a series of team learning patterns within a selection of organisations, an extensive exploratory and qualitative research…

Abstract

Purpose

With the intention of detecting and describing a series of team learning patterns within a selection of organisations, an extensive exploratory and qualitative research project was conducted in seven phases. The study at hand aims to report on the most recent phase, namely eight case studies in the public employment service of Flanders (Belgium) and aims to expand the provisional typology of learning patterns and to explore the strategic relevance of these learning patterns in the light of a strategic human resource development (HRD) policy.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research approach with a multiple case study design served as the methodological base. A total of 22 interviews in eight cases were conducted in the competence centres of the Flemish employment service, what brings the total to 40 cases and 150 interviews.

Findings

Hitherto, five basic learning patterns and 16 variations make up the provisional typology of learning patterns. The strategic relevance of the learning patterns varies with respect to the scope of the developed competences and the degree of orientation to future of the organisation and the career expectations of the employees.

Originality/value

The provisional typology of learning patterns has proven to be useful as a tool for the identification of configurations of workplace learning in teams. The exploration of the strategic relevance provides clues for the alignment of the HRD with the organisational strategy.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Tae J. Kang and Sung Min Kim

A comprehensive apparel CAD system was developed to perform automatic garment pattern drafting and the prediction of the final drape shape of designed garment putting on…

Abstract

A comprehensive apparel CAD system was developed to perform automatic garment pattern drafting and the prediction of the final drape shape of designed garment putting on the human body. Three dimensional apparel CAD system starts with a flat garment pattern drafting system. A computerized pattern design script language has been created based on the traditional patterner’s principles to develop an automatic draft system of performing basic garment pattern drafting as well as grading rule generation. A pattern modification system was also developed considering functions required in apparel CAD such as auxiliary pattern generation, seam line creation, and dart manipulation to generate engineering patterns which can be used in the three dimensional garment shape prediction system presented later in part II of this paper.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Simeon Gill

The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical model for considering ease numerically in the clothing pattern. Classifying the pattern as a geometric Cartesian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical model for considering ease numerically in the clothing pattern. Classifying the pattern as a geometric Cartesian coordinate system, this model proposes the need to quantify the partly coincident variables of ease, which will enable greater control over garment fit and function, using traditional or CAD/CAM methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The principles of pattern/garment dimensions are considered with support from analysis of literature and contributing factors to the variables of ease are categorised. These principles support a proposed theoretical model for considering pattern/garment dimensions, in the numeric format that they exist within the context of pattern construction.

Findings

Pattern construction occurs in a 2D Cartesian coordinate system, guided by body dimensions and ease. This can be modelled in the form of an algorithm relating to the placement of cardinal points defining the pattern outline. Recognition of the numerical nature of the pattern, suggests the need to quantify the coincident variables of ease, to achieve greater control over garment fit and function.

Research limitations/implications

Few sources exist enabling the recognition of ease requirements in the pattern/garment and when guidance on ease is presented, there is little rationale as to how it has been established, or what contributes to its definition.

Originality/value

The paper shows how current methods of pattern construction can be modelled more effectively, recognising the geometric nature on which they are based. Modelling these relationships highlights where quantification can be provided, by existing knowledge or future research.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Helmut Nechansky

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how sequence learning can build on pattern‐recognition systems and how it can contribute to the behavioral options of goal‐oriented systems.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how sequence learning can build on pattern‐recognition systems and how it can contribute to the behavioral options of goal‐oriented systems.

Design/methodology/approach

A functional approach is used to develop the necessary cybernetic structures of a subsystem for sequence learning, that can recognize patterns, register patterns occurring repeatedly and connect these to sequences. Based on that it is analyzed how goal‐oriented systems can use information about reoccurring sequences.

Findings

A subsystem for sequence learning basically requires pattern recognition and it needs a structure for the directed connection of single standards for pattern matching to standards for sequences, given that it can learn both new patterns and new sequences. Such a subsystem for sequence learning may recognize a certain pattern and with that the end of a certain sequence. So it may deliver more than one output signal at a point in time, and therefore needs additionally a subsystem for directing attention.

Practical implications

The paper analyses the principles of an “associative” way of connecting standards for pattern matching to standards for sequences. Also it shows the cybernetic necessity of an attention directing system that has to decide how to deal with the multiple outputs of a subsystem for sequence learning, i.e. to decide to act either towards a pattern or a whole sequence.

Originality/value

The paper investigates basic mechanisms of sequence learning and its contribution to goal‐oriented behavior. Also, it lays the base for an analysis of attention directing systems and anticipatory systems.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 41 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Ei Chaw Hlaing, Sybille Krzywinski and Hartmut Roedel

The aim of the research is the development of 3D virtual models of lower female bodies from scanned data of different body types for computer‐aided 3D product development…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the research is the development of 3D virtual models of lower female bodies from scanned data of different body types for computer‐aided 3D product development of loose‐fitting garments.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to develop reproducible construction of fashionable/functional outerwear (e.g. ladies’ trousers) on the basis of generated scalable 3D virtual female models, 3D‐CAD methods have to be developed. In doing so, the variable parameters are predefined and the block pattern of a trouser design can be modified by changing the parameters for the variety of trouser models. Two‐dimensional (2D) pattern pieces are then automatically generated and modified if necessary. According to morphological changes, the whole process proceeds automatically up to 2D patterns and thus corresponds to a grading in 3D.

Findings

The generated 3D virtual model and trouser design corresponding to a basic design or block pattern can be offered to the garment industry. The task of the designer or stylist is only to define the intended pattern design on the created trouser shell. Therefore, the approach is also very feasible for pattern makers who are not skilled in computer technology. The goal of this research is to provide an indispensable basis for an effective new technology for the construction of fit‐relevant, loose‐fitting garments, and in doing so, further accelerate the textile chain.

Originality/value

This paper provides methods of creating 3D garment design as well as grading in 3D, based on scalable virtual models of female lower bodies, which are worked out using a new German size designation system. Since the data processed for the generation of virtual models derives from direct scan data from women (taking into account different body types), the targeted German population is reflected.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Bilian Cheng, Zheng Liu, Guang Chen and Fengyuan Zou

The purpose of this paper is to quickly acquire a cheongsam pattern using the fit quantification method to meet individual fit requirement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quickly acquire a cheongsam pattern using the fit quantification method to meet individual fit requirement.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the cheongsam pattern database including basic patterns and graded patterns, we defined the main control parts of the cheongsam pattern by analyzing the pattern modification. Combining human body shape characteristics, this paper utilized the fuzzy membership function to quantify the cheongsam fit, and defined the modified model of the cheongsam control part.

Findings

The fitness quantification method can provide suitable primary body characteristics for custom-pattern and helps to produce customized cheongsam quickly.

Originality/value

This paper proposed a method of generating customized cheongsam pattern based on fitness quantification by using fuzzy membership function. The method combined the industry pattern design experience and mathematic knowledge to generate the individual fit pattern rapidly. It can be applied in cheongsam customization.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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