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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1991

Barry R. Baker

A review of the approach adopted by the Management CharterInitiative (MCI) towards the use of management competences, drawing oncontemporary research and journal articles…

Abstract

A review of the approach adopted by the Management Charter Initiative (MCI) towards the use of management competences, drawing on contemporary research and journal articles, is made. In addition, use is made of insights and experience gained through involvement in the MCI Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) pilot project conducted at Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education. Three major assumptions associated with the MCI competence approach are evaluated and a specific facet of the Cheltenham and Gloucester College APL experience, that of high delegate wastage, is examined. An expectancy model of motivation is used along with an action feedback model to illustrate and explain some of the potential reasons for a high drop‐out rate. The model affords an opportunity to provide a rationale to underpin needed action on the part of the major actors within the APL management competence approach. In conclusion, a number of summary propositions predicated by the review are given.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 15 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

Barry R. Baker and John N. Cooper

Presents a survey‐designed study to ascertain the extent to whichorganizations employing occupational testing conformed to good practicein testing as defined by…

Abstract

Presents a survey‐designed study to ascertain the extent to which organizations employing occupational testing conformed to good practice in testing as defined by professional and advisory literature/codes of practice. Utilizes an ethical framework built around mutual contractual obligations with “limiting principles” as moral rules governing employers testing behaviour. Offers data in support of the contention that some employers are not adhering to the good advice whereby tests takers rights are assured. Concludes with a number of summary indications for future directions of research and practice.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Yann de Mey, Frankwin van Winsen, Erwin Wauters, Mark Vancauteren, Ludwig Lauwers and Steven Van Passel

The purpose of this paper is to present empirical evidence of risk balancing behavior by European farmers. More specifically, the authors investigate strategic adjustments…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present empirical evidence of risk balancing behavior by European farmers. More specifically, the authors investigate strategic adjustments in the level of financial risk (FR) in response to changes in the level of business risk (BR).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a correlation relationship analysis and run several linear fixed effects regression models using the European Union (EU)-15 FADN panel data set for the period 1995-2008.

Findings

Overall, the paper finds EU evidence of risk balancing. The correlation relationship analysis suggests that just over half of the farm observations are risk balancers whereas the other (smaller) half are not. The coefficient in our fixed effects regression suggests that a 1 percent increase in BR reduces FR by 0.043 percent and has a standard error so low that the existence of non-risk balancers is doubtful. The results reject evidence of strong-form risk balancing – inverse trade-offs between FR and BR keeping total risk (TR) constant – but cannot reject weak-form risk balancing – inverse trade-offs between FR and BR with some observed changes in TR. Furthermore, the extent of risk balancing behavior is found to differ between different European countries and across farm typologies.

Practical implications

This study provides European policy makers a first insight into risk balancing behavior of EU farmers. When risk balancing occurs, BR-reducing agricultural policies induce strategic upwards leverage adjustments that unintentionally reestablish or even increase total farm-level risk.

Originality/value

Making use of the large and unique FADN database, to the best of the authors knowledge, this study is the first that provides European (EU-15) evidence on risk balancing behavior, is conducted at an unprecedented large scale, and presents the first risk balancing evidence across countries and farming systems.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 74 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Ioni Lewis, Sonja Forward, Barry Elliott, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Judy J. Fleiter and Barry Watson

This chapter defines what road safety advertising campaigns are and the objectives that they typically seek to achieve. The argument put forward in this chapter is that…

Abstract

This chapter defines what road safety advertising campaigns are and the objectives that they typically seek to achieve. The argument put forward in this chapter is that when theoretically informed in their design and sensitive to the array of potential personal, social, and cultural influences which may be at play, road safety advertising can contribute to both reinforcing and transforming contemporary traffic safety culture. This chapter offers guidance to researchers and practitioners in the field regarding relevant theory which may be applied to inform message design and evaluation.

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Maria Bampasidou, Ashok K. Mishra and Charles B. Moss

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the endogeneity of asset values and how it relates to farm financial stress in US agriculture. The authors conceptualize an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the endogeneity of asset values and how it relates to farm financial stress in US agriculture. The authors conceptualize an implied measure of farm financial stress as a function of debt position. The authors posit that there are variations in the asset values that are beyond the farmer’s control and therefore have implications on farm debt.

Design/methodology/approach

The framework recognizes the endogeneity of return on assets (ROA). It uses a non-parametric technique to approximate the variance of expected ROA (VEROA). The authors model the rate of return on agricultural assets and interest rate with a formulation that focuses on macroeconomic policy. Further, the authors use a dynamic balanced panel data set from 1960 to 2011 for 15 US agricultural states from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey, and information from traditional state-level financial statements.

Findings

Estimation of linear dynamic debt panel data models accounting for the endogeneity of ROA and VEROA is a challenging task. Estimated variances are unstable. Hence, the authors focus on variance specification that uses the residuals squared from the ARIMA specification and non-parametric estimators. Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond generalized method of moments estimation procedures, although may be biased, show that VEROA has a negative and significant effect on the total amount of debt in the agricultural sector.

Research limitations/implications

The instruments used in this analysis are lagged regressors which may be weakly correlated with the relevant first-order condition, hence not properly identifying the parameters of interest. Future research could include the identification of better instruments, potentially use of sequential moment conditions.

Originality/value

Unlike previous study, the authors use non-parametric approximation of VEROA. The authors model the rate of return on agricultural assets and interest rate with a formulation that focuses on macroeconomic policy. Second, the authors make use of a large dynamic balanced panel data set from 1960 to 2011 for 15 agricultural states in the USA. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the few that provides evidence on risk-balancing behavior at the agricultural sector level, of the USA.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 77 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Book part
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Sandra S. Graça and James M. Barry

This study investigates the antecedents and outcomes of cognitive trust during the expansion phase in buyer–supplier relationships. It takes a global approach and examines…

Abstract

This study investigates the antecedents and outcomes of cognitive trust during the expansion phase in buyer–supplier relationships. It takes a global approach and examines cultural nuances between developed nation and emerging market firms by including participants from the United States, China, and Brazil. The results demonstrate the importance of trust in building social capital and the central role which trust plays in shaping business relationships in all studied cultural contexts. There are similarities and differences across countries. Results support relationship marketing theory by demonstrating the importance of conflict resolution, communication frequency, and social bond in building buyer–supplier relationships in the United States, which in turn increase cooperation between partners. Results also indicate that in China, social bond plays a much greater role in building trust, which in turn increases cooperation only to the extent that it serves as a mechanism to secure committed relationships. In Brazil, results show that conflict resolution is the most important factor in building trust. It also mediates the relationship between communication frequency and trust, as well as drives cooperation positively. Overall, trust is found to influence exchange of confidential communication and increases commitment between partners in all three countries.

Details

New Insights on Trust in Business-to-Business Relationships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-063-4

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Michael Friis Pedersen and Jakob Vesterlund Olsen

– The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel measure of access to credit suited to estimate the relative change in credit reserves.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel measure of access to credit suited to estimate the relative change in credit reserves.

Design/methodology/approach

A debt possibility frontier is estimated using data envelopment analysis and the Malmquist index is calculated. The Malmquist index is redubbed the Debt Development index and decomposed into “change in debt capacity” and “change in debt capacity utilization”. Bootstrapping is applied for statistical inference. The method is applied to an unbalanced panel of 92,000 Danish farm accounts from 1996 to 2009.

Findings

The paper finds that credit capacity roughly doubled for Danish farmers over the period, and that utilization of credit capacity generally was proportional to capacity change, utilization being higher for dairy and pig farms, than for crop farms.

Research limitations/implications

Changes in credit reserves may have important implications for risk management practice, investment and technology adoption and related policy issues. The method is limited by the possibility of strategic behavior of lenders during credit cycle busts. In credit cycle booms, the method gives a good basis for the estimates of change in credit reserves.

Practical implications

In a period of increasing credit reserves, risk management institutions are unlikely to develop. Like agricultural policy, access to credit may crowd out market-based risk management.

Originality/value

The study represents a novel application and interpretation of a well-known method.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 73 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1971

M.R. Denning, Fenton Atkinson and L.J. Cairns

October 13, 1970 Redundancy — Redundancy payment — Entitlement — Apprentices — Deeds of apprenticeship making apprenticeships assignable — Apprentices serving three…

Abstract

October 13, 1970 Redundancy — Redundancy payment — Entitlement — Apprentices — Deeds of apprenticeship making apprenticeships assignable — Apprentices serving three masters during five‐year period — Whether “continuously employed” — Meaning — Redundancy Payments Act, 1965 (c.62), ss.1(1), 8 (1) (2) — Contracts of Employment Act, 1963 (c.49), Sch. 1, para. 10(1).

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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