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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of networking on business performance by uncovering particular and significant methods of pursuing business…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of networking on business performance by uncovering particular and significant methods of pursuing business connections, for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Tangier.
A two-stage design, which incorporated both quantitative and qualitative approaches, was employed in this study. Approaches were employed in succession with the findings from the quantitative phase informing the qualitative phase. Initially, a paper and online survey questionnaire was administered to a population of 365 industrial SMEs to gain some insights on the perceptions of owner-managers of the impact of networking on business performance. Following the quantitative phase, 15 in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with selected owner-managers of SMEs, forming a judgmental selection, to explore their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes with respect to networking factor.
Both quantitative and qualitative phases of the study found that networking was a significant factor in influencing the success of SMEs. The concept of wasta, the Arabic word for connections, emerged from the qualitative phase. Findings show that using wasta, through politico-business networks is important since it enables access to current information that is crucial for the success of SMEs. The concept of wasta was also mentioned in relation to financial resources and suppliers. Findings revealed that strong relationships with suppliers enable firms to get financial resources in the form of trade credits. Furthermore, the relationship between wasta and human resources was also revealed. Findings showed that owner-managers use their network relations through wasta in order to recruit their staff.
The findings of this study add to the understanding of networking in Arabic countries with the importance of wasta in an economy that functions on relationships. The findings of this study could therefore be useful to international managers to assist their intercultural effectiveness by adjusting to culture-specific networking in Tangier.
This study is among those few studies located in the Middle East North Africa region that explore the performance of SMEs from the perceptions of owner-managers themselves, and not based on aggregate or economic data. It supports previous findings of several studies and contributes additional evidence that suggests the significance of wasta and its impact on SME success.
The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze relationships between contextual factors, and micro-cognitive, emotional and relational factors, influencing the…
The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze relationships between contextual factors, and micro-cognitive, emotional and relational factors, influencing the strategic decision-making process.
The relative roles of “rationality,” “intuition” and “political behavior” in five recent and critical strategic decisions have been explored using 16 semi-structured interviews with senior decision-makers in three Middle Eastern Arabic commercial banks.
Context specific macro-factors were found to influence the emotional state of strategists, leading them to adopt a rational approach, rather than use intuitive judgment, to making all five decisions.
The study was limited to one contextual situation and business sector in order to maintain these variables relatively constant, with proposals for extending studies to other business situations and contexts.
The paper provides evidence for the impact of micro emotional and relational factors on decision-making practice, which should lead to increased recognition for strategists, and organizations, of the importance of these influences on strategic decision practice.
A social implication is that organizations should build a level of awareness of the impact of the mood of strategists who are involved with strategic decisions, perhaps through appropriately designed social processes of organizational learning.
The paper examines the little-researched influence of the mood of strategists on the nature of decision-making process, and demonstrates the importance of including emotional factors in future studies. An explanatory framework is developed which is consistent with an interpretation that places the emotional state (mood) of “concerned attention” which existed within the senior management groups as the dominant factor driving the nature of process. A generalized research framework is proposed to aid future studies of strategic processes.
Gives a resume of the Benetton operation, describing how 80 percent of Benetton retailing is franchised with the majority taking placeoutside Italy. Studies, in depth, the…
Gives a resume of the Benetton operation, describing how 80 per cent of Benetton retailing is franchised with the majority taking place outside Italy. Studies, in depth, the experience of one franchisee in Burnley, Lancashire, by financial analysis and a survey of customers purchasing in the store. Results show that the Benetton message is getting across to consumers; brand is associated with colour, style and fashion for which premium prices are deemed acceptable. However, while the franchiser continues to retain tight control over product range, the sales period provides the only opportunity for the franchisee to improve stock and cash control and, ultimately, to survive.
Based on an interview with a senior manager at Joshua Tetley &Son Ltd about the changing role of the business development manager.Summarizes the changes in the brewery…
Based on an interview with a senior manager at Joshua Tetley & Son Ltd about the changing role of the business development manager. Summarizes the changes in the brewery industry following a report of the Monopolies and Mergers Commission in 1989 which reduced the number of public houses a brewery could own and aimed at introducing competitive forces into the brewery industry. Considers how Allied Breweries Ltd reacted to the report with reference to the area managers whose jobs have been repositioned as business development managers and whose objectives are to sell the brewery′s products by offering a parcel of benefits.
TThe purpose of this paper is to review the literature on facet theory and present an approach to map the relationship between retail branding (particularly brand…
TThe purpose of this paper is to review the literature on facet theory and present an approach to map the relationship between retail branding (particularly brand recognition) and visual merchandising.
Fact theory has been used in other areas of investigation, particularly for the examination of the built environment within psychology. However, it has received little attention in either the marketing or retailing literature. This is surprising as facet theory also provides a conceptually stable and fully formed approach to: the definition of an area of interest; the statement of the proposed relationships between areas of interest; the development of a research instrument that is fully cognisant of the possible relationships; and also utilizes a form of analysis that explores the actual presence of the hypothesized relationships (smallest space analysis – SSA).
The application of facet theory and SSA were found to be particularly appropriate for an investigation of the relationship between retail branding and visual merchandising. This stems from the clear and consistent approach that is derived by using this method to structure the research.
This paper demonstrates facet theory provides a validated and robust approach to investigate a complex but managerially significant area in retailing.
Based on observations made during a field visit to Poland inJuly/August 1990, the current changes taking place in the Polish retailscene are explored, both by sector and…
Based on observations made during a field visit to Poland in July/August 1990, the current changes taking place in the Polish retail scene are explored, both by sector and in terms of the marketing mix. The major issues facing potential entrants – domestic, as well as foreign – into the newly emerging private Polish retail sector, are placed into the historical and political context. Recommendations are made for a possible direction the management of the changes could take. In this the importance of developing staff attitudes and expertise is emphasised: Polish. retailing success must build on the empowerment of native Polish retail managers.
Assesses the likely impact of European legislation on the conduct ofpharmacy business in Britian and Germany. Examines the range of (proposed)legislation and inferences…
Assesses the likely impact of European legislation on the conduct of pharmacy business in Britian and Germany. Examines the range of (proposed) legislation and inferences drawn about its likely impact; compares the differing national systems for the regulation of pharmacies and considers the “fit” between these systems and the European framework; addresses the possibilities for internationalization of the operations of pharmacies by opening in the other country. Concludes that current proposals may impact on British practices more severely. An apparent opportunity for expansion by British firms in Germany is shown to be limited by the presence of major drugstore chains in the German market, which are seen to have domestic advantages over incoming firms. Summarizes the legislation connected with the SEM and pharmacy in a Table showing anticipated consequences in the two countries.
An intelligent hybrid system, called GloStra (developed by the author), for developing global marketing strategy and associated Internet marketing strategy is reported in…
An intelligent hybrid system, called GloStra (developed by the author), for developing global marketing strategy and associated Internet marketing strategy is reported in this paper. The hybrid system is built to integrate the strengths of expert systems, fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and decision support technology; and to link the development of global marketing strategy with the formulation of associated Internet marketing strategy. In the paper, the system architecture, the functional modules of the hybrid system and other associated technical issues are addressed. The directions for further research in this field are also highlighted.
April 12, 1970 Factory — Cleaning machinery — “Young person” cleaning cylinders of printing machine — Inching button used to rotate cylinders — Whether cylinders “moving…
April 12, 1970 Factory — Cleaning machinery — “Young person” cleaning cylinders of printing machine — Inching button used to rotate cylinders — Whether cylinders “moving part” of machine — Whether plaintiff “cleaning” machine while rotating cylinders — Whether breach of statutory duty by employer — Plaintiffs disobedience to instructions a cause of accident — Whether fault co‐extensive with employer's fault — Factories Act, 1961 (9 & 10 Eliz. II, c. 34), s. 20.
States that the importance of retailing to the vitality and viability of many town and city centres is widely acknowledged. However, the marketing of these locations to…
States that the importance of retailing to the vitality and viability of many town and city centres is widely acknowledged. However, the marketing of these locations to date has largely focused on tourism or inward economic investment. Identifies many of the factors to be considered in the definition of the “place” product, with particular reference to how urban centres can define their retail “offer”. Proposes an exploratory conceptual framework for the determination of the urban retail offer based on the servuction system.